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Journal Article

A Kinematic Modeling Framework for Prediction of Instantaneous Status of Towing Vehicle Systems

2018-04-18
Abstract A kinematic modeling framework was established to predict status (position, displacement, velocity, acceleration, and shape) of a towing vehicle system with different driver inputs. This framework consists of three components: (1) a state space model to decide position and velocity for the vehicle system based on Newton’s second law; (2) an angular acceleration transferring model, which leads to a hypothesis that the each towed unit follows the same path as the towing vehicle; and (3) a polygon model to draw instantaneous polygons to envelop the entire system at any time point.
Journal Article

Parasitic Battery Drain Problems and AUTOSAR Acceptance Testing

2018-04-18
Abstract Battery Drain problems can occur in the vehicle due to improper network management between electronic control units (ECUs). Aim of this paper is to identify the factors that cause transmission and cease of transmission of a network management message of an ECU along with its application messages that controls the sleep/wake-up performance of other ECUs in the network. Strategy used here is, based on the root cause analysis of problems found in Display unit in vehicle environment, the functional CAN signals impacting sleep/wake-up behavior is re-mapped along with the state flow transition of AUTOSAR NM Algorithm. A re-defined test case design and simulation for vehicle model is created. Especially it focuses on validating the impact of functional CAN signals on DUT’s sleep/wake-up performance.
Journal Article

An Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) Based Model for the Temperature Prediction of Lithium-Ion Power Batteries

2018-08-14
Abstract Li-ion batteries have been widely applied in the areas of personal electronic devices, stationary energy storage system and electric vehicles due to their high energy/power density, low self-discharge rate and long cycle life etc. For the better designs of both the battery cells and their thermal management systems, various numerical approaches have been proposed to investigate the thermal performance of power batteries. Without the requirement of detailed physical and thermal parameters of batteries, this article proposed a data-driven model using the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to predict the battery temperature with the inputs of ambient temperature, current and state of charge. Thermal response of a Li-ion battery module was experimentally evaluated under various conditions (i.e. ambient temperature of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 °C, and current rate of C/2, 1C and 2C) to acquire the necessary data sets for model development and validation.
Journal Article

Experimental Study on the Internal Resistance and Heat Generation Characteristics of Lithium Ion Power Battery with NCM/C Material System

2018-04-18
Abstract Heat generation characteristics of lithium ion batteries are vital for both the optimization of the battery cells and thermal management system design of battery packs. Compared with other factors, internal resistance has great influence on the thermal behavior of Li-ion batteries. Focus on a 3 Ah pouch type battery cell with the NCM/C material system, this paper quantitatively evaluates the battery heat generation behavior using an Extended Volume-Accelerating Rate Calorimeter in combination with a battery cycler. Also, internal resistances of the battery cell are measured using both the hybrid pulse power characteristic (HPPC) and electro-chemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. Experimental results show that the overall internal resistance obtained by the EIS method is close to the ohmic resistance measured by the HPPC method. Heat generation power of the battery cell is small during discharge processes lower than 0.5 C-rate.
Journal Article

Aerodynamic Analysis of Cooling Airflow for Different Front-End Designs of a Heavy-Duty Cab-Over-Engine Truck

2018-04-07
Abstract Improving the aerodynamics of heavy trucks is an important consideration in the strive for more energy-efficient vehicles. Cooling drag is one part of the total aerodynamic resistance acting on a vehicle, which arises as a consequence of air flowing through the grille area, the heat exchangers, and the irregular under-hood area. Today cooling packages of heavy trucks are dimensioned for a critical cooling case, typically when the vehicle is driving fully laden, at low speed up a steep hill. However, for long-haul trucks, mostly operating at highway speeds on mostly level roads, it may not be necessary to have all the cooling airflow from an open-grille configuration. It can therefore be desirable for fuel consumption purposes, to shut off the entire cooling airflow, or a portion of it, under certain driving conditions dictated by the cooling demands. In Europe, most trucks operating on the roads are of cab-over-engine type, as a consequence of the length legislations present.
Journal Article

Hydro-Pneumatic Energy Harvesting Suspension System Using a PSO Based PID Controller

2018-08-01
Abstract In this article, a unique design for Hydro-Pneumatic Energy Harvesting Suspension HPEHS system is introduced. The design includes a hydraulic rectifier to maintain one-way flow direction in order to obtain maximum power generation from the vertical oscillation of the suspension system and achieve handling and comfort car drive. A mathematical model is presented to study the system dynamics and non-linear effects for HPEHS system. A simulation model is created by using Advanced Modeling Environment Simulations software (AMEsim) to analyze system performance. Furthermore, a co-simulation platform model is developed using Matlab-Simulink and AMEsim to optimize the PID controller parameters of the external variable load resistor applied on the generator by using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO).
Journal Article

Assessing Road Load Coefficients of a Semi-Trailer Combination Using a Mechanical Simulation Software with Calibration Corrections

2019-01-07
Abstract The study of road loads on trucks plays a major role in assessing the effect of heavy-vehicle design on fuel conservation measures. Coastdown testing with full-scale vehicles in the field offers a good avenue to extract drag components, provided that random instrumentation faults and biased environmental conditions do not introduce errors into the results. However, full-scale coastdown testing is expensive, and environmental biases which are ever-present are difficult to control in the results reduction. Procedures introduced to overcome the shortcomings of full-scale field testing, such as wind tunnels and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), though very reliable, mainly focus on estimating the effects of aerodynamic drag forces to the neglect of other road loads which should be considered.
Journal Article

Fatigue Evaluation of Multi-Degree of Freedom, Frequency Domain, Stochastic, Truck Road Load Models

2019-02-11
Abstract A number of semi-deterministic and stochastic formulations of multi-degree of freedom, frequency domain load models for heavy truck chassis are proposed and evaluated. The semi-deterministic models aim at reproducing the damage of a specific vehicle, while the stochastic ones aim to describe a collection of vehicle loads. The stochastic models are divided into two groups: Monte Carlo based and models based on single spectrum matrices. In both cases, the objective is to provide a load model that may be used to produce a design with a certain probability of survival. The goodness of the models is evaluated through a comparison of their damage outcomes with the corresponding damages of a set of time domain loads. This original time domain load set consists of chassis accelerations collected from seven physical trucks.
Journal Article

Electrifying Long-Haul Freight—Part II: Assessment of the Battery Capacity

2019-01-25
Abstract Recently, electric heavy-duty tractor-trailers (EHDTTs) have assumed significance as they present an immediate solution to decarbonize the transportation sector. Hence, to illustrate the economic viability of electrifying the freight industry, a detailed numerical model to estimate the battery capacity for an EHDTT is proposed for a route between Washington, DC, to Knoxville, TN. This model incorporates the effects of the terrain, climate, vehicular forces, auxiliary loads, and payload in order to select the appropriate motor and optimize the battery capacity. Additionally, current and near-future battery chemistries are simulated in the model. Along with equations describing vehicular forces based on Newton’s second law of motion, the model utilizes the Hausmann and Depcik correlation to estimate the losses caused by the capacity offset of the batteries. Here, a Newton-Raphson iterative scheme determines the minimum battery capacity for the required state of charge.
Journal Article

An Approach for Heavy-Duty Vehicle-Level Engine Brake Performance Evaluation

2019-01-08
Abstract An innovative analysis approach to evaluate heavy-duty vehicle downhill engine brake performance was developed. The vehicle model developed with GT-Drive simulates vehicle downhill control speeds with different engine brake retarding powers, transmission gears, and vehicle weights at sea level or high altitude. The outputs are then used to construct multi-factor parametric design charts. The charts can be used to analyze the vehicle-level engine brake capabilities or compare braking performance difference between different engine brake configurations to quantify the risk of engine retarding power deficiency at both sea level and high altitude downhill driving conditions.
Journal Article

Onboard Natural Gas Reforming for Heavy Duty Vehicles

2019-01-07
Abstract Powertrain simulations and catalyst studies showed the efficiency credits and feasibility of onboard reforming as a way to recover waste heat from heavy duty vehicles (HDVs) fueled by natural gas (NG). Onboard reforming involves 1) injecting NG into the exhaust gas recycle (EGR) loop of the HDV, 2) reforming NG on a catalyst in the EGR loop to hydrogen and carbon monoxide, and 3) combusting the reformed fuel in the engine. The reformed fuel has increased heating value (4-10% higher LHV) and flame speed over NG, allowing stable flames in spark ignition (SI) engines at EGR levels up to 25-30%. A sulfur-tolerant reforming catalyst was shown to reform a significant amount of NG (15-30% conversion) using amounts of precious metal near the current practice for HDV emissions control (10 g rhodium). Engine simulations showed that the high EGR levels enabled by onboard reforming are used most effectively to control engine load instead of waste-gating or throttling.
Journal Article

Investigation into the Potentials of a Dedicated Multi-Point Injection System for a Production NG Single-Point Heavy-Duty Engine

2018-03-08
Abstract CNG is at present retaining a growing interest as a factual alternative to traditional fuels for SI engines, thanks to its high potentials in reducing the engine-out emissions. Increasing thrust into the exploitation of NG in the transport field is in fact produced by the even more stringent emission regulations that are being introduced into the worldwide scenario. Moreover, the transport sector accounts for the 27% of the overall energy consumptions and up to the 13% in terms of global emissions. The present paper aims at deeply investigating into the potentials of a heavy-duty engine running on CNG and equipped with two different injection systems, an advanced single point (SP) one and a prototype multi-point (MP) one. The considered 7.8-liter engine was designed and produced to implement a SP strategy and hence modified to run with a dedicated MP system.
Journal Article

Electrifying Long-Haul Freight—Part I: Review of Drag, Rolling Resistance, and Weight Reduction Potential

2019-09-05
Abstract Electric heavy-duty tractor-trailers (EHDTT) offer an important option to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) for the transportation sector. However, to increase the range of the EHDTT, this effort investigates critical vehicle design features that demonstrate a gain in overall freight efficiency of the vehicle. Specifically, factors affecting aerodynamics, rolling resistance, and gross vehicle weight are essential to arrive at practical input parameters for a comprehensive numerical model of the EHDTT, developed by the authors in a subsequent paper. For example, drag reduction devices like skirts, deturbulators, vortex generators, covers, and other commercially available apparatuses result in an aggregated coefficient of drag of 0.367. Furthermore, a mixed utilization of single-wide tires and dual tires allows for an optimized trade-off between low rolling resistance tires, traction, and durability.
Journal Article

Investigations on Drive Axle Thermal Behaviour: Power Loss and Heat-Transfer Estimations

2018-03-08
Abstract In the present study, a truck drive axle and its gear set are analysed. As the gear set is a hypoid or a spiral bevel one, sliding and so tooth friction are an important source of dissipation. Other losses are mainly due to rolling element bearings and oil churning. The power losses are first calculated according to relationships given in ISO technical report. As comparison with test results shows great discrepancies, some modifications of the previous formulae are proposed. The thermal exchanges are also reviewed. Finally, two methods to obtain the bulk temperatures of the gear set are compared: a classical approach which focuses on the gear set only and a global approach which considers the complete axle using the thermal-network method.
Journal Article

Comparative Analysis of Performance of Neural Estimators for Diagnostics in Engine Emission System

2018-06-14
Abstract This article describes the results of a comparative performance analysis on the use of neural estimators to accurately estimate the Differential Pressure (DP) signal from diesel engine systems equipped with a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) aftertreatment system. For most systems, there are known and modeled relationships between system inputs and outputs; however, in the case of nonlinear, time-varying systems a detailed modeling of the system might not be readily available. Therefore, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have been used for developing critical relationship between system inputs (engine and aftertreatment parameters) and system output (DP signal). Both batch (offline) and online learning ANN estimators have been proposed. A control-oriented engine out DPF-DP model is desirable for on-board applications as a virtual DPF-DP sensor which could be used in parallel as an alternate analytical redundancy-based sensor.
Journal Article

A Method for Turbocharging Single-Cylinder, Four-Stroke Engines

2018-07-24
Abstract Turbocharging can provide a low cost means for increasing the power output and fuel economy of an internal combustion engine. Currently, turbocharging is common in multi-cylinder engines, but due to the inconsistent nature of intake air flow, it is not commonly used in single-cylinder engines. In this article, we propose a novel method for turbocharging single-cylinder, four-stroke engines. Our method adds an air capacitor-an additional volume in series with the intake manifold, between the turbocharger compressor and the engine intake-to buffer the output from the turbocharger compressor and deliver pressurized air during the intake stroke. We analyzed the theoretical feasibility of air capacitor-based turbocharging for a single-cylinder engine, focusing on fill time, optimal volume, density gain, and thermal effects due to adiabatic compression of the intake air.
Journal Article

Energy Consumption Test and Analysis Methodology for Heavy-Duty Vehicle Engine Accessories

2018-10-03
Abstract Fuel economy is a crucial parameter in long-haulage heavy-duty vehicles. Researchers tended to focus initially on engine combustion efficiency, while modern researchers turn their attention to the energy consumption of engine accessories in an attempt to enhance fuel economy. The accessories investigated in this study include the cooling fan, water pump, air compressor, power steering pump, air-conditioning (AC) compressor, and generator. Normally, accessory energy consumption analysis is based on rig data and simulation results. Here, we focus on the disparate test environments between the rig and vehicle to establish a novel steady power test method; the proposed method provides accurate accessory power data under different working conditions. A typical highway driving cycle is selected to collect accessory duty-cycle. The heavy-duty vehicle accessories’ energy consumption distribution under highway road conditions is obtained through the repeated road tests.
Journal Article

Lightweight Carbon Composite Chassis for Engine Start Lithium Batteries

2018-03-07
Abstract The supersession of metallic alloys with lightweight, high-strength composites is popular in the aircraft industry. However, aviation electronic enclosures for large format batteries and high power conversion electronics are still primarily made of aluminum alloys. These aluminum enclosures have attractive properties regrading structural integrity for the heavy internal parts, electromagnetic interference (EMI) suppression, electrical bonding for the internal cells, and/or electronics and failure containment. This paper details a lightweight carbon fiber composite chassis developed at Meggitt Sensing Systems (MSS) Securaplane, with a copper metallic mesh co-cured onto the internal surfaces resulting in a 50% reduction in weight when compared to its aluminum counterpart. In addition to significant weight reduction, it provides equal or improved performance with respect to EMI, structural and flammability performance.
Journal Article

Mechanical Behavior of Representative Volume Element Specimens of Lithium-Ion Battery Modules without and with Electrolyte under Quasi-Static and Dynamic In-Plane Compressive Loading Conditions

2019-07-02
Abstract Small rectangular representative volume element (RVE) specimens of lithium-ion battery modules without and with electrolyte were tested under quasi-static and dynamic in-plane constrained compressive loading conditions. Effects of electrolyte and loading rate on the compressive behavior of RVE specimens were examined. The test results show that the average buckling stress of the specimens with electrolyte is higher than that of the specimens without electrolyte under both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. The test results also show that the average buckling stress of the specimens under dynamic loading conditions is higher than that of the specimens under quasi-static loading conditions, without or with the presence of electrolyte in the specimens. The percentage of increase of the average buckling stress of the specimens due to electrolyte under dynamic loading conditions is more than that of the specimens under quasi-static loading conditions.
Journal Article

Design, Analysis, and Optimization of a Multi-Speed Powertrain for Class-7 Electric Trucks

2018-04-17
Abstract The development, analysis, and optimization of battery electric class-7 heavy-duty trucks equipped with multi-speed transmissions are discussed in this paper. The designs of five new traction motors-fractional-slot, concentrated winding machines-are proposed for use in heavy-duty electric trucks. The procedure for gear-ratio range selection is outlined and ranges of gear ratios for three-to six-speed transmission powertrains are calculated for each of the proposed electric traction motors. The simulation and gear-ratio optimization tasks for class-7 battery electric trucks are formulated. The energy consumption of the e-truck with the twenty possible powertrain combinations is minimized over the four driving cycles and the most efficient powertrain layouts that meet the performance criteria are recommended.
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