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Journal Article

Methodology for Developing a Diesel Exhaust After Treatment Simulation Tool

2017-09-16
Abstract A methodology for the development of catalyst models is presented. Also, a methodology of the implementation of such models into a modular simulation tool, which simulates the units in succession, is presented. A case study is presented illustrating how suitable models can be found and used for simulations. Such simulations illustrate the behavior of the individual units and the overall system. It is shown how, by simulating the units in succession, the entire after treatment system can be tested and optimized, because the integration makes it possible to observe the effect of the modules on one another.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of the Near Wall Flow Downstream of a Passenger Car Wheel Arch

2018-03-01
Abstract The flow around and downstream of the front wheels of passenger cars is highly complex and characterized by flow structure interactions between the external flow, fluid exiting through the wheelhouse, flow from the engine bay and the underbody. In the present paper the near wall flow downstream of the front wheel house is analyzed, combining two traditional methods. A tuft visualization method is used to obtain the limiting streamline pattern and information about the near wall flow direction. Additionally, time resolved surface pressure measurements are used to study the pressure distribution and the standard deviation. The propagation of the occurring flow structures is investigated by cross correlations of the pressure signal and a spectral analysis provides the characteristic frequencies of the investigated flow.
Journal Article

Improvement in Gear Shift Comfort by Reduction in Double Bump Force of Passenger Vehicles

2017-10-08
Abstract In today’s competitive automobile market, driver comfort is at utmost importance and the bar is being raised continuously. Gear Shifting is a crucial customer touch point. Any issue or inconvenience caused while shifting gear can result into customer dissatisfaction and will impact the brand image. While there are continual efforts being taken by most of the car manufactures, “Double Bump” in gearshift has remained as a pain area and impact severely on the shift feel. This is more prominent in North-South (N-S) transmissions. In this paper ‘Double Bump’ is a focus area and a mathematical / analytical approach is demonstrated by analyzing ‘impacting parameters’ and establishing their co-relation with double bump. Additionally, the results are also verified with a simulation model.
Journal Article

Driveline Ratio Selection and Shift Map Optimization for Automatic Transmission Vehicle at Concept Phase through Simulations

2017-10-08
Abstract Traditionally driveline ratios are selected based on trial and error method of proto vehicle testing. This consumes lot of time and increases overall vehicle development effort. Over last few decades, simulation-based design approach has been extensively used to alleviate this problem. This paper describes torque converter and final drive ratio (FDR) selection at concept phase for new Automatic Transmission (AT) vehicle development. Most of the critical data required for simulating vehicle performance and fuel economy (FE) targets were not available (e.g. shift map, clutch slip map, pedal map, dynamic torque, coast down, etc.) at an initial stage of the project. Hence, the risk for assuming right inputs and properly selecting FDR/Torque converter was particularly high. Therefore, a validated AVL Cruise simulation model based on an existing AT vehicle was used as a base for new AT vehicle development to mitigate the risk due to non-availability of inputs.
Journal Article

Integrated Positioning Method for Intelligent Vehicle Based on GPS and UWB

2017-09-23
Abstract Knowledge of intelligent vehicle absolute position is a vital premise for the implementation of decision programming, kinematic and dynamics control. In order to achieve high accuracy positioning and reduce running cost as much as possible under all operating conditions, this paper proposed an integrated positioning method based on GPS and Ultra Wide Band(UWB) for intelligent vehicle’s navigation and position system. In this method, GPS and UWB are alternately active according to the confidence level of GPS signal. When the vehicle is traveling in a wide-open area and GPS signal is well received, the positioning results of Dead Reckoning system are corrected by the low frequency positioning output from GPS. During the correcting process, in order to realize the better fusion of measurement data, a simplified federal Kalman filter was designed by using indirect method.
Journal Article

Obstacle Avoidance for Self-Driving Vehicle with Reinforcement Learning

2017-09-23
Abstract Obstacle avoidance is an important function in self-driving vehicle control. When the vehicle move from any arbitrary start positions to any target positions in environment, a proper path must avoid both static obstacles and moving obstacles of arbitrary shape. There are many possible scenarios, manually tackling all possible cases will likely yield a too simplistic policy. In this paper reinforcement learning is applied to the problem to form effective strategies. There are two major challenges that make self-driving vehicle different from other robotic tasks. Firstly, in order to control the vehicle precisely, the action space must be continuous which can’t be dealt with by traditional Q-learning. Secondly, self-driving vehicle must satisfy various constraints including vehicle dynamics constraints and traffic rules constraints. Three contributions are made in this paper.
Journal Article

Personalized Controller Design for Electric Power Steering System Based on Driver Behavior

2017-09-23
Abstract Electric power steering (EPS) system is a kind of dynamic control system for vehicle steering, which can amplify the driver steering torque inputs to the vehicle to improve steering comfortable and performance, but the present EPS can’t cater to the driving habits of different people. In this paper, a personalized EPS controller is designed based on the driver behavior, which combines real-time driver behavior identification strategy with personalized assistance characteristic. Firstly, the driver behavior data acquisition system is designed and established, based on which, the input data of different kinds of drivers along with vehicle signals are collected under typical working conditions, then the identification of driver behavior online is realized using the BP neural network.
Journal Article

2-D CFAR Procedure of Multiple Target Detection for Automotive Radar

2017-09-23
Abstract In Advanced Driver Assistant System (ADAS), the automotive radar is used to detect targets or obstacles around the vehicle. The procedure of Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) plays an important role in adaptive targets detection in noise or clutter environment. But in practical applications, the noise or clutter power is absolutely unknown and varies over the change of range, time and angle. The well-known cell averaging (CA) CFAR detector has a good detection performance in homogeneous environment but suffers from masking effect in multi-target environment. The ordered statistic (OS) CFAR is more robust in multi-target environment but needs a high computation power. Therefore, in this paper, a new two-dimension CFAR procedure based on a combination of Generalized Order Statistic (GOS) and CA CFAR named GOS-CA CFAR is proposed. Besides, the Linear Frequency Modulation Continuous Wave (LFMCW) radar simulation system is built to produce a series of rapid chirp signals.
Journal Article

Design, Analysis, and Optimization of a Multi-Speed Powertrain for Class-7 Electric Trucks

2018-04-17
Abstract The development, analysis, and optimization of battery electric class-7 heavy-duty trucks equipped with multi-speed transmissions are discussed in this paper. The designs of five new traction motors-fractional-slot, concentrated winding machines-are proposed for use in heavy-duty electric trucks. The procedure for gear-ratio range selection is outlined and ranges of gear ratios for three-to six-speed transmission powertrains are calculated for each of the proposed electric traction motors. The simulation and gear-ratio optimization tasks for class-7 battery electric trucks are formulated. The energy consumption of the e-truck with the twenty possible powertrain combinations is minimized over the four driving cycles and the most efficient powertrain layouts that meet the performance criteria are recommended.
Journal Article

Investigation of a Six-Phase Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine for Integrated Charging and Propulsion in EVs

2018-04-17
Abstract Merits such as reduced weight, overall and operational costs of the electric vehicle (EV) while providing level 3 charging capability, are propelling research on integrated charging (IC) technology for EVs. Since the same interior permanent magnet synchronous machine (IPMSM) is used during IC and traction conditions, it is important to understand the behavior of the machine during these conditions and optimally design the machine. Hence, firstly, this paper presents a case study on performance of a laboratory 3-phase IPMSM under IC and traction conditions. Thereafter, understanding the challenges such as low magnet operating point, losses and torque oscillation in 3-phase IPMSM during IC, a 6-phase IPMSM with an unconventional configuration is investigated to yield traction characteristics like that of the 3-phase IPMSM and mitigate challenges during IC. In the process, mathematical model of the 6-phase IPMSM is developed employing the dq-axis theory.
Journal Article

Wheel Chock Key Design Elements and Geometrical Profile for Truck Vehicle Restraint

2018-06-06
Abstract Wheel chocks are rather simple compliant mechanisms for stabilizing vehicles at rest. However, chocks must be carefully designed given the complex interaction between the chock and the tire/suspension system. Despite their importance for safety, literature is surprisingly limited in terms of what makes a wheel chock efficient. Using simple but reliable quasi-static mechanical models, this study identifies mechanical requirements that help to avoid a number of failure modes associated with many existing wheel chocks. Given that chock grounding is not always possible, a chock’s maximum restraining capacity is only obtained when the wheel is completely supported by the chock. A generic chock profile is proposed to achieve this objective while mitigating undesirable failure modes. The profile is based on fundamental mechanical principles and no assumption is made on the load interaction between the chock and the wheel.
Journal Article

Enhanced Low-Order Model with Radiation for Total Temperature Probe Analysis and Design

2018-05-16
Abstract Analysis and design of total temperature probes for accurate measurements in hot, high-speed flows remains a topic of great interest in aerospace propulsion and a number of other engineering areas. One can apply detailed computational methods for simultaneous convection, conduction and radiation heat transfer, but such approaches are not suitable for rapid, routine analysis and design studies. For these studies, there is still a place for low-order approximate methods, and that is the subject of this paper. Here, an enhanced, low-order model is presented that includes conduction with variable thermal conductivity, convection with varying convection coefficient, varying diameter (and thus area) along the length of the sensor and radiation, all implemented in a convenient MATLAB code.
Journal Article

Determination of Influence of Parameters on Undercarriage Shock Absorber

2018-12-31
Abstract The simple oleo pneumatic (shock absorber) model was developed using the available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program to understand how various parameters influence the performance of the undercarriage shock absorber. The study is divided into two parts: first part is focused on the influence of orifice geometry and the second part of the study is focused on the other parameters including chamber geometry. Both the studies are carried out using design of experiments (DOE) for the same output characteristics (response). In this study, the impacts on the flow behavior due to the orifice shapes are also studied. The results and the other outcomes are shown in the form of DOE parameters such as main effect plots and interaction plots.
Journal Article

Aerodynamic Analysis of Cooling Airflow for Different Front-End Designs of a Heavy-Duty Cab-Over-Engine Truck

2018-04-07
Abstract Improving the aerodynamics of heavy trucks is an important consideration in the strive for more energy-efficient vehicles. Cooling drag is one part of the total aerodynamic resistance acting on a vehicle, which arises as a consequence of air flowing through the grille area, the heat exchangers, and the irregular under-hood area. Today cooling packages of heavy trucks are dimensioned for a critical cooling case, typically when the vehicle is driving fully laden, at low speed up a steep hill. However, for long-haul trucks, mostly operating at highway speeds on mostly level roads, it may not be necessary to have all the cooling airflow from an open-grille configuration. It can therefore be desirable for fuel consumption purposes, to shut off the entire cooling airflow, or a portion of it, under certain driving conditions dictated by the cooling demands. In Europe, most trucks operating on the roads are of cab-over-engine type, as a consequence of the length legislations present.
Journal Article

Stability Analysis of Combined Braking System of Tractor-Semitrailer Based on Phase-Plane Method

2018-06-04
Abstract An analysis method for the stability of combined braking system of tractor-semitrailer based on phase-plane is investigated. Based on a 9 degree of freedom model, considering longitudinal load transfer, nonlinear model of tire and other factors, the braking stability of tractor-semitrailer is analyzed graphically on the phase plane. The stability of both tractor and semitrailer with different retarder gear is validated with the energy plane, β plane, yaw angle plane and hinged angle plane. The result indicates that in the long downhill with curve condition, both tractor and semitrailer show good stability when retarder is working at 1st and 2nd gear, and when it is at 3rd gear, the tractor is close to be unstable while semitrailer is unstable already. Besides, tractor and semitrailer both lose stability when retarder is working at the 4th gear.
Journal Article

Hydro-Pneumatic Energy Harvesting Suspension System Using a PSO Based PID Controller

2018-08-01
Abstract In this article, a unique design for Hydro-Pneumatic Energy Harvesting Suspension HPEHS system is introduced. The design includes a hydraulic rectifier to maintain one-way flow direction in order to obtain maximum power generation from the vertical oscillation of the suspension system and achieve handling and comfort car drive. A mathematical model is presented to study the system dynamics and non-linear effects for HPEHS system. A simulation model is created by using Advanced Modeling Environment Simulations software (AMEsim) to analyze system performance. Furthermore, a co-simulation platform model is developed using Matlab-Simulink and AMEsim to optimize the PID controller parameters of the external variable load resistor applied on the generator by using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO).
Journal Article

Development of Safe and Sustainable EPAS (Electric Power Assist Steering) System for Emerging Markets

2018-04-07
Abstract The vehicle attributes developed for emerging markets like India are unique because of different topographical conditions, diversity and culture within the different states. Major attributes in vehicle development process is development of safe and sustainable vehicle systems (steering, brakes etc.) for the driver. India is presently an emerging market for automotive sector. With booming economy, purchasing power of the consumer has gone up in the past few years. Most of young population of India have started buying the cars. At the same time, India’s road infrastructure, vehicle regulations have exalted over the years. The consumer cognizance towards the vehicles have started changing now. They want safer, robust system in their vehicles with new convenience features at affordable cost. In recent years, almost all OEM’s in India have migrated steering systems from HPAS to EPAS for payback on fuel economy and weight.
Journal Article

Design, Analysis, Simulation and Validation of Automobile Suspension System Using Drive-Shaft as a Suspension Link

2018-04-18
Abstract With increasing demands for higher performance along with lower vehicle emissions, lightweight vehicle system construction is key to meet such demands. Suspension and transmission assemblies being the key areas for weight-reduction, we have designed a revolutionary new type of suspension system which combines the suspension links with the powertrain assembly and thus completely eliminates one suspension member. Less weight means lower fuel-consumption with improved passenger-comfort and road-holding due to reduction in unsprung mass. Elimination of a suspension link reduces the overall cost of material, machining & fabrication making our design cost-effective than existing setups. This paper deals with the design and implementation of of our concept. A working prototype is also constructed and tested which completely validates our design.
Journal Article

Robust Design for Steering Mechanism Based on Preference Function

2018-03-01
Abstract In order to improve robustness of vehicle dynamic performance, a steering mechanism model is proposed with alignment parameters of front wheel based on preference function method. In the steering mechanism model controllable variables include the trapezoid connection length, the base angle of steering trapezoid, the kingpin inclination angle, caster, camber and uncontrollable variables include load and initial braking velocity. Optimization objective is some vehicle dynamic performance. In the preference function method the individual performance preference and preference aggregation in designing variable space and performance variable space are analyzed. The individual performance preference includes the controllable variable preference, noise factor preference and optimization objective preference. The aggregation function is developed by aggregating all the individual performance preferences.
Journal Article

Extending the Magic Formula Tire Model for Large Inflation Pressure Changes by Using Measurement Data from a Corner Module Test Rig

2018-03-05
Abstract Since the tire inflation pressure has a significant influence on safety, comfort and environmental behavior of a vehicle, the choice of the optimal inflation pressure is always a conflict of aims. The development of a highly dynamic Tire Pressure Control System (TPCS) can reduce the conflict of minimal rolling resistance and maximal traction. To study the influence of the tire inflation pressure on longitudinal tire characteristics under laboratory conditions, an experimental sensitivity analysis is performed using a multivalent usable Corner Module Test Rig (CMTR) developed by the Automotive Engineering Group at Technische Universität Ilmenau. The test rig is designed to analyze suspension system and tire characteristics on a roller of the recently installed 4 chassis roller dynamometer. Camber angle, toe angle and wheel load can be adjusted continuously. In addition, it is possible to control the temperature of the test environment between −20 °C and +45 °C.
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