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Technical Paper

Multifunctional Fiber Batteries for Next Generation Space Suits

2007-07-09
2007-01-3173
As next generation space suit concepts enable extravehicular activity (EVA) mission capability to extend beyond anything currently available today, revolutionary advances in life support technologies are required to achieve anticipated NASA mission profiles that may measure years in duration and require hundreds of sorties. Since most life support systems require power, increased mass and volume efficiency of the energy storage materials can have a dramatic impact on reducing the overall weight of next generation space suits. This paper details the development of a multifunctional fiber battery to address these needs.
Technical Paper

IVA/EVA Life Support Umbilical System

2007-07-09
2007-01-3228
For NASA's Constellation Program, an Intravehicular Activity (IVA) and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Life Support Umbilical System (LSUS) will be required to provide environmental protection to the suited crew during Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) cabin contamination or depressurization and contingency EVAs. The LSUS will provide the crewmember with ventilation, cooling, power, communication, and data, and will also serve as a crew safety restraint during contingency EVAs. The LSUS will interface with the Vehicle Interface Assembly (VIA) in the CEV and the Suit Connector on the suit. This paper describes the effort performed to develop concept designs for IVA and EVA umbilicals, universal multiple connectors, handling aids and stowage systems, and VIAs that meet NASA's mission needs while adhering to the important guiding principles of simplicity, reliability, and operability.
Technical Paper

Pulmonary Toxicity of Lunar Highland Dust

2009-07-12
2009-01-2379
Lunar dust exposures occurred during the Apollo missions while the crew was in the lunar module on the moon's surface and especially when micro-gravity conditions were attained during rendezvous in lunar orbit. Crews reported that the dust was irritating to the eyes, and in some cases, respiratory symptoms were elicited. NASA's current vision for lunar exploration includes stays of 6 months on the lunar surface hence the health effects of periodic exposure to lunar dust in the habitat need to be assessed. NASA is performing this assessment with a series of in vitro and in vivo tests with authentic lunar dust. Our approach is to “calibrate” the intrinsic toxicity of lunar dust by comparison to a relatively low toxicity dust (TiO2) and a highly toxic dust (quartz) using intrapharyngeal instillation of the dusts to mice. A battery of indices of toxicity is assessed at various time points after the instillations.
Technical Paper

Multifunctional Fiber Batteries for Next Generation Space Suits

2008-06-29
2008-01-1996
As next generation space suit concepts enable extravehicular activity (EVA) mission capability to extend beyond anything currently available today, revolutionary advances in life support technologies are required to achieve anticipated NASA mission profiles than may measure years in duration and require hundreds of sorties. Since most life support systems require power, increased mass and volume efficiency of the energy storage materials can have a dramatic impact on reducing the overall weight of next generation space suits. ITN Energy Systems, in collaboration with Hamilton Sundstrand and the NASA Johnson Space Center's EVA System's Team, is developing multifunctional fiber batteries to address these challenges. By depositing the battery on existing space suit materials, e.g. scrim fibers in the thermal micrometeoroid garment (TMG) layers, parasitic mass (inactive materials) is eliminated leading to effective energy densities ∼400 Wh/kg.
Technical Paper

Large Autonomous Spacecraft Electrical Power System (LASEPS)

1992-08-03
929330
NASA - Marshall Space Flight Center is creating a large high voltage electrical power system testbed called LASEPS. This testbed is being developed to simulate an end-to-end power system from power generation and source to loads. When the system is completed it will have several power configurations, which will include several battery configurations. These configurations are: two 120 V batteries, one or two 150 V batteries, and one 250 to 270 V battery. This breadboard encompasses varying levels of autonomy from remote power converters to conventional software control to expert system control of the power system elements. In this paper, the construction and provisions of this breadboard will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System

1992-08-03
929104
At present, Nickel Hydrogen batteries are tested at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in support of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) program. In previous years, Nickel Cadmium batteries were tested at MSFC in support of HST. The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System-2 (NICBES-2) was employed on the HST six battery test bed to evaluate the performance of the HST Electrical Power System (EPS). With the beginning of testing of the nickel hydrogen six battery test bed, NICBES-2 had to be converted to NICkel Hydrogen Battery Expert System (NICHES). This paper describes the conversion of the NICBES-2 to the NICHES as well as future plans for NICHES.
Technical Paper

Hubble Space Telescope Nickel-Hydrogen Battery and Cell Testing - An Update

1992-08-03
929089
Nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) technology has only recently been utilized in low earth orbit (LEO) applications. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) program, over the past five years, played a key role in developing this application. The HST not only became the first reported, nonexperimental program to fly Ni-H2 batteries in a LEO application, but funded numerous, ongoing tests that served to validate this usage. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been testing HST Ni-H2 batteries and cells for over three years. The major tests include a 6-battery system (SBS) test and a single 22-cell battery (FSB) test. The SBS test has been operating for 34 months and completed approximately 15,200 cycles. The performance of the cells and batteries in this test is nominal. Currently, the batteries are operating at an average end-of-charge (EOC) pressure that indicates an average capacity of approximately 79 ampere-hours (Ah).
Technical Paper

A Study to Explore Locomotion Patterns in Partial Gravity Environments

1992-07-01
921157
The primary objectives of this study were to determine the factors that affect stability during locomotion in both lunar and martian gravity environments and to determine the criteria needed to enhance stability and traction. This study tested the effects of changing the speed of locomotion and the pattern of locomotion under three gravity conditions. The results showed that as the gravity level decreased, the amount of vertical and horizontal forces dropped significantly. The results also showed that there are some similarities across gravity levels with regard to changing the speed as well as the pattern of locomotion. In general, an increase in the speed resulted in an increase in the vertical and the horizontal forces. A change in the pattern of locomotion showed that even at reduced gravity, it will be more difficult to stop than compared to continue or start the motion.
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