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Technical Paper

Analysis of a Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Based Automotive Auxiliary Power Unit

2002-03-04
2002-01-0413
The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system has emerged as an important technology for automotive and stationary applications. Modeling and simulation of the SOFC system have been utilized as an integral tool in an accelerated joint SOFC system development program. Development of unique modeling approaches and their results are discussed and compared with experimental performance. One dimensional system level analysis using Aspen with an embedded stack electrochemical model was performed resulting in effective sub-system partitioning and requirements definition. Further, a three-dimensional integrated electrochemical / thermal / computational fluid dynamics analysis of steady-state operation was employed. The combination of one-dimensional and three-dimensional environments led to effective performance projection at all levels in the system, resulting in optimization of overall system performance early in the design cycle.
Technical Paper

Use of Fuzzy Logic in Wheel Slip Assignment - Part II: Yaw Rate Control with Sideslip Angle Limitation

2002-03-04
2002-01-1220
This paper is an extension to the work presented in part I [1]. The control objective is still the same - use a logic based control design technique to assign a wheel slip, λ, to each corner of a vehicle, to track overall desired vehicle dynamics. As in part I, a fuzzy logic based controller is the primary control, with additional logic to select the inside/outside classifiers for the wheels. In part I, only the reduction of yaw rate error, e, was considered. It was shown that, although the overall system had satisfactory performance, there was slight deteriorization in the tracking performance when trying to compensate through a significant vehicle sideslip angle, β. In this paper, additional logic is introduced into the control to limit the vehicle sideslip angle, β; thus, allowing for a more robust desired yaw rate, Ωd, tracking control performance. The emergency lane change maneuver is simulated to show the effectiveness of the redesigned control.
Technical Paper

Single Crystal Silicon Low-g Acceleration Sensor

2002-03-04
2002-01-1080
A single-crystal silicon capacitive acceleration sensor for low-g applications has been developed. The sensor element itself is formed entirely from single crystal silicon, giving it exceptional stability over time and temperature and excellent shock resistance. The sensor is produced using low-cost, high volume processing, test and calibration. The sensor integrated circuit (IC) contains a proofmass which moves in response to applied accelerations. The position of the proofmass is capacitively detected and processed by an interface IC. The sensor/interface IC system is packaged in a small outline IC (SOIC) package for printed circuit board mounting. The module is designed to measure full scale accelerations in the 0.75g to 3g range to suit a variety of automotive, industrial and consumer applications
Technical Paper

Implications of 3-D Internal Flow Simulation on the Design of Inward-Opening Pressure-Swirl Injectors

2002-10-21
2002-01-2698
A parametric study on the effects of critical injector design parameters of inwardly-opening pressure-swirl injectors was carried out using 3-D internal flow simulations. The pressure variation and the integrated momentum flux across the injector, as well as the flow distributions and turbulence structure at the nozzle exit were analyzed. The critical flow effects on the injector design identified are the swirler efficiency, discharge coefficient, and turbulence breakup effects on the spray structure. The study shows that as a unique class of injectors, pressure-swirl injectors is complicated in fluid mechanics and not sufficiently characterized or optimized. The swirler efficiency is characterized in terms of the trade-off relationship between the swirl-to-axial momentum-flux ratio and pressure drop across the swirler. The results show that swirl number is inversely proportional to discharge coefficient, and that hole diameter and swirler height is the most dominant parameters.
Technical Paper

Transient Simulation of DGI Engine Injector with Needle Movement

2002-10-21
2002-01-2663
Utilization of direct injection systems is one of the most promising technologies for fuel economy improvement for SI engine powered passenger cars. Engine performance is essentially influenced by the characteristics of the injection equipment. This paper will present CFD analyses of a swirl type GDI injector carried out with the Multiphase Module of AVL's FIRE/SWIFT CFD code. The simulations considered three phases (liquid fuel, fuel vapor, air) and mesh movement. Thus the transient behavior of the injector can be observed. The flow phenomena known from measurement and shown by previous simulation work [2, 7, 10, 11] were reproduced. In particular the simulations shown in this paper could explain the cause for the outstanding atomization characteristics of the swirl type injector, which are caused by cavitation in the nozzle hole.
Technical Paper

Diagnostic Strategies for Advanced Automotive Systems

2002-10-21
2002-21-0024
In recent years, the desire for improved vehicle performance, reliability and safety have increased the electrical content and its complexity in vehicles. Advanced automotive systems integrate sensors, controllers, actuators and communication networks. To maintain safety and reliability, a comprehensive system of diagnostics and physical and analytic redundancy are used. In some cases, diagnostic strategies based on analytical redundancy can provide detection, as well as fault-tolerance, and may provide benefits in cost, packaging, flexibility and reusability. This paper discusses a range of diagnostic methods and their applicability to advanced automotive systems such as X-by-Wire. It will also show the reduction to practice of an advanced analytical technique for an automotive application.
Technical Paper

The BRAKE Project - Centralized Versus Distributed Redundancy for Brake-by-Wire Systems

2002-03-04
2002-01-0266
This paper presents the objectives and preliminary results of the BRAKE project - a joint effort of Delphi Automotive Systems, Infineon Technologies, Volvo Car Corporation and WindRiver. The objective of this project is to use microelectronics technologies to design a distributed Brake-by-Wire system including: A distributed fault tolerant system for enhanced safety An extension of the OSEK based operating system for a distributed time triggered architecture An open interface between vehicle control, and brake system control The results comprise the requirements, interface specification (see [1]), a full simulation model, a hardware-in-the-loop bench, and a demonstration vehicle. The application has been developed using advanced automatic code generation for Infineon's TriCore based automotive microcontrollers.
Technical Paper

Open-Interface Definitions for Automotive Systems1 Application to a Brake by Wire System

2002-03-04
2002-01-0267
Today automotive system suppliers develop more-or-less independent systems, such as brake, power steering and suspension systems. In the future, car manufacturers like Volvo will build up vehicle control systems combining their own algorithms with algorithms provided by automotive system suppliers. Standardization of interfaces to actuators, sensors and functions is an important enabler for this vision and will have major consequences for functionality, prices and lead times, and thus affects both vehicle manufacturers and automotive suppliers. The investigation of the level of appropriate interfaces, as part of the European BRAKE project, is described here. Potential problems and consequences are discussed from both a technical and a business perspective. This paper provides a background on BRAKE and on the functional decomposition upon which the interface definitions are based. Finally, the interface definitions for brake system functionality are given.
Technical Paper

Development of a Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor Electrical Model for Optimum NOx Removal Performance

2000-10-16
2000-01-2893
A double dielectric barrier discharge reactor driven by an alternating voltage is a relatively simple approach to promote oxidation of NO to NO2 for subsequent reduction in a catalyst bed. The chemical performance of such a non-thermal plasma reactor is determined by its current and electric field behavior in the gap, and by the fraction of the current carried by electrons, because the key reactants which initiate the NO oxidation and accompanying chemical changes are produced there, mostly by electron impact. We have tried to determine by models and experiments the bounds on performance of double dielectric barrier reactors and guidelines for optimization. Models reported here predict chemical results from time-resolved applied voltage and series sense capacitor data.
Technical Paper

Smart Sensors for Future Robust Systems

2000-11-01
2000-01-C055
"Smart'' sensor concepts must be considered as the demands of advanced automotive systems increase. These concepts are strongly influenced by the architectural and dependability aspects of future systems. Key features of smart sensors are: communication (two way) with a digital data bus, self- calibration, error source compensation, self-diagnostics, and programmability for "plug and play.'' This paper contains a discussion of the basic future sensor requirements, and it assesses four major sensor technologies with respect to their suitability to meet these requirements. For each technology, the merits and demerits will be reviewed and an example sensing application will be given in order to demonstrate how the technology can be adapted to meet the future requirements.
Technical Paper

Challenges in Simulation and Sensor Development for Occupant Protection in Rollover Accidents

2000-11-01
2000-01-C038
Automotive occupant safety continues to evolve. At present this area has gathered a strong consumer interest which the vehicle manufacturers are tapping into with the introduction of many new safety technologies. Initially, individual passive devices and features such as seatbelts, knee- bolsters, structural crush zones, airbags etc., were developed for to help save lives and minimize injuries in accidents. Over the years, preventive measures such as improving visibility, headlights, windshield wipers, tire traction etc., were deployed to help reduce the probability of getting into an accident. With tremendous new research and improvements in electronics, we are at the stage of helping to actively avoid accidents in certain situations as well as providing increased protection to vehicle occupants and pedestrians.
Technical Paper

Consumers, Electronics, and the Link to Hybrid Vehicles and the Environment

2000-11-01
2000-01-C045
The interdependence of consumer features, new electronic and electrical architectures and hybrid propulsion systems are examined. There are two major forces driving future vehicle electronic and electrical systems, one is consumer demand for comfort and safety, and two is the demand for reduced fuel consumption and emissions. These forces are linked by the use of electronics to control vehicle energy generation and usage while providing managed solutions to these demands. Automobile consumer features are discussed and the case is made that these features will require more electric power to be installed on the vehicle. The presence of this increased electric power will then enable the hybrid vehicle functions that will benefit fuel economy and emissions performance.
Technical Paper

Near and Far-Side Adult Front Passenger Kinematics in a Vehicle Rollover

2001-03-05
2001-01-0176
In this study, U.S. accident data was analyzed to determine interior contacts and injuries for front-seated occupants in rollovers. The injury distribution for belted and unbelted, non-ejected drivers and right front passengers (RFP) was assessed for single-event accidents where the leading side of the vehicle rollover was either on the driver or passenger door. Drivers in a roll-left and RFP in roll-right rollovers were defined as near-side occupants, while drivers in roll-right and RFP in roll-left rollovers were defined as far-side occupants. Serious injuries (AIS 3+) were most common to the head and thorax for both the near and far-side occupants. However, serious spinal injuries were more frequent for the far-side occupants, where the source was most often coded as roof, windshield and interior.
Technical Paper

US and UK Field Rollover Characteristics

2001-03-05
2001-01-0167
In this study, US and UK accident data were analyzed to identify parameters that may influence rollover propensity to analyze driver injury rate. The US data was obtained from the weighted National Automotive Sampling System (NASS-CDS), calendar years 1992 to 1996. The UK pre-roll data was obtained from the national STATS 19 database for 1996, while the injury information was collected from the Co-operative Crash Injury Study (CCIS) database. In the US and UK databases, rollovers accounted for about 10% of all crashes with known crash directions. In the US and UK databases, most rollovers occurred when the vehicle was either going straight ahead or turning. The propensity for a rollover was more than 3 times higher when going around a bend than a non-rollover. In the UK, 74% of rollovers occurred on clear days with no high winds and 14% on rainy days with no high winds. In the US, 83% of rollovers took place in non-adverse weather conditions and 10% with rain.
Technical Paper

FMERA - Failure Modes, Effects, and (Financial) Risk Analysis

2001-03-05
2001-01-0375
Continuous Improvement activities are often based on a list of top concerns, such as highest RPN (Risk Priority Number) on the PFMEA (Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis), warranty items, or scrap rates. But a company is in business to make a profit for its stockholders. Therefore, money should be considered, rather than just technical engineering tools and RPNs. Current PFMEA methodology (See references 1 and 2) focuses on delivering quality parts to the customer. The financial impact of various potential process problems is not considered directly. A new and extended technique called FMERA (pronounced Fuh-MAIR-uh) can identify and prioritize the process part of potential problems that have the most financial impact on an operation. Alternatives can be evaluated to maximize the financial benefits. FMERA is a method for getting the voice of the stockholder into process decisions.
Technical Paper

A Model-Based Brake Pressure Estimation Strategy for Traction Control System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0595
This paper presents a brake pressure estimation algorithm for Delphi Traction Control Systems (TCS). A control oriented lumped parameter model of a brake control system is developed using Matlab/Simulink. The model is derived based on a typical brake system and is generic to other types of brake control hardware systems. For application purposes, the model is simplified to capture the dominant dynamic brake pressure response. Vehicle experimental data collected under various scenarios are used to validate the algorithm. Simulation results show that the algorithm gives accurate pressure estimation. In addition, the calibration procedure is greatly simplified
Technical Paper

A Model-based Environment for Production Engine Management System (EMS) Development

2001-03-05
2001-01-0554
This paper describes an environment for the development of production Engine Management Systems (EMS). This includes a formal framework and modeling methodology. The environment is based on using Simulink/Stateflow for developing a control system executable specification and a plant model. This allows for simulations of the system to be performed at the engineer's desk, which is identical performance with production software. We provide the details for incorporating production legacy code into the Simulink/Stateflow control system. The system includes a multi-rate, and event driven operating system. This system is developed to facilitate new algorithm development and automated software testing. Based on Simulink/Stateflow this specification will be suitable for use with commercial automatic code generation tools.
Technical Paper

A Verification Study for Cam Phaser Position Control using Robust Engineering Techniques

2001-03-05
2001-01-0777
This paper describes the verification and comparison of position control algorithms for a continuously-variable cam phaser. Robust Engineering techniques are used. Two non-linear PID control algorithms are designed to control cam phaser position. The first algorithm is a more complex control strategy while the second is a thrifted approach that seeks to reduce throughput requirements. An L18 orthogonal array is established with noise factors that affect the quality of cam phaser control. Using the orthogonal array, the number of experiment test points required to characterize the control algorithm response is reduced from 8,748 to thirty-six. The test points of the orthogonal array are investigated experimentally on a motored engine outfitted with cam phaser hardware. The desired and actual cam position data are compared and analyzed for all points in the orthogonal array.
Technical Paper

USE OF CFD SIMULATION TO PREDICT CAVITATION IN AUTOMOTIVE HEATER CORES

2005-11-22
2005-01-4027
Several heater cores failed due to erosion by cavitation. After analysis, most of failures were explained by the presence of impurities in the heater core. It was then decided with the customer to use CFD simulation in order to prove that the cavitation was not caused by design concept of the tank. In this paper, we present the results of heater core simulations done in 2D and in 3D with Fluent. The objective is to simulate the pressure and velocity distribution within the heater core and to verify if the zones of low pressure are below the saturation vapour pressure of the fluid causing cavitation. In these areas, the deterioration of the tubes might occur due to erosion by cavitation.
Technical Paper

Zero Resistance Technology (ZRT)

2005-11-22
2005-01-4109
Delphi's Zero Resistance Technology (ZRT) is a revolutionary new product/process that enables the reduction of mass and volume from a traditional wiring assembly. ZRT is defined as a minimal (zero) resistance change over time. The ZRT product is an electrical/electronic connection system which provides a viable solution for high density and limited space wiring applications. The ZRT process is a semi-automated wiring harness manufacturing system with flexibility to produce harnesses to the customer demand.
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