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Technical Paper

A Study of Kinematics of Occupants Restrained with Seat Belt Systems in Component Rollover Tests

An experimental study was conducted using a dynamic rollover component test system (ROCS) to study the effects of activating a pyro-mechanical buckle pre-tensioner and an electric retractor on the driver and front right passenger head and pelvis excursions. The ROCS is a unique system capable of producing vehicle responses that replicate four distinct phases of a tripped rollover: trip initiation, roll initiation, free-flight vehicle rotation, and vehicle to ground contact. This component test system consists of a rigid occupant compartment derived from a mid-size SUV with complete 1st row seating and interior trim, a simulated vehicle suspension system and an elastic vehicle-to-ground-contact surface. The ROCS system was integrated with a Deceleration Rollover Sled (DRS). Dynamic responses of the ROCS system, including both the rigid compartment and occupant, were measured and recorded.
Technical Paper

Use of Photogrammetry in Extracting 3D Structural Deformation/Dummy Occupant Movement Time History During Vehicle Crashes

The ability to extract and evaluate the time history of structural deformations or crush during vehicle crashes represents a significant challenge to automotive safety researchers. Current methods are limited by the use of electro-mechanical devices such as string pots and/or linear variable displacement transducers (LVDT). Typically, one end of the transducer must be mounted to a point on the structure that will remain un-deformed during the event; the other end is then attached to the point on the structure where the deformation is to be measured. This approach measures the change in distance between these two points and is unable to resolve any movement into its respective X, Y, or Z directions. Also, the accuracy of electro-mechanical transducers is limited by their dynamic response to crash conditions. The photogrammetry technique has been used successfully in a wide variety of applications including aerial surveying, civil engineering and documentation of traffic accidents.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Prototype Electric Retractor, a Seat Belt Pre-Tensioning Device and Dummy Lateral Motion Prior to Vehicle Rollover

Vehicle motion prior to a rollover can influence an occupant's position in the vehicle. Lateral deceleration prior to a tripped rollover may cause the occupant to move outboard. This outboard motion may have several effects on the occupant such as, repositioning the occupant with relation to the seat and seat restraint, and allowing the occupant's head to travel further into the side curtain deployment zone. To reduce occupant lateral motion, the effectiveness of applying tension to the seatbelt was evaluated. The evaluation consisted of two test conditions simulating vehicle lateral motion prior to a trip using a Deceleration Rollover Sled [1]. The test conditions were designed to ensure a vehicle experiences a period of pure lateral motion before the onset of a lateral trip. A standard seat belt combined with various means of applying tension and activated at different times during the test were evaluated.
Technical Paper

Image Analysis of Rollover Crash Tests Using Photogrammetry

This paper presents an image analysis of a laboratory-based rollover crash test using camera-matching photogrammetry. The procedures pertaining to setup, analysis and data process used in this method are outlined. Vehicle roll angle and rate calculated using the method are presented and compared to the measured values obtained using a vehicle mounted angular rate sensor. Areas for improvement, accuracy determination, and vehicle kinematics analysis are discussed. This paper concludes that the photogrammetric method presented is a useful tool to extract vehicle roll angle data from test video. However, development of a robust post-processing tool for general application to crash safety analysis requires further exploration.
Technical Paper

Acetabulum Injury Investigation of Proposed US-NCAP in OI Mode

In December 2015, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) published a Request for Comments on proposed changes to the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP). One potential change is the addition of a frontal oblique impact (OI) crash test using the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR). The resultant acetabulum force, which is a unique and specifically defined in the THOR dummy, will be considered as a new injury metric. In this study, the results of ten OI tests conducted by NHTSA on current production mid-sized vehicles were investigated. Specifically, the test data was used to study the lower extremity kinematics for the driver and front passenger THOR dummies. It was found that the acetabulum force patterns varied between the driver and passenger and between the left leg and the right leg of the occupants. The maximum acetabulum force can occur either on the left side or right side of a driver or a front passenger in an OI event.
Technical Paper

Integration of Active and Passive Safety Technologies - A Method to Study and Estimate Field Capability

The objective of this study is to develop a method that uses a combination of field data analysis, naturalistic driving data analysis, and computational simulations to explore the potential injury reduction capabilities of integrating passive and active safety systems in frontal impact conditions. For the purposes of this study, the active safety system is actually a driver assist (DA) feature that has the potential to reduce delta-V prior to a crash, in frontal or other crash scenarios. A field data analysis was first conducted to estimate the delta-V distribution change based on an assumption of 20% crash avoidance resulting from a pre-crash braking DA feature. Analysis of changes in driver head location during 470 hard braking events in a naturalistic driving study found that drivers’ head positions were mostly in the center position before the braking onset, while the percentage of time drivers leaning forward or backward increased significantly after the braking onset.