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Technical Paper

CFD Modeling of Squeeze Film Flow in Wet Clutch

2011-04-12
2011-01-1236
An oil-lubricated wet clutch has a direct impact on the drivability and fuel economy of a vehicle equipped with an automatic transmission system. However, a reliable analysis of clutch behavior still remains a challenge. The purpose of this study is to advance the state-of the-art in CFD methodology for modeling transient clutch behavior. First, a new iterative scheme is developed, in combination with commercial CFD software, which is capable of simulating the squeeze film process in a wet clutch. The numerical results are then validated using analytical solutions of the Reynolds equation for simplified clutch geometry and various boundary conditions. It is found that the choice of boundary conditions has a strong influence on squeeze film simulation. The iterative scheme is further validated by comparison to clutch engagement experiments.
Technical Paper

Development of Universal Brake Test Data Exchange Format and Evaluation Standard

2010-10-10
2010-01-1698
Brake system development and testing is spread over vehicle manufacturers, system and component suppliers. Test equipment from different sources, even resulting from different technology generations, different data analysis and report tools - comprising different and sometimes undocumented algorithms - lead to a difficult exchange and analysis of test results and, at the same time, contributes to unwanted test variability. Other studies regarding the test variability brought up that only a unified and unambiguous data format will allow a meaningful and comparative evaluation of these data and only standardization will reveal the actual reasons of test variability. The text at hand illustrates that a substantial part of test variability is caused by a misinterpretation of data and/or by the application of different algorithms.
Technical Paper

Autonomous Driving - A Practical Roadmap

2010-10-19
2010-01-2335
Successful demonstrations of fully autonomous vehicle operation in controlled situations are leading to increased research investment and activity. This has already resulted in significant advancements in the underlying technologies necessary to make it a practical reality someday. Not only are these idealized events sparking imaginations with the potential benefits for safety, convenience, fuel economy and emissions, they also embolden some to make somewhat surprising and sometimes astonishing projections for their appearance on public roads in the near future. Are we now ready for a giant leap forward to the self-driving car with all its complexity and inter-dependencies? Humans will need to grow with and adapt to the technological advancements of the machine and we'll deeply challenge our social and political paradigms before we're done. Even if we as engineers are ready, is the driving public ready?
Technical Paper

Magnetic Tape and Servo-Hydraulics Applied to Truck Frame Testing

1964-01-01
640119
This paper discusses the possible impact of the FM tape recorder and servo-hydraulic actuators on the testing of automotive structures. The use of tape recorders and automatic data reduction systems will permit more accurate definition of service conditions and properly “set-the-stage” for laboratory testing. Servo-hydraulic strokers should encourage better laboratory simulation because of their great flexibility. Test set-up time is reduced, fixtures can be simplified and load control is more precise. Simultaneous multiple inputs can be controlled as to amplitude and phase relationships.
Technical Paper

The 1970 Ford Dual Circuit Air Brake System

1970-02-01
700504
The braking system presented in this article represents a new and forward thinking philosophy regarding commercial vehicle air brake systems. A concept that provides responsive service and emergency brake applications with optimum vehicle control, by the same driver action on the brake pedal. The uniqueness of the total system, and each circuit's function thereof, is explained in basic detail. In addition, the engineering, quality control, and assembly techniques to manufacture the vehicle with assurance that design intent is achieved, are discussed.
Technical Paper

Full Scale Burn Demonstration of Two 2013 Ford Fusions - Arc Mapping Analysis

2018-04-03
2018-01-1439
Vehicle fire investigators sometimes use the existence and location of thermally damaged wiring (arced, shorted, melted, & beaded) discovered in a post burn analysis of a vehicle as an indication of the fire origin and its cause. One systematic method of analysis is to use the process of arc mapping. To examine the reliability of arc mapping in motor vehicle fires, two full scale burn demonstrations were conducted on 2013 Ford Fusions. Both vehicles had similar fire origins artificially initiated in the interior of the vehicles near the driver’s front seat. The engines were running and all accessories were off. During the burn sequence, occurrences of fire induced unintended electrical activity were captured with video and still photography. Examples of this unintended activity include lights, horn, wipers, and decklid latch activation. The burn concluded when the measured battery voltage went to zero in demonstration 1.
Technical Paper

Determination of Impact Responses of ES-2re and SID-IIs - Part III: Development of Transfer Functions

2018-04-03
2018-01-1444
An understanding of stiffness characteristics of different body regions, such as thorax, abdomen and pelvis of ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies under controlled laboratory test conditions is essential for development of both compatible performance targets for countermeasures and occupant protection strategies to meet the recently updated FMVSS214, LINCAP and IIHS Dynamic Side Impact Test requirements. The primary purpose of this study is to determine the transfer functions between the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies for different body regions under identical test conditions using flat rigid wall sled tests. The experimental set-up consists of a flat rigid wall with five instrumented load-wall plates aligned with dummy’s shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and femur/knee impacting a stationary dummy seated on a rigid low friction seat at a pre-determined velocity.
Technical Paper

Determination of Impact Responses of ES-2re and SID-IIs – Part II: SID-IIs

2018-04-03
2018-01-1448
The main purpose of this study was to determine the impact responses of the different body regions (shoulder, thorax, abdomen and pelvis/leg) of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies using rigid wall impacts under different initial test conditions. The experimental set-up consisted of a flat rigid wall with five instrumented load-wall plates aligned with dummy’s shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and knee impacting a stationary dummy seated on a rigid seat at a pre-determined velocity. The relative location and orientation of the load-wall plates was adjusted relative to the body regions of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies respectively.
Technical Paper

Determination of Impact Responses of ES-2re and SID-IIs - Part I: ES-2re

2018-04-03
2018-01-1449
The main purpose of this study was to determine the impact responses of the different body regions (shoulder, thorax, abdomen and pelvis/leg) of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies using rigid wall impacts under different initial test conditions. The experimental set-up consisted of a flat rigid wall with five instrumented load-wall plates aligned with dummy’s shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and knee impacting a stationary dummy seated on a rigid seat at a pre-determined velocity. The relative location and orientation of the load-wall plates was adjusted relative to the body regions of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies respectively.
Technical Paper

Ion Current Measurement of Diluted Combustion Using a Multi-Electrode Spark Plug

2018-04-03
2018-01-1134
Close-loop feedback combustion control is essential for improving the internal combustion engines to meet the rigorous fuel efficiency demands and emission legislations. A vital part is the combustion sensing technology that diagnoses in-cylinder combustion information promptly, such as using cylinder pressure sensor and ion current measurement. The promptness and fidelity of the diagnostic are particularly important to the potential success of using intra-cycle control for abnormal cycles such as super knocking and misfiring. Many research studies have demonstrated the use of ion-current sensing as feedback signal to control the spark ignition gasoline engines, with the spark gap shared for both ignition and ion-current detection. During the spark glow phase, the sparking current may affect the combustion ion current signal. Moreover, the electrode gap size is optimized for sparking rather than measurement of ion current.
Technical Paper

On the Robustness of Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Cruise Control

2018-04-03
2018-01-1360
In order to improve the vehicle’s fuel economy while in cruise, the Model Predictive Control (MPC) technology has been adopted utilizing the road grade preview information and allowance of the vehicle speed variation. In this paper, a focus is on robustness study of delivered fuel economy benefit of Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (ANLMPC) reported earlier in the literature to several noise factors, e.g. vehicle weight, fuel type etc. Further, the vehicle position is obtained via GPS with finite precision and source of road grade preview might be inaccurate. The effect of inaccurate information of the road grade preview on the fuel economy benefits is studied and a remedy to it is established.
Technical Paper

Motor Resolver Fault Diagnosis for AWD EV based on Structural Analysis

2018-04-03
2018-01-1354
Electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are getting more attention in the automotive industry with the technology improvement and increasing focus on fuel economy. For EVs and HEVs, especially all-wheel drive (AWD) EVs with two electric motors powering front and rear axles separately, an accurate motor speed measurement through resolver is significant for vehicle performance and drivability requirement, subject to resolver faults including amplitude imbalance, quadrature imperfection and reference phase shift. This paper proposes a diagnostic scheme for the specific type of resolver fault, amplitude imbalance, in AWD EVs. Based on structural analysis, the vehicle structure is analyzed considering the vehicle architecture and the sensor setup. Different vehicle drive scenarios are studied for designing diagnostic decision logic. The residuals are designed in accordance with the results of structural analysis and the diagnostic decision logic.
Technical Paper

Structural Analysis Based Sensor Placement for Diagnosis of Clutch Faults in Automatic Transmissions

2018-04-03
2018-01-1357
This paper describes a systematic approach to identify the best sensor combination by performing sensor placement analysis to detect and isolate clutch stuck-off faults in Automatic Transmissions (AT) based on structural analysis. When an engaged clutch in the AT loses pressure during operation, it is classified as a clutch stuck-off fault. AT can enter in neutral state because of these faults; causing loss of power at wheels. Identifying the sensors to detect and isolate these faults is important in the early stage of the AT development. A universal approach to develop a structural model of an AT is presented based on the kinematic relationships of the planetary gear set elements. Sensor placement analysis is then performed to determine the sensor locations to detect and isolate the clutch stuck-off faults using speed sensors and clutch pressure sensors. The proposed approach is then applied to a 10-Speed AT to demonstrate its effectiveness.
Technical Paper

A Novel Vehicle Glove Box Design for Mitigating Lower Leg Dummy Responses in a Vehicle Frontal Impact

2018-04-03
2018-01-1326
Crash safety is a complex engineering field wherein a good understanding of energy attenuation capabilities due to an impact of various components and between different/adjacent components in the context of the vehicle environment is imperative. During a frontal impact of the vehicle, an occupant’s lower extremity tends to move forward and could impact one or more components of the instrument panel assembly. A glove box component design may have an influence on occupant’s lower extremity injuries when exposed to the occupant’s knees during a frontal impact. The objective of the present numerical study was to develop a novel glove box design with energy absorbing ribs and then comparing the results with the glove box with a knee airbag (KAB) design to help reduce anthropomorphic test device (ATD) lower leg responses.
Technical Paper

Virtual Temperature Controlled Seat Performance Test

2018-04-03
2018-01-1317
The demand for seating comfort is growing - in cars as well as trucks and other commercial vehicles. This is expected as the seat is the largest surface area of the vehicle that is in contact with the occupant. While it is predominantly luxury cars that have been equipped with climate controlled seats, there is now a clear trend toward this feature becoming available in mid-range and compact cars. The main purpose of climate controlled seats is to create an agreeable microclimate that keeps the driver comfortable. It also reduces the “stickiness” feeling which is reported by perspiring occupants on leather-covered seats. As part of the seat design process, a physical test is performed to record and evaluate the life cycle and the performance at ambient and extreme temperatures for the climate controlled seats as well as their components. The test calls for occupied and unoccupied seats at several ambient temperatures.
Technical Paper

Evaluating the Benefits of On-Board Measurement of Ambient Humidity Part-2: Effect on Torque Estimation Accuracy and Drivability

2016-04-05
2016-01-1068
Engine Mapping is usually performed under nominal conditions which include a humidity level of 8 g/Kg. Customers driving at different humidity conditions (which may range from 1 g/Kg in dry and colder climates and up to 35 g/Kg as in tropical climates) may experience a degraded performance due to the errors in engine torque estimation provided by the ECU. The torque estimation error interacts with many other features that affect drivability, such as the peak performance of the engine, transmission shift quality, etc. This paper extends the investigation in Part-1 by analyzing and quantifying the torque estimation error that may result in certain customer use cases at high humidity conditions, due to the mismatch between calibrated and actual conditions. The analysis is mainly performed for Speed-Density systems (MAP sensor based) but the effect of mass air flow sensor (MAF sensor) based systems is also briefly considered.
Technical Paper

Robust Methodology for Fast Crank Angle Based Temperature Measurement

2016-04-05
2016-01-1072
The paper presents a measurement methodology which combines a fine-wire thermocouple with input reconstruction in order to measure crank angle resolved temperature in an engine air-intake system. Thermocouples that are of practical use in engine experiments tend to have a large time constant which affects measurement accuracy during rapid temperature transients. Input reconstruction methods have previously been applied to thermocouples but have not been specifically used in combination with an ultra-thin uninsulated wire thermocouple to investigate cyclic intake temperature behavior. Accurate measurement results are of interest to improve the validity of many crank-angle resolved engine models. An unshielded thermocouple sensor has been developed which is rigid enough to withstand the aerodynamic forces of the intake air.
Technical Paper

A Modified Oil Lubrication System with Flow Control to Reduce Crankshaft Bearing Friction in a Litre 4 Cylinder Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-1045
The oil distribution system of an automotive light duty engine typically has an oil pump mechanically driven through the front-endancillaries-drive or directly off the crankshaft. Delivery pressure is regulated by a relief valve to provide an oil gallery pressure of typically 3 to 4 bar absolute at fully-warm engine running conditions. Electrification of the oil pump drive is one way to decouple pump delivery from engine speed, but this does not alter the flow distribution between parts of the engine requiring lubrication. Here, the behaviour and benefits of a system with an electrically driven, fixed displacement pump and a distributor providing control over flow to crankshaft main bearings and big end bearings is examined. The aim has been to demonstrate that by controlling flow to these bearings, without changing flow to other parts of the engine, significant reductions in engine friction can be achieved.
Technical Paper

Control of Gear Ratio and Slip in Continuously Variable Transmissions: A Model Predictive Control Approach

2017-03-28
2017-01-1104
The efficiency of power transmission through a Van Doorne type Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) can be improved by allowing a small amount of relative slip between the engine and driveline side pulleys. However, excessive slip must be avoided to prevent transmission wear and damage. To enable fuel economy improvements without compromising drivability, a CVT control system must ensure accurate tracking of the gear ratio set-point while satisfying pointwise-in-time constraints on the slip, enforcing limits on the pulley forces, and counteracting driveline side and engine side disturbances. In this paper, the CVT control problem is approached from the perspective of Model Predictive Control (MPC). To develop an MPC controller, a low order nonlinear model of the CVT is established. This model is linearized at a selected operating point, and the resulting linear model is extended with extra states to ensure zero steady-state error when tracking constant set-points.
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