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Technical Paper

The Mvma Investigation Into the Complexities of Heavy Truck Splash and Spray Problem

1985-01-01
856097
Splash and spray conditions created by tractor-trailer combinations operating on the Federal highway system have been studied and tested for many years with mixed results. Past events are reviewed briefly in this paper. In additional testing during 1983, using new state-of- the-art splash/spray suppressant devices, some encouragement was provided that these devices could work. The 1984 Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA) test program was designed to develop practicable and reliable test procedures to measure effectiveness of splash and spray reduction methods applied to tractor-trailer combination vehicles. Over 40 different combinations of splash/spray suppression devices on five different tractors and three van trailer types were tested. The spray-cloud densities for some 400 test runs were measured by laser transmissometers and also recorded by still photography, motion pictures, and videotape. On-site observers made subjective ratings of spray density.
Technical Paper

The Development of Ford's Natural Gas Powered Ranger

1985-11-11
852277
Operation of America's first factory built vehicles modified to operate on natural gas began in April, 1984, when Ford Motor Company delivered the first of 27 specially equipped 1984 Ranger pickup trucks to 25 major utility and natural gas related companies in the United States and Canada. In addition to the fuel system, modifications to these test vehicles include a 12.8:1 compression ratio engine and a unique distributor calibration to provide performance similar to the gasoline powered vehicle. The fuel tanks are significantly more expensive than gasoline tanks and remain one of the major cost issues with a natural gas powered vehicle. There are however, no unresolvable technological issues that would prevent motor vehicles from operating economically and efficiently on natural gas.
Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of the Ford GT Spaceframe

2004-03-08
2004-01-1255
The Ford GT is a high performance sports car designed to compete with the best that the global automotive industry has to offer. A critical enabler for the performance that a vehicle in this class must achieve is the stiffness and response of the frame structure to the numerous load inputs from the suspension, powertrain and occupants. The process of designing the Ford GT spaceframe started with a number of constraints and performance targets derived through vehicle dynamics CAE modeling, crash performance requirements, competitive benchmarking and the requirement to maintain the unique styling of the GT40 concept car. To achieve these goals, an aluminum spaceframe was designed incorporating 35 different extrusion cross-sections, 5 complex castings, 4 smaller node castings and numerous aluminum stampings.
Journal Article

In-Cylinder Particulate Matter and Spray Imaging of Ethanol/Gasoline Blends in a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0259
A single-cylinder Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine with optical access was used to investigate the effects of ethanol/gasoline blends on in-cylinder formation of particulate matter (PM) and fuel spray characteristics. Indolene was used as a baseline fuel and two blends of 50% and 85% ethanol (by volume, balance indolene) were investigated. Time resolved thermal radiation (incandescence/natural luminosity) of soot particles and fuel spray characteristics were recorded using a high speed camera. The images were analyzed to quantify soot formation in units of relative image intensity as a function of important engine operating conditions, including ethanol concentration in the fuel, fuel injection timing (250, 300 and 320° bTDC), and coolant temperature (25°C and 90°C). Spatially-integrated incandescence was used as a metric to quantify the level of in-cylinder PM formed at the different operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Developing and Validating Air Brake Tubes for Commercial Vehicles

2012-10-02
2012-36-0272
The pneumatic air brake system for heavy commercial trucks is composed by a large number of components, aiming its proper work and compliance with rigorous criteria of vehicular safety. One of those components, present along the whole vehicle, is the air brake tube, ducts which feed valves and reservoirs with compressed air, carrying signals for acting or releasing the brake system. In 2011, due to a lack of butadiene in a global scale, the manufacturing of these tubes was compromised; as this is an important raw material present on the polymer used so far, PA12. This article introduces the methodology of selecting, developing and validating in vehicle an alternative polymer for this application. For this purpose, acceptance criteria have been established through global material specifications, as well as bench tests and vehicular validation requirements.
Technical Paper

Nanohardness and Fuel Pump Brush/Commutator Wear

1994-10-01
941985
Nanohardness measurements performed in an SFM (Scanning Force Microscope) are compared with macrohardness data obtained by conventional means. Nanohardness provides detailed information about material hardness on a sub-micron length scale, contributing valuable insights on commutator and brush wear in a fuel pump wear simulation test. For a commutator material consisting of a harder component dispersed in a softer matrix, nanohardness measurements show the hardness of both components. The observed rates of brush wear cannot be explained satisfactorily without this additional nanoscale information. SFM nanohardness measurements are expected to prove useful in a variety of tribological systems.
Technical Paper

A General Formulation for Topology Optimization

1994-11-01
942256
Topology optimization is used for obtaining the best layout of vehicle structural components to achieve predetermined performance goals. Unlike the most common approach which uses the optimality criteria methods, the topology design problem is formulated as a general optimization problem and is solved by the mathematical programming method. One of the major advantages of this approach is its generality; thus it can solve various problems, e.g. multi-objective and multi-constraint problems. The MSC/NASTRAN finite element code is employed for response analyses. Two automotive examples including a simplified truck frame and a truck frame crossmember are presented.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Delivery Module for Light Truck Applications

1993-11-01
932980
This paper reviews the design and development of a self-filling, in-tank fuel system reservoir intended for use in diesel engine vehicle applications. This new idea eliminates engine driveability concerns (stumbles, hesitations, stalling, etc.) associated with an inconsistent supply of fuel from the fuel tank to the engine, particularly during sudden vehicle maneuvers and with low fuel tank conditions.
Technical Paper

Impact of Computer Aided Engineering on Ford Motor Company Light Truck Cooling Design and Development Processes

1993-11-01
932977
This paper presents the benefits of following a disciplined thermal management process during the design and development of Ford Light Truck engine cooling systems. The thermal management process described has evolved through the increased use of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools. The primary CAE tool used is a numerical simulation technique within the field of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The paper discusses the need to establish a heat management team, develop a heat management model, construct a three dimensional CFD model to simulate the thermal environment of the engine cooling system, and presents CFD modeling examples of Ford Light Trucks with engine driven cooling fans.
Technical Paper

Scavenging of a Firing Two-Stroke Spark-Ignition Engine

1994-03-01
940393
Current demands for high fuel efficiency and low emissions in automotive powerplants have drawn attention to the two-stroke engine configuration. The present study measured trapping and scavenging efficiencies of a firing two-stroke spark-ignition engine by in-cylinder gas composition analysis. Intermediate results of the procedure included the trapped air-fuel ratio and residual exhaust gas fraction. Samples, acquired with a fast-acting electromagnetic valve installed in the cylinder head, were taken of the unburned mixture without fuel injection and of the burned gases prior to exhaust port opening, at engine speeds of 1000 to 3000 rpm and at 10 to 100% of full load. A semi-empirical, zero-dimensional scavenging model was developed based on modification of the non-isothermal, perfect-mixing model. Comparison to the experimental data shows good agreement.
Technical Paper

The Effect of MMT on the OBD-11 Catalyst Efficiency Monitor

1993-10-01
932855
The effect of MMT on the OBD-II catalyst efficiency monitor has been investigated. The results conclusively show that manganese which is deposited onto the catalyst during the combustion of MMT- containing fuel provides for an increased level of catalyst oxygen storage capacity. This added oxygen storage was found to result in a reduced rear EGO sensor response and caused malfunctioning catalysts to be incorrectly diagnosed by the OBD-II catalyst efficiency monitor.
Technical Paper

A New Approach for Weight Reduction in Truck Frame Design

1993-11-01
933037
A new, systematic, sensitivity based design process for weight reduction is presented. Traditionally, a trial and error method is used when a design fails to meet the weight and the design criteria, which often conflict. This old approach not only is time and cost consuming but also does not provide insight into structural behavior. This proposed process uses state-of-the-art technologies such as design sensitivity analysis, numerical optimization, graphical user interface, etc. It handles multi-discipline design criteria simultaneously and provides design engineers insight into structural responses for frequency, durability, and stiffness concerns and a means for systematic weight reduction and quality improvement. The new design process has been applied for the weight reduction of advanced truck frame designs. Results show that a significant weight savings has been achieved while all design criteria are met.
Technical Paper

Design Considerations for Natural Gas Vehicle Catalytic Converters

1993-11-01
933036
Bench reactor experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of operating temperature, precious metal loading, space velocity, and air-fuel (A/F) ratio on the performance of palladium (Pd) catalysts under simulated natural gas vehicle (NGV) exhaust conditions. The performance of these catalysts under simulated gasoline vehicle (GV) conditions was also investigated. In the case of simulated NGV exhaust, where methane was used as the prototypical hydrocarbon (HC) species, peak three-way conversion was obtained under richer conditions than required with simulated GV exhaust (propane and propene HC species). Moreover, the hydrocarbon efficiency of the catalyst under simulated NGV exhaust conditions was more sensitive to both A/F ratio and perturbations in A/F ratio than the HC efficiency under GV exhaust conditions.
Journal Article

Crash Performance Simulation of a Multilayer Thermoplastic Fuel Tank with Manufacturing and Assembly Consideration

2011-04-12
2011-01-0009
The modeling of plastic fuel tank systems for crash safety applications has been very challenging. The major challenges include the prediction of fuel sloshing in high speed impact conditions, the modeling of multilayer thermoplastic fuel tanks with post-forming (non-uniform) material properties, and the modeling of tank straps with pre-tensions. Extensive studies can be found in the literature to improve the prediction of fuel sloshing. However, little research had been conducted to model the post-forming fuel tank and to address the tension between the fuel tank and the tank straps for crash safety simulations. Hoping to help improve the modeling of fuel systems, the authors made the first attempt to tackle these major challenges all at once in this study by dividing the modeling of the fuel tank into eight stages. An ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) method was adopted to simulate the interaction between the fuel and the tank.
Journal Article

Effects of Fuel Cell Material Properties on Water Management Using CFD Simulation and Neutron Imaging

2010-04-12
2010-01-0934
Effects of fuel cell material properties on water management were numerically investigated using Volume of Fluid (VOF) method in the FLUENT. The results show that the channel surface wettability is an important design variable for both serpentine and interdigitated flow channel configurations. In a serpentine air flow channel, hydrophilic surfaces could benefit the reactant transport to reaction sites by facilitating water transport along channel edges or on channel surfaces; however, the hydrophilic surfaces would also introduce significantly pressure drop as a penalty. For interdigitated air flow channel design, it is observable that liquid water exists only in the outlet channel; it is also observable that water distribution inside GDL is uneven due to the pressure distribution caused by interdigitated structure. An in-situ water measurement method, neutron imaging technique, was used to investigate the water behavior in a PEM fuel cell.
Technical Paper

Ford Motor Companys' new Torqshift 6 Automatic Transmission for Super Duty F250-F550 Truck

2010-04-12
2010-01-0859
Ford developed the 6R140 TorqShift six-speed transmission for the Ford F-series SuperDuty trucks. The 6R140 transmission is specifically designed to manage the increased torque produced by the 6.7-liter Power Stroke V-8 turbocharged diesel engine. It is also matched with the 6.2-liter V-8 gasoline engine. By design, the new 6R140 transmission seamlessly delivers the enormous low-rpm torque produced by the new diesel engine and efficiently manages the higher rpm of the new gasoline engine.
Journal Article

Development of the Combustion System for a Flexible Fuel Turbocharged Direct Injection Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0585
Gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) engines, such as EcoBoost™ from Ford, are becoming established as a high value technology solution to improve passenger car and light truck fuel economy. Due to their high specific performance and excellent low-speed torque, improved fuel economy can be realized due to downsizing and downspeeding without sacrificing performance and driveability while meeting the most stringent future emissions standards with an inexpensive three-way catalyst. A logical and synergistic extension of the EcoBoost™ strategy is the use of E85 (approximately 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) for knock mitigation. Direct injection of E85 is very effective in suppressing knock due to ethanol's high heat of vaporization - which increases the charge cooling benefit of direct injection - and inherently high octane rating. As a result, higher boost levels can be achieved while maintaining optimal combustion phasing giving high thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Engine Design Constraints on Diesel Combustion System Size Scaling

2010-04-12
2010-01-0180
A set of scaling laws were previously developed to guide the transfer of combustion system designs between diesel engines of different sizes [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ]. The intent of these scaling laws was to maintain geometric similarity of key parameters influencing diesel combustion such as in-cylinder spray penetration and flame lift-off length. The current study explores the impact of design constraints or limitations on the application of the scaling laws and the effect this has on the ability to replicate combustion and emissions. Multi dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations were used to evaluate the relative impact of engine design parameters on engine performance under full load operating conditions. The base engine was first scaled using the scaling laws. Design constraints were then applied to assess how such constraints deviate from the established scaling laws and how these alter the effectiveness of the scaling effort.
Journal Article

Laboratory and Vehicle Demonstration of “2nd-Generation” LNT + in-situ SCR Diesel NOx Emission Control Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-0305
This study extends research previously reported from our laboratory [SAE 2009-01-0285] on diesel NOx control utilizing a new generation of Lean NOx Trap (LNT) plus in-situ Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst systems. Key findings from this work include 1) evidence for a “non-ammonia” reduction pathway over the SCR catalyst (in addition to the conventional ammonia pathway), 2) high NOx conversions utilizing LNT formulations with substantially lower platinum group metal (PGM) loadings than utilized in earlier systems, 3) ability of the downstream SCR catalyst to maintain high overall system NOx efficiency with aged LNTs, and 4) effectiveness of both Cu- and Fe-zeolite SCR formulations to enhance overall system NOx efficiency. FTP NOx conversion efficiencies in excess of 95% were obtained on two light-duty vehicle platforms with lab-aged catalyst systems, thus showing potential of the LNT+SCR approach for achieving the lowest U.S. emissions standards
Journal Article

The Effects of Sulfur Poisoning and Desulfation Temperature on the NOx Conversion of LNT+SCR Systems for Diesel Applications

2010-04-12
2010-01-0300
A laboratory study was performed to assess the effects of sulfur poisoning and desulfation temperature on the NO conversion of a LNT+(Cu/SCR) in-situ system. Four LNT+(Cu/SCR) systems were aged for 4.5 hours without sulfur at 600, 700, 750, and 800°C using A/F ratio modulations to represent 23K miles of desulfations at different temperatures. NO conversion tests were performed on the LNT alone and on the LNT+SCR system using a 60 s lean/5 s rich cycle. The catalysts were then sulfur-poisoned at 400°C and desulfated four times and re-evaluated on the 60/5 tests. This test sequence was repeated 3 more times to represent 100K miles of desulfations. After simulating 23K miles of desulfations, the Cu-based SCR catalysts improved the NO conversion of the LNT at low temperatures (e.g., 300°C), although the benefit decreased as the desulfation temperature increased from 600°C to 800°C.
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