Stable and Accurate LS-DYNA Simulations with Foam Material Models: Optimization of Finite Element Model Parameters
Cellular foams have found a predominant application in automotive industry for efficient energy absorption so as to meet stringent and continuously improving vehicle crashworthiness and occupant protection criteria. The recent inclusion of pedestrian protection regulations mandate the use of foams of different densities for impact energy absorption at identified impact locations; this has paved the way for significant advancements in foam molding techniques such as dual density and tri-density molding. With increased emphasis on light-weighting, solutions involving the use of polymeric or metallic foams as fillers in hollow structures - foam encapsulated metal structures - are being explored. Another major automotive application of foams is in the seat comfort area, which again involves foams of intricate shapes and sizes. In addition, a few recently developed foams are anisotropic, adding on to the existing complexities.