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Journal Article

Health Assessment of Liquid Cooling System in Aircrafts: Data Visualization, Reduction, Clustering, and Classification

2012-10-22
2012-01-2106
This paper addresses the issues of data reduction, visualization, clustering and classification for fault diagnosis and prognosis of the Liquid Cooling System (LCS) in an aircraft. LCS is a cooling system that consists of a left and a right loop, where each loop is composed of a variety of components including a heat exchanger, source control units, a compressor, and a pump. The LCS data and the fault correlation analysis used in the paper are provided by Hamilton Sundstrand (HS) - A United Technologies Company (UTC). This data set includes a variety of sensor measurements for system parameters including temperatures and pressures of different components, along with liquid levels and valve positions of the pumps and controllers. A graphical user interface (GUI) is developed in Matlab that facilitates extensive plotting of the parameters versus each other, and/or time to observe the trends in the data.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Effects of Simulated Ice Accretion on a Generic Transport Model

2011-06-13
2011-38-0065
An experimental research effort was begun to develop a database of airplane aerodynamic characteristics with simulated ice accretion over a large range of incidence and sideslip angles. Wind-tunnel testing was performed at the NASA Langley 12-ft Low-Speed Wind Tunnel using a 3.5% scale model of the NASA Langley Generic Transport Model. Aerodynamic data were acquired from a six-component force and moment balance in static-model sweeps from α = -5 to 85 deg. and β = -45 to 45 deg. at a Reynolds number of 0.24x10⁶ and Mach number of 0.06. The 3.5% scale GTM was tested in both the clean configuration and with full-span artificial ice shapes attached to the leading edges of the wing, horizontal and vertical tail. Aerodynamic results for the clean airplane configuration compared favorably with similar experiments carried out on a 5.5% scale GTM.
Technical Paper

In-flight Icing Hazard Verification with NASA's Icing Remote Sensing System for Development of a NEXRAD Icing Hazard Level Algorithm

2011-06-13
2011-38-0030
From November 2010 until May of 2011, NASA's Icing Remote Sensing System was positioned at Platteville, Colorado between the National Science Foundation's S-Pol radar and Colorado State University's CHILL radar (collectively known as FRONT, or ‘Front Range Observational Network Testbed’). This location was also underneath the flight-path of aircraft arriving and departing from Denver's International Airport, which allowed for comparison to pilot reports of in-flight icing. This work outlines how the NASA Icing Remote Sensing System's derived liquid water content and in-flight icing hazard profiles can be used to provide in-flight icing verification and validation during icing and non-icing scenarios with the purpose of comparing these times to profiles of polarized moment data from the two nearby research radars.
Journal Article

Developing Abrasion Test Standards for Evaluating Lunar Construction Materials

2009-07-12
2009-01-2377
Operational issues encountered by Apollo astronauts relating to lunar dust were catalogued, including material abrasion that resulted in scratches and wear on spacesuit components, ultimately impacting visibility, joint mobility and pressure retention. Standard methods are being developed to measure abrasive wear on candidate construction materials to be used for spacesuits, spacecraft, and robotics. Calibration tests were conducted using a standard diamond stylus scratch tip on the common spacecraft structure aluminum, Al 6061-T6. Custom tips were fabricated from terrestrial counterparts of lunar minerals for scratching Al 6061-T6 and comparing to standard diamond scratches. Considerations are offered for how to apply standards when selecting materials and developing dust mitigation strategies for lunar architecture elements.
Technical Paper

EVA Exploration Support Using Integrated Navigation, Networking and Communications Systems

2007-07-09
2007-01-3087
In future lunar and Mars exploration missions the ability to provide the crewmember navigation information will be critical. Exploration demands that Extravehicular Activity (EVA) astronauts be provided the capability to operate with greater autonomy in accomplishing complex EVA missions than has been the case previously. Robust crew information interfaces and navigation support integral to the EVA spacesuit system are expected to be minimum requirements. Navigation support must allow the EVA crew to determine their position relative to EVA target locations, satellite imagery and maps and assist them in walking or riding to the desired targets on the planetary surface. Together, these needs suggest a requirement for an integrated system that combines data and voice communications, a high performance visual display, and navigation support in a design that is compatible with spacesuit environmental and packaging restrictions and with unique EVA crew interface demands.
Technical Paper

Multifunctional Fiber Batteries for Next Generation Space Suits

2007-07-09
2007-01-3173
As next generation space suit concepts enable extravehicular activity (EVA) mission capability to extend beyond anything currently available today, revolutionary advances in life support technologies are required to achieve anticipated NASA mission profiles that may measure years in duration and require hundreds of sorties. Since most life support systems require power, increased mass and volume efficiency of the energy storage materials can have a dramatic impact on reducing the overall weight of next generation space suits. This paper details the development of a multifunctional fiber battery to address these needs.
Technical Paper

Innovative Multi-Environment, Multimode Thermal Control System

2007-07-09
2007-01-3202
Innovative multi-environment multimode thermal management architecture has been described that is capable of meeting widely varying thermal control requirements of various exploration mission scenarios currently under consideration. The proposed system is capable of operating in a single-phase or two-phase mode rejecting heat to the colder environment, operating in a two-phase mode with heat pump for rejecting heat to a warm environment, as well as using evaporative phase-change cooling for the mission phases where the radiator is incapable of rejecting the required heat. A single fluid loop can be used internal and external to the spacecraft for the acquisition, transport and rejection of heat by the selection of a working fluid that meets NASA safety requirements. Such a system may not be optimal for each individual mode of operation but its ability to function in multiple modes may permit global optimization of the thermal control system.
Technical Paper

Accuracy Assessment of the Major Constituent Analyzer

2005-07-11
2005-01-2893
The Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) is a mass spectrometer-based atmospheric monitoring instrument in the Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS). The MCA is used for continuous environmental monitoring of 6 major gas constituents in the ISS atmosphere as well as safety-critical monitoring for special Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) operations such as Pre-Breathe in the Airlock for Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) and oxygen re-pressurizations. For the latter, it is desirable to make most efficient use of consumables by transferring the maximum amount from O2 re-supply tanks on board the shuttle or Progress. The upper safety limit for O2 transfer is constrained by the MCA measurement error bands. A study was undertaken to tighten these error bands and afford NASA-Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) more operational flexibility.
Technical Paper

Trade Study of an Exploration Cooling Garment

2008-06-29
2008-01-1994
A trade study was conducted with a goal to develop relatively high TRL design concepts for an Exploration Cooling Garment (ExCG) that can accommodate larger metabolic loads and maintain physiological limits of the crewmembers health and work efficiency during all phases of exploration missions without hindering mobility. Effective personal cooling through use of an ExCG is critical in achieving safe and efficient missions. Crew thermoregulation not only impacts comfort during suited operations but also directly affects human performance. Since the ExCG is intimately worn and interfaces with comfort items, it is also critical to overall crewmember physical comfort. Both thermal and physical comfort are essential for the long term, continuous wear expected of the ExCG.
Technical Paper

Multifunctional Fiber Batteries for Next Generation Space Suits

2008-06-29
2008-01-1996
As next generation space suit concepts enable extravehicular activity (EVA) mission capability to extend beyond anything currently available today, revolutionary advances in life support technologies are required to achieve anticipated NASA mission profiles than may measure years in duration and require hundreds of sorties. Since most life support systems require power, increased mass and volume efficiency of the energy storage materials can have a dramatic impact on reducing the overall weight of next generation space suits. ITN Energy Systems, in collaboration with Hamilton Sundstrand and the NASA Johnson Space Center's EVA System's Team, is developing multifunctional fiber batteries to address these challenges. By depositing the battery on existing space suit materials, e.g. scrim fibers in the thermal micrometeoroid garment (TMG) layers, parasitic mass (inactive materials) is eliminated leading to effective energy densities ∼400 Wh/kg.
Technical Paper

Continued Research in EVA, Navigation, Networking and Communication Systems

2008-06-29
2008-01-2029
This paper summarizes the results of our continued testing of a radio based, non-Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation and communications system. The system has been integrated with two mobile computers, a robot and four work stations. It demonstrated crewmember interfaces for acquiring, storing and transmitting data from a space suit life support system simulation, test subject Electrocardiogram (ECG) and other biomedical data. This is an extension of the functions which were tested last year during the NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) 2006 activities at both Johnson Space Center in Houston Texas and at Meteor Crater near Flagstaff Arizona. We added considerable complexity to the tests. The tests were conducted on an accurate series of geo-referenced paths at the El Toro Marine Air Station, a closed air field.
Technical Paper

Status, Vision, and Challenges of an Intelligent Distributed Engine Control Architecture

2007-09-17
2007-01-3859
A Distributed Engine Control Working Group (DECWG) consisting of the Department of Defense (DoD), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)- Glenn Research Center (GRC) and industry has been formed to examine the current and future requirements of propulsion engine systems. The scope of this study will include an assessment of the paradigm shift from centralized engine control architecture to an architecture based on distributed control utilizing open system standards. Included will be a description of the work begun in the 1990's, which continues today, followed by the identification of the remaining technical challenges which present barriers to on-engine distributed control.
Technical Paper

The CEV Smart Buyer Team Effort: A Summary of the Crew Module & Service Module Thermal Design Architecture

2007-07-09
2007-01-3046
The NASA-wide CEV Smart Buyer Team (SBT) was assembled in January 2006 and was tasked with the development of a NASA in-house design for the CEV Crew Module (CM), Service Module (SM), and Launch Abort System (LAS). This effort drew upon over 250 engineers from all of the 10 NASA Centers. In 6 weeks, this in-house design was developed. The Thermal Systems Team was responsible for the definition of the active and passive design architecture. The SBT effort for Thermal Systems can be best characterized as a design architecting activity. Proof-of-concepts were assessed through system-level trade studies and analyses using simplified modeling. This nimble design approach permitted definition of a point design and assessing its design robustness in a timely fashion. This paper will describe the architecting process and present trade studies and proposed thermal designs
Technical Paper

Development of Icing Condition Remote Sensing Systems and their Implications for Future Flight Operations

2003-06-16
2003-01-2096
NASA and the FAA are funding the development of ground-based remote sensing systems specifically designed to detect and quantify the icing environment aloft. The goal of the NASA activity is to develop a relatively low cost stand-alone system that can provide practical icing information to the flight community. The goal of the FAA activity is to develop more advanced systems that can identify supercooled large drop (SLD) as well as general icing conditions and be integrated into the existing weather information infrastructure. Both activities utilize combinations of sensing technologies including radar, radiometry, and lidar, along with Internet-available external information such as numerical weather model output where it is found to be useful. In all cases the measured data of environment parameters will need to be converted into a measure of icing hazard before it will be of value to the flying community.
Technical Paper

An Aerodynamic Simulation Process for Iced Lifting Surfaces and Associated Issues

2003-06-16
2003-01-2135
This paper discusses technologies and software tools that are being implemented in a software toolkit currently under development at NASA Glenn Research Center. Its purpose is to help study the effects of icing on airfoil performance and assist with the aerodynamic simulation process which consists of characterization and modeling of ice geometry, application of block topology and grid generation, and flow simulation. Tools and technologies for each task have been carefully chosen based on their contribution to the overall process. For the geometry characterization and modeling, we have chosen an interactive rather than automatic process in order to handle numerous ice shapes. An Appendix presents features of a software toolkit developed to support the interactive process. Approaches taken for the generation of block topology and grids, and flow simulation, though not yet implemented in the software, are discussed with reasons for why particular methods are chosen.
Technical Paper

DC Bus Regulation with a Flywheel Energy Storage System

2002-10-29
2002-01-3229
This paper describes the DC bus regulation control algorithm for the NASA flywheel energy storage system during charge, charge reduction and discharge modes of operation. The algorithm was experimentally verified in [1] and this paper presents the necessary models for simulation. Detailed block diagrams of the controller algorithm are given. It is shown that the flywheel system and the controller can be modeled in three levels of detail depending on the type of analysis required. The three models are explained and then compared using simulation results.
Technical Paper

Carrier Injection Positive and Negative Sequence Impedances for Wound Field Synchronous Starter/Generators

2004-11-02
2004-01-3186
Carrier Injection Sensorless (CIS) rotor position estimation for electric machines depends on the rotor saliency “seen” from the stator terminals. Compared to permanent magnet and induction machines, wound field synchronous machine rotor saliency characteristics are more complex. At typical carrier frequencies subtransient characteristics dominate. Injecting positively rotating carrier voltages at the stator terminals of a machine having rotor saliency produces both positively and negatively rotating carrier currents. The impedances relating currents to injected carrier voltages are derived from the dq reference frame synchronous machine model. Analytical results are compared to simulation and limited test results for an aircraft starter/generator.
Technical Paper

Performance Characterization of a Lithium-Ion Gel Polymer Battery Power Supply System for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

2004-11-02
2004-01-3166
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are currently under development for NASA missions, earth sciences, aeronautics, the military, and commercial applications. The design of an all electric power and propulsion system for small UAVs was the focus of a detailed study. Currently, many of these small vehicles are powered by primary (nonrechargeable) lithium-based batteries. While this type of battery is capable of satisfying some of the mission needs, a secondary (rechargeable) battery power supply system that can provide the same functionality as the current system at the same or lower system mass and volume is desired. A study of commercially available secondary battery cell technologies that could provide the desired performance characteristics was performed.
Technical Paper

Light Weight Nickel-Alkaline Cells Using Fiber Electrodes

2004-11-02
2004-01-3167
Using a new fiber electrode technology, currently developed and produced by Bekaert Corporation (Bekaert), Electro Energy, Inc., (EEI) Mobile Energy Products Group (formerly, Eagle-Picher Technologies, LLC, Power Systems Department) in Colorado Springs, CO has demonstrated that it is feasible to manufacture flight weight nickel hydrogen cells having about twice the specific energy (80 vs. 40 watt-hr./kg) as state-of-the-art nickel hydrogen cells that are currently flown on geosynchronous communications satellites. Although lithium-ion battery technology has made large in-roads to replace the nickel alkaline technology (nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride), the technology offered here competes with lithium-ion weight and offers alternatives not present in the lithium-ion chemistry such as: ability to undergo a continuous overcharge, reversal on discharge, and sustain rate capability sufficient to start automotive and aircraft engines at subzero temperatures.
Technical Paper

Development Status of Amine-based, Combined Humidity, CO2 and Trace Contaminant Control System for CEV

2006-07-17
2006-01-2192
Under a NASA-sponsored technology development project, a multi-disciplinary team consisting of industry, academia, and government organizations lead by Hamilton Sundstrand is developing an amine-based humidity and CO2 removal process and prototype equipment for Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) applications. Originally this project sought to research enhanced amine formulations and incorporate a trace contaminant control capability into the sorbent. In October 2005, NASA re-directed the project team to accelerate the delivery of hardware by approximately one year and emphasize deployment on board the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) as the near-term developmental goal. Preliminary performance requirements were defined based on nominal and off-nominal conditions and the design effort was initiated using the baseline amine sorbent, SA9T.
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