Inhomogeneities in HCCI Combustion: An Imaging Study
A four-valve-pentroof, direct-injection, optical engine fueled with n-heptane has been operated at four different steady-state HCCI operating conditions including 10% and 65% residuals, both at low and high swirl conditions. Both, planar toluene LIF and volume chemiluminescence show large scale inhomogeneity in the ensemble averaged images. The interpretation of the toluene-tracer LIF signals (when premixed with the fresh-air charge) as a marker for reaction homogeneity is discussed. A binarization scheme and a statistical analysis of the LIF images were applied to the per-cycle planar-LIF images revealing inhomogeneities both from cycle-to-cycle and within the regions of individual cycles that track with the average heat release rate. Comparison of these two homogeneity metrics between the four operating conditions reveals weak but discernable differences.