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Technical Paper

Prediction of Head Orientation based on the Visual Image of a Three Dimensional Space

2001-06-26
2001-01-2092
Head movements contribute to the acquisition of targets in visually guided tasks such as reaching and grasping. It has been found that head orientation is generally related to the spatial location of the visual target. The movements of the head in a three-dimensional space are described using six degrees of freedom including translations along x-, y- and z-axis plus rotations about x-, y- and z-axis. While the control of head movement is heavily dependent upon visual perception, head movements lead to a change in the visual perception of the task space as well. In the present study we analyzed head movements in a set of driving simulation experiments. Also a theoretical reconstruction of the perceived task space after head movements was modeled by a statistical regression. This process included the transformation of the task space from a global reference frame (earth-fixed) into a perceived space in a head-centered reference frame (head-fixed).
Technical Paper

Modifying Motions for Avoiding Obstacles

2001-06-26
2001-01-2112
Interference between physical objects in the workspace and the moving human body may cause serious problems, including errors in manual operation, physical damage and trauma from the collision, and increased biomechanical stresses due to movement reorganization for avoiding the obstacles. Therefore, a computer algorithm to detect possible collisions and simulate human motions to avoid obstacles will be an important tool for computer-aided ergonomics and optimization of system design in the early stage of a design process. In the present study, we present a method of modifying motions for obstacle avoidance when the object intrudes near the center of the planned motion. We take the motion modification approach, as we believe that for a certain class of obstacle avoidance problems, a person would modify a pre-planned motion that would result in a collision to a new one that is collision-free, as opposed to organizing a totally unique motion pattern.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Effort Perception in Lifting and Reaching Tasks

2001-06-26
2001-01-2120
Although biomechanics models can predict the stress on the musculoskeletal system, they cannot predict how the muscle load associated with exertion is perceived. The short-term goal of the present study was to model the perception of effort in lifting and reaching tasks. The long-term goal is to determine the correlation between objective and subjective measures of effort and use this information to predict fatigue or the risk of injury. Lifting and reaching tasks were performed in seated and standing situations. A cylindrical object and a box were moved with one hand and two hands, respectively, from a home location to shelves distributed in the space around the subject. The shoulder and torso effort required to perform these tasks were rated on a ten point visual analog scale.
Technical Paper

Integrated, Feed-Forward Hybrid Electric Vehicle Simulation in SIMULINK and its Use for Power Management Studies

2001-03-05
2001-01-1334
A hybrid electric vehicle simulation tool (HE-VESIM) has been developed at the Automotive Research Center of the University of Michigan to study the fuel economy potential of hybrid military/civilian trucks. In this paper, the fundamental architecture of the feed-forward parallel hybrid-electric vehicle system is described, together with dynamic equations and basic features of sub-system modules. Two vehicle-level power management control algorithms are assessed, a rule-based algorithm, which mainly explores engine efficiency in an intuitive manner, and a dynamic-programming optimization algorithm. Simulation results over the urban driving cycle demonstrate the potential of the selected hybrid system to significantly improve vehicle fuel economy, the improvement being greater when the dynamic-programming power management algorithm is applied.
Technical Paper

Simulating Complex Manual Handling Motions Via Motion Modification: Performance Evaluation of Motion Modification Algorithm

2003-06-17
2003-01-2227
Simulation of human motions in virtual environments is an essential component of human CAD (Computer-aided Design) systems. In our earlier SAE papers, we introduced a novel motion simulation approach termed Memory-based Motion Simulation (MBMS). MBMS utilizes existing motion databases and predicts novel motions by modifying existing ‘root’ motions through the use of the motion modification algorithm. MBMS overcomes some limitations of existing motion simulation models, as 1) it simulates different types of motions on a single, unified framework, 2) it simulates motions based on alternative movement techniques, and 3) like real humans, it can learn new movement skills continually over time. The current study evaluates the prediction accuracy of MBMS to prove its utility as a predictive tool for computer-aided ergonomics. A total of 627 whole-body one-handed load transfer motions predicted by the algorithm are compared with actual human motions obtained in a motion capture experiment.
Technical Paper

Redesigning Workstations Utilizing Motion Modification Algorithm

2003-06-17
2003-01-2195
Workstation design is one of the most essential components of proactive ergonomics, and digital human models have gained increasing popularity in the analysis and design of current and future workstations (Chaffin 2001). Using digital human technology, it is possible to simulate interactions between humans and current or planned workstations, and conduct quantitative ergonomic analyses based on realistic human postures and motions. Motion capture has served as the primary means by which to acquire and visualize human motions in a digital environment. However, motion capture only provides motions for a specific person performing specific tasks. Albeit useful, at best this allows for the analysis of current or mocked-up workstations only. The ability to subsequently modify these motions is required to efficiently evaluate alternative design possibilities and thus improve design layouts.
Technical Paper

The Role of Binocular Information for Distance Perception in Rear-Vision Systems

2001-03-05
2001-01-0322
New developments in the use of two-dimensional displays to supplement driver vision have made it more important to understand the roles that various distance cues play in driver perception of distance in more conventional ways of viewing the road, including direct vision and viewing through rearview mirrors. The current study was designed to investigate the role of binocular distance cues for perception of distance in rearview mirrors. In a field experiment, we obtained data to estimate the importance of binocular cues for distance judgments under conditions representative of real-world traffic. The results indicate that, although binocular cues are potentially available to drivers, these cues probably play little or no role in distance judgments in rearview mirrors in normal driving situations.
Technical Paper

Development of an Angle-time-basedDynamic Motion Modification Method

2000-06-06
2000-01-2176
In this study, an angle-time-based motion modification method was developed. This method allows the use of existing motion data by modifying them to fit new scenarios given as new initial and final posture constraints. The motion modification method can generalize an existing motion data and derive, within a portion of space, a family of motions retaining the angular velocity characteristics of the original motion. It was found that the proposed method is capable of predicting realistic human motions with various new initial and final posture constraints in a robust manner. We expect that this motion modification method provides a way of using existing motion data more flexibly and economically.
Technical Paper

Posture and Motion Prediction: Perspectives for Unconstrained Head Movements

2006-07-04
2006-01-2330
The relationship between motion and posture was investigated from the kinematics of unconstrained head movements. Head movements for visual gazing exhibited an initial component whose amplitude does not exceed 20.3° for target eccentricity up to 120°. This component was truncated by subsequent corrective movements whose occurrence generally increases with target eccentricity, although with a large variability (R2 ≤ 0.46). The head is finally stabilized at 72% of target eccentricity (R2 ≥ 0.92). These results indicate that the final head posture can be achieved through a number of loosely-programmed kinematic variations. Based on these results, unconstrained head movements were simulated, within the context of application to posture prediction for estimation of the visual field.
Technical Paper

Cam-phasing Optimization Using Artificial Neural Networks as Surrogate Models-Fuel Consumption and NOx Emissions

2006-04-03
2006-01-1512
Cam-phasing is increasingly considered as a feasible Variable Valve Timing (VVT) technology for production engines. Additional independent control variables in a dual-independent VVT engine increase the complexity of the system, and achieving its full benefit depends critically on devising an optimum control strategy. A traditional approach relying on hardware experiments to generate set-point maps for all independent control variables leads to an exponential increase in the number of required tests and prohibitive cost. Instead, this work formulates the task of defining actuator set-points as an optimization problem. In our previous study, an optimization framework was developed and demonstrated with the objective of maximizing torque at full load. This study extends the technique and uses the optimization framework to minimize fuel consumption of a VVT engine at part load.
Technical Paper

Factors Influencing Spark Behavior in a Spray-Guided Direct-Injected Engine

2006-10-16
2006-01-3376
The spark process has previously been shown to heavily influence ignition stability, particularly in direct-injected gasoline engines. Despite this influence, few studies have addressed spark behavior in direct-injected engines. This study examines the role of environmental factors on the behavior of the spark. Through measurement of the spark duration, by way of the ignition current trace, several observations are made on the influence of external factors on the behavior of the spark. Changing the level of nitrogen in the cylinder (to simulate EGR), the level of wetting and velocity imparted by the spray, the ignition dwell time and the orientation of the ground strap, observations are made as to which conditions are likely to produce unfavorable (shorter) spark durations. Through collection of a statistically significant number of sample spark lengths under each condition, histograms have been assembled and compared under each case.
Technical Paper

Crank-Angle Resolved Imaging of Fuel Distribution, Ignition and Combustion in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

2005-10-24
2005-01-3753
A combination of imaging techniques for investigations of highly transient processes and cyclic variations in internal combustion engines is presented. The single high-speed camera setup uses a CMOS camera combined with a two-stage image-intensifier and two excimer lasers. Fuel mixing, ignition and combustion were monitored via planar laser induced fluorescence imaging of toluene as a tracer that was added to iso-octane in combination with the simultaneous recording of light emission from the spark plasma and OH* chemiluminescence of the developing flame. Image frame rates of 12 kHz for hundreds of cycles were achieved. Application to misfire events in a spray-guided gasoline direct-injection engine is described to illustrate the merits of the technique.
Technical Paper

Cam-Phasing Optimization Using Artificial Neural Networks as Surrogate Models-Maximizing Torque Output

2005-10-24
2005-01-3757
Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) technology provides high potential in achieving high performance, low fuel consumption and pollutant reduction. However, more degrees of freedom impose a big challenge for engine characterization and calibration. In this study, a simulation based approach and optimization framework is proposed to optimize the setpoints of multiple independent control variables. Since solving an optimization problem typically requires hundreds of function evaluations, a direct use of the high-fidelity simulation tool leads to the unbearably long computational time. Hence, the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are trained with high-fidelity simulation results and used as surrogate models, representing engine's response to different control variable combinations with greatly reduced computational time. To demonstrate the proposed methodology, the cam-phasing strategy at Wide Open Throttle (WOT) is optimized for a dual-independent Variable Valve Timing (VVT) engine.
Technical Paper

Driver Workload for Rear-Vision Systems With Single Versus Multiple Display Locations

2005-04-11
2005-01-0445
Advances in camera and display technology have increased interest in using camera-based systems for all rear-vision functions. The flexibility of camera-based systems is unprecedented, and raises the possibility of providing drivers with fields of view that are very different from, and potentially much better than, those of conventional rearview mirrors. Current fields of view are based on a combination of driver needs and the practical constraints of mirror systems. In order to make the best use of the greater flexibility offered by cameras, a reassessment of drivers' needs for rear vision is needed. A full reassessment will require consideration of many factors. This paper offers a preliminary analysis of one of those factors: the visual workload involved in using rear-vision systems with single versus multiple displays.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Spray Cone Angle and Fuel Line Pressure in a Pressure-Swirl Injector Spray

2004-06-08
2004-01-1923
The transient cone angle of a pressure swirl spray from an injector for gasoline direct injection engines was measured from 2D Mie scattering images. Iso-octane was used as the fluid that was delivered at room temperature for two different static pressures, 5MPa and 8.5MPa. The iso-octane was injected into a chamber at room temperature and ambient pressure. After a rapid initial increase, the cone angle oscillates before stabilizing to a steady-state value very close to the nominal cone angle. The period of the oscillation was found to correlate well with oscillations measured in the fuel line pressure.
Technical Paper

Using Neural Networks to Compensate Altitude Effects on the Air Flow Rate in Variable Valve Timing Engines

2005-04-11
2005-01-0066
An accurate air flow rate model is critical for high-quality air-fuel ratio control in Spark-Ignition engines using a Three-Way-Catalyst. Emerging Variable Valve Timing technology complicates cylinder air charge estimation by increasing the number of independent variables. In our previous study (SAE 2004-01-3054), an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been used successfully to represent the air flow rate as a function of four independent variables: intake camshaft position, exhaust camshaft position, engine speed and intake manifold pressure. However, in more general terms the air flow rate also depends on ambient temperature and pressure, the latter being largely a function of altitude. With arbitrary cam phasing combinations, the ambient pressure effects in particular can be very complex. In this study, we propose using a separate neural network to compensate the effects of altitude on the air flow rate.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Redesign of Battery Handling using Jack™ and HUMOSIM Motions

2004-06-15
2004-01-2145
The evaluation of maintenance tasks is increasingly important in the design and redesign of many industrial operations including vehicles. The weight of subsystems can be extreme and often tools are developed to abate the ergonomic risks commonly associated with such tasks, while others are unfortunately overlooked. We evaluated a member of the family of medium-sized tactical vehicles (FMTV) and chose the battery handling from a list of previously addressed concerns regarding the vehicle. Particularly in larger vehicles, similar to those analyzed in this paper, batteries may exceed 35 kg (77 lbs). The motions required to remove these batteries were simulated using motion prediction modules from the Human Motion Simulation (HUMOSIM) laboratory at the University of Michigan. These motions were visualized in UGS PLM Solutions' Jack™ and analyzed with the embedded 3-D Static Strength Prediction program.
Technical Paper

An Innovative I-Bumper Concept for Improved Crashworthiness of Military and Commercial Vehicles

2008-04-14
2008-01-0512
The greatest demand facing the automotive industry has been to provide safer vehicles with high fuel efficiency at minimum cost. Current automotive vehicle structures have one fundamental handicap: a short crumple zone for crash energy absorption. This leaves limited room for further safety improvement, especially for high-speed crashes. Breakthrough technologies are needed. One potential breakthrough is to use active devices instead of conventional passive devices. An innovative inflatable bumper concept [1], called the “I-bumper,” is being developed by the authors for crashworthiness and safety of military and commercial vehicles. The proposed I-bumper has several active structural components, including a morphing mechanism, a movable bumper, two explosive airbags, and a morphing lattice structure with a locking mechanism that provides desired rigidity and energy absorption capability during a vehicular crash.
Technical Paper

Assessing the Fuel Economy Potential of Light-Duty Vehicles

2001-08-20
2001-01-2482
This paper assesses the potential for car and light truck fuel economy improvements by 2010-15. We examine a range of refinements to body systems and powertrain, reflecting current best practice as well as emerging technologies such as advanced engine and transmission, lightweight materials, integrated starter-generators, and hybrid drive. Engine options are restricted to those already known to meet upcoming California emissions standards. Our approach is to apply a state-of-art vehicle system simulation model to assess vehicle fuel economy gains and performance levels. We select a set of baseline vehicles representing five major classes - Small and Standard Cars, Pickup Trucks, SUVs and Minivans - and analyze design changes likely to be commercially viable within the coming decade. Results vary by vehicle type.
Technical Paper

A Generic Methodology for Chamber Flame Geometry Modeling

2000-10-16
2000-01-2797
Combustion flame geometry calculation is a critical task in the design and analysis of combustion engine chamber. Combustion flame directly influences the fuel economy, engine performance and efficiency. Currently, many of the flame geometry calculation methods assume certain specific chamber and piston top shapes and make some approximations to them. Even further, most methods can not handle multiple spark plug set-ups. Consequently, most of the current flame geometry calculation methods do not give accurate results and have some built-in limitations. They are particularly poor for adapting to any kind of new chamber geometry and spark plug set-up design. This report presents a novel methodology which allows the accurate calculation of flame geometry regardless of the chamber geometry and the number of spark plugs. In this methodology, solid models are used to represent the components within the chamber and unique attributes (colors) are attached respectively to these components.
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