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Technical Paper

Automotive Electronics: Trends and Challenges

2000-11-01
2000-01-C047
The car as a self-contained microcosm is undergoing radical changes due to the advances of electronic technology. We need to rethink what a "car'' really is and the role of electronics in it. Electronics is now essential to control the movements of a car, of the chemical and electrical processes taking place in it, to entertain the passengers, to establish connectivity with the rest of the world, to ensure safety. What will an automobile manufacturer's core competence become in the next few years? Will electronics be the essential element in car manufacturing and design? We will address some of these issues and we will present some important developments in the area of system design that can strongly impact the way in which a car is designed.
Technical Paper

Raison d'Être of Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Fuel for Automotive Powerplants

2004-03-08
2004-01-0788
The paper presents reportage of the debate on the topic expressed by its title that was held as a special session at the SAE 2003 Congress, supplemented by commentaries on its highlights. The debate brought to focus the fact that fuel cells are, indeed, superb powerplants for automobiles, while hydrogen is at the pinnacle of superiority as the most refined fuel. The problems that remained unresolved, are: (1) when fuel cells will be practically viable to replace internal combustion engines and (2) under what circumstances hydrogen, as the ultimate fuel, will be economically viable in view of its intrinsically high cost and hazards engendered by its extraordinary flammability and explosive tendency.
Technical Paper

Physiological Limits of Underpressure and Overpressure for Mechanical Counter Pressure Suits

2003-07-07
2003-01-2444
The first concept and early experiments of a mechanical counter pressure (MCP) spacesuit were published by Webb in the late 1960's. MCP provides an alternative approach to the conventional full pressure suit that bears some significant advantages, such as increased mobility, dexterity, and tactility. The presented ongoing research provides a thorough investigation of the physiological effect of mechanical counter pressure applied onto the human skin. In this study, we investigated local microcirculatory effects produced with negative and positive ambient pressure on the lower body as a preliminary study for a lower body garment. The data indicates that the positive pressure was less tolerable than negative pressure. Lower body negative and positive pressure cause various responses in skin blood flow due to not only blood shifts but also direct exposure to pressure differentials.
Technical Paper

Model for Control of Combustion in a Piston Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0401
Significant improvement of engine performance can be achieved by ushering in a micro-electronic system to control the execution of combustion - an exothermic process whose sole purpose is to generate pressure. Hence, the primary feedback for the controller is provided by a pressure transducer. The activators are piezo-electrically activated pintle valves of MEMS type. The task of the micro-electronic processor is to provide an accurate feed-forward signal for the actuators on the basis of the information obtained from the feedback signal, within a time interval between consecutive cycles. Furnished here for this purpose is an algorithm for an interface module between the pressure sensor and the governor. Concomitantly, the gains thus attainable in the reduction of fuel consumption and curtailment of pollutant formation are thereby assessed. The implementation of this method of approach is illustrated by application to a HCCI engine.
Technical Paper

Critical Issues in Quantifying Hybrid Electric Vehicle Emissions and Fuel Consumption

1998-08-11
981902
Quantifying Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) emissions and fuel consumption is a difficult problem for a number of different reasons: 1) HEVs can be configured in significantly different ways (e.g., series or parallel); 2) the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) can consist of a wide variety of engines, fuel types, and sizes; and 3) the APU can be operated very differently depending on the energy management system strategy and the type of driving that is performed (e.g., city vs. highway driving). With the future increase of HEV penetration in the vehicle fleet, there is an important need for government agencies and manufacturers to determine HEV emissions and fuel consumption. In this paper, several critical issues associated with HEV emissions and fuel consumption are identified and analyzed, using a sophisticated set of HEV and emission simulation modeling tools.
Technical Paper

Ambient Emission Measurements from Parked Regenerations of 2007 and 2010 Diesel Particulate Filters

2014-09-30
2014-01-2353
A novel ambient dilution tunnel has been designed, tested and employed to measure the emissions from active parked regenerations of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) for 2007 and 2010 certified heavy duty diesel trucks (HDDTs). The 2007 certified engine had greater regulated emissions than the 2010 certified engine. For a fully loaded 2007 DPF there was an initial period of very large mass emissions, which was then followed by very large number of small particle emissions. The Particle Size Distribution, PSD, was distributed over a large range from 10 nm to 10 μm. The parked regenerations of the 2010 DPF had a much lower initial emission pattern, but the second phase of large numbers of small particles was very similar to the 2007 DPF. The emission results during regeneration have been compared to total emissions from recent engine dynamometer testing of 2007 and 2010 DPFs, and they are much larger.
Technical Paper

Development and Testing of a ESM/PCM Heat Sink

2014-09-16
2014-01-2202
To meet pulse power mode component cooling application needs, we developed, fabricated and tested a concept to use energy storage material and phase change material to enhance the heat dissipation of a conventional heat sink. Test results demonstrated the ESM/PCM heat sink has unique thermal performance. Under the same working condition, the peak temperature of ESM/PCM heat sink is 1.5°C lower than of a conventional heat sink. An optimized design can lead to a significant weight reduction for the heat sink in applications with high peak load and low duty power cycle power.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Steering Performance Using Steering Rack Force Control

2019-04-02
2019-01-1234
Drivers continually require steering performance improvement, particularly in the area of feedback from the road. In this study, we develop a new electrically-assisted steering logic by 1) analyzing existing steering systems to determine key factors, 2) modeling an ideal steering system from which to obtain a desirable driver torque, 3) developing a rack force observer to faithfully represent road information and 4) building a feedback compensator to track the tuned torque. In general, the estimator uses the driver torque, assist torque and other steering system signals. However, the friction of the steering system is difficult to estimate accurately. At high speed, where steering feeling is very important, greater friction results in increased error. In order to solve this problem, we design two estimators generated from a vehicle model and a steering system model. The observer that uses two estimators can reflect various operating conditions by using the strengths of each method.
Technical Paper

Technical Findings from Automobile Impact Studies

1957-01-01
570011
AN engineering-oriented summary of the more significant technical findings derived from 12 automobile collision experiments conducted at impact speeds between 7 and 55 mph is presented here. Use of both human subjects and anthropometric dummy subjects facilitated procurement of critically needed data on human engineering aspects of collision injury minimization. An evaluation is made of four conditions of motorist restraint in terms of the force system applied to the motorist. Deceleration patterns, frame deformations, automobile impact analyses, and similar engineering data are given for several impact conditions. The instrumentation techniques for the collection of data in automobile collisions are briefly presented.
Technical Paper

Controlled Combustion Engines (CCE)

1999-03-01
1999-01-0324
The fact that, in our times, the execution of the exothermic process of combustion (‘heat release”) remains virtually uncontrolled is astonishing. Upon an attempt to rationalize this anomaly on historical grounds, technological means to rectify this astounding state of affairs are presented. They are based on the premise that, in the course of this process, the cylinder-piston enclosure is, in effect, a full-fledged chemical reactor. The salient feature of control is then active intervention into chemical reaction by turbulent jets. Principal elements of the control system are, as in any feedback mechanism, (1) sensors, (2) actuators and (3) a governor. The object of the first is to measure the profile of pressure - the useful output of the process. The second consists of a set of turbulent jet generators for injection of fuel and its mixing with air, as well as for ignition.
Technical Paper

Maximizing Direct-Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Vehicle Efficiency – Is Hybridization Necessary?

1999-03-01
1999-01-0530
The question of whether or not direct-hydrogen fuel cell systems in automotive applications should be used in load following or load leveled (battery hybrid) configurations is addressed. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses are performed to determine the potential strengths and weaknesses of each option. It is determined that the amount of energy that can be recovered through regenerative braking has a strong impact on the relative fuel economy of load following versus load leveled operation. Further, it is demonstrated that driving cycles with lower power requirements will show an improvement in vehicle fuel economy from hybridization while those with higher power requirements will not. Finally it is acknowledged that the practical considerations of cost and volume must also weigh heavily into the decision between the two configurations.
Technical Paper

Potential for Closed Loop Air-Fuel Ratio Management of a Diesel Engine

1999-03-01
1999-01-0517
The potential for improving the efficiency of a heavy duty turbocharged diesel engine by closed loop Air-Fuel Ratio (AFR) management has been evaluated. Testing conducted on a 12 liter diesel engine, and subsequent data evaluation, has established the feasibility of controlling the performance through electronic control of air management hardware. Furthermore, the feasibility of using direct in-cylinder pressure measurement for control feedback has been established. A compact and robust fiber optics sensor for measuring real time in-cylinder pressure has been demonstrated on a test engine. A preferred method for reducing the cylinder pressure data for control feedback has been established for continued development.
Technical Paper

Using μ Feedforward for Vehicle Stability Enhancement

2000-05-01
2000-01-1634
Vehicle stability augmentation has been refined over many years, and currently there are commercial systems that control right/left braking and throttle to create vehicles that remain controlled when road conditions are very poor. These systems typically use yaw rate and lateral acceleration in their control philosophy. The tire/road friction coefficient, μ, has a significant role in vehicle longitudinal and lateral control, and there has been associated efforts to measure or estimate the road surface condition to provide additional information for the stability augmentation system. In this paper, a differential braking control strategy using yaw rate feedback, coupled with μ feedforward is introduced for a vehicle cornering on different μ roads. A nonlinear 4-wheel car model is developed. A desired yaw rate is calculated from the reference model based on the driver steering input.
Technical Paper

Surface Acoustic Wave Microhygrometer

1997-07-01
972393
A microhygrometer has been developed at JPL's Microdevices Laboratory based on the principle of dewpoint/frostpoint detection. The surface acoustic wave device used in this instrument is approximately two orders of magnitude more sensitive to condensation than the optical sensor used in chilled-mirror hygrometers. In tests in the laboratory and on the NASA DC8, the SAW hygrometer has demonstrated more than an order of magnitude faster response than commercial chilled-mirror hygrometers, while showing comparable accuracy under steady-state conditions. Current development efforts are directed toward miniaturization and optimization of the microhygrometer electronics for flight validation experiments on a small radiosonde balloon.
Technical Paper

Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle: Dynamics Analysis

1997-02-24
970560
The Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle (VDTV) concept has been proposed as a tool to evaluate collision avoidance systems and to perform driving-related human factors research. The goal of this study is to analytically investigate to what extent a VDTV with adjustable front and rear anti-roll bar stiffnesses, programmable damping rates, and four-wheel-steering can emulate the lateral dynamics of a broad range of passenger vehicles. Using a selected compact-sized automobile as a baseline, our study indicated this baseline vehicle can be controlled to emulate the lateral response characteristics (including the vehicle's understeer coefficient and the 90% lateral acceleration rise time in a J-turn maneuver) of a fleet of production vehicles, from low to high lateral acceleration conditions.
Technical Paper

A Fuel Control Strategy that Optimizes the Efficiency of a Direct-Methanol Fuel Cell in an Automotive Application

1999-08-17
1999-01-2913
For automotive applications, it is necessary to maximize the fuel conversion efficiency of a PEM direct-methanol fuel cell (DMFC) over the broadest possible dynamic range of power. The research reported here critically examines the efficiency of the DMFC stack when operated over a broad power range. This research establishes a basis for a control strategy that simultaneously: optimizes DMFC fuel conversion efficiency versus power level, leads into a system level optimization of efficiency vs. power, and provides an operational strategy for controlling a direct-methanol fuel cell for maximum fuel efficiency from minimum to maximum power demand. First, there is an explanation of the experimental conditions used to obtain the DMFC experimental data that is reported and analyzed. Next the DMFC methanol crossover phenomenon is discussed and characterized. Then the conceptual framework for the optimization of fuel conversion efficiency is presented.
Technical Paper

A Comparison Between Direct-Methanol and Direct-Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

1999-08-17
1999-01-2914
For an automotive application of a fuel cell power system, it is important to maximize the fuel conversion efficiency, while also providing the required peak power levels for vehicle performance. This paper first compares the fuel conversion efficiency and power density of a state-of-the-art direct-methanol fuel cell (DMFC) with the equivalent parameters of a state-of-the-art direct-hydrogen fuel cell (DHFC). The cell level comparison is then extended to the system level for a potential ZEV automotive application. It is concluded that a DMFC-powered vehicle can become directly competitive with a DHFC-powered ZEV (Zero Emission Vehicle) in any localities or market niches where ZEVs are “a condition of doing business” as a vehicle manufacturer. Following a brief outline of the experimental conditions used to generate the DMFC data reported and analyzed in this paper, a technique for optimizing the conversion efficiency of a DMFC is briefly reviewed.
Journal Article

A Robust Stability Control System for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Equipped with Electric Rear Axle Drive

2016-04-05
2016-01-1649
Optimizing/maximizing regen braking in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is one of the key features for increasing fuel economy. However, it is known [1] that maximizing regen braking by braking the rear axle on a low friction surface results in compromising vehicle stability even in a vehicle which is equipped with an ESP (Enhanced Stability Program). In this paper, we develop a strategy to maximize regen braking without compromising vehicle stability. A yaw rate stability control system is designed for a hybrid electric vehicle with electric rear axle drive (ERAD) and a “hang on” center coupling device which can couple the front and rear axles for AWD capabilities. Nonlinear models of the ERAD drivetrain and vehicle are presented using bond graphs while a high fidelity model of the center coupling device is used for simulation.
Technical Paper

Easily Verifiable Adaptive Sliding Mode Controller Design with Application to Automotive Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0629
Verification and validation (V&V) are essential stages in the design cycle of industrial controllers to remove the gap between the designed and implemented controller. In this study, a model-based adaptive methodology is proposed to enable easily verifiable controller design based on the formulation of a sliding mode controller (SMC). The proposed adaptive SMC improves the controller robustness against major implementation imprecisions including sampling and quantization. The application of the proposed technique is demonstrated on the engine cold start emission control problem in a mid-size passenger car. The cold start controller is first designed in a single-input single-output (SISO) structure with three separate sliding surfaces, and then is redesigned based on a multiinput multi-output (MIMO) SMC design technique using nonlinear balanced realization.
Technical Paper

Recognizing Manipulated Electronic Control Units

2015-04-14
2015-01-0202
Combatting the modification of automotive control systems is a current and future challenge for OEMs and suppliers. ‘Chip-tuning’ is a manifestation of manipulation of a vehicle's original setup and calibration. With the increase in automotive functions implemented in software and corresponding business models, chip tuning will become a major concern. Recognizing and reporting of tuned control units in a vehicle is required for technical as well as legal reasons. This work approaches the problem by capturing the behavior of relevant control units within a machine learning system called a recognition module. The recognition module continuously monitors vehicle's sensor data. It comprises a set of classifiers that have been trained on the intended behavior of a control unit before the vehicle is delivered. When the vehicle is on the road, the recognition module uses the classifier together with current data to ascertain that the behavior of the vehicle is as intended.
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