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Technical Paper

Measurement of Diesel Spray Impingement and Fuel Film Characteristics Using Refractive Index Matching Method

2007-04-16
2007-01-0485
The fuel film thickness resulting from diesel fuel spray impingement was measured in a chamber at conditions representative of early injection timings used for low temperature diesel combustion. The adhered fuel volume and the radial distribution of the film thickness are presented. Fuel was injected normal to the impingement surface at ambient temperatures of 353 K, 426 K and 500 K, with densities of 10 kg/m3 and 25 kg/m3. Two injectors, with nozzle diameters of 100 μm and 120 μm, were investigated. The results show that the fuel film volume was strongly affected by the ambient temperature, but was minimally affected by the ambient density. The peak fuel film thickness and the film radius were found to increase with decreased temperature. The fuel film was found to be circular in shape, with an inner region of nearly constant thickness. The major difference observed with temperature was a decrease in the radial extent of the film.
Technical Paper

A Decoupled Model of Detailed Fluid Mechanics Followed by Detailed Chemical Kinetics for Prediction of Iso-Octane HCCI Combustion

2001-09-24
2001-01-3612
We have developed a methodology for predicting combustion and emissions in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine. The methodology judiciously uses a fluid mechanics code followed by a chemical kinetics code to achieve great reduction in the computational requirements; to a level that can be handled with current computers. In previous papers, our sequential, multi-zone methodology has been applied to HCCI combustion of short-chain hydrocarbons (natural gas and propane). Applying the same procedure to long-chain hydrocarbons (iso-octane) results in unacceptably long computational time. In this paper, we show how the computational time can be made acceptable by developing a segregated solver. This reduces the run time of a ten-zone problem by an order of magnitude and thus makes it much more practical to make combustion studies of long-chain hydrocarbons.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Based Automotive Auxiliary Power Unit

2002-03-04
2002-01-0413
The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system has emerged as an important technology for automotive and stationary applications. Modeling and simulation of the SOFC system have been utilized as an integral tool in an accelerated joint SOFC system development program. Development of unique modeling approaches and their results are discussed and compared with experimental performance. One dimensional system level analysis using Aspen with an embedded stack electrochemical model was performed resulting in effective sub-system partitioning and requirements definition. Further, a three-dimensional integrated electrochemical / thermal / computational fluid dynamics analysis of steady-state operation was employed. The combination of one-dimensional and three-dimensional environments led to effective performance projection at all levels in the system, resulting in optimization of overall system performance early in the design cycle.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Direct Injection-Gasoline for Premixed Compression Ignited Combustion Phasing Control

2002-03-04
2002-01-0418
A direct injection-gasoline (DI-G) system was applied to a heavy-duty diesel-type engine to study the effects of charge stratification on the performance of premixed compression ignited combustion. The effects of the fuel injection parameters on combustion phasing were of primary interest. The simultaneous effects of the fuel stratification on Unburned Hydrocarbon (UHC), Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), Carbon Monoxide (CO), and smoke emissions were also measured. Engine tests were conducted with altered injection parameters covering the entire load range of normally aspirated Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignited (HCCI) combustion. Combustion phasing tests were also conducted at several engine speeds to evaluate its effects on a fuel stratification strategy.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Lift-Off Characteristics of n-Heptane Sprays Using Direct Numerical Simulations

2007-10-29
2007-01-4136
Fundamental simulations using DNS type procedures were used to investigate the ignition, combustion characteristics and the lift-off trends of a spatially evolving turbulent liquid fuel jet. In particular, the spatially evolving n-Heptane spray injected in a two-dimensional rectangular domain with an engine like environment was investigated. The computational results were compared to the experimental observations from an optical engine as reported in the literature. It was found that an initial fuel rich combustion downstream of the spray tip is followed by diffusion combustion. Investigations were also made to understand the effects of injection velocity, ambient temperature and the droplet radius on the lift-off length. For each of these parameters three different values in a given range were chosen. For both injection velocity and droplet radius, an increase resulted in a near linear increase in the lift-off length.
Technical Paper

A Transient Heat Transfer System for Research Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-0975
An ongoing goal of the Powertrain Control Research Laboratory (PCRL) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison has been to expand and improve the ability of the single cylinder internal combustion research engine to represent its multi-cylinder engine counterpart. To date, the PCRL single cylinder engine test system is able to replicate both the rotational dynamics (SAE #2004-01-0305) and intake manifold dynamics (SAE #2006-01-1074) of a multi cylinder engine using a single cylinder research engine. Another area of interest is the replication of multi-cylinder engine cold start emissions data with a single-cylinder engine test system. For this replication to occur, the single-cylinder engine must experience heat transfer to the engine coolant as if it were part of a multi-cylinder engine, in addition to the other multi-cylinder engine transient effects.
Technical Paper

Initial Estimation of the Piston Ring Pack Contribution to Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Small Engine

2007-10-29
2007-01-4014
The contribution to the engine-out hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from fuel that escapes the main combustion event in piston ring crevices was estimated for an air-cooled, V-twin utility engine. The engine was run with a homogeneous pre-vaporized mixture system that avoids the presence of liquid films in the cylinder, and their resulting contribution to the HC emissions. A simplified ring pack gas flow model was used to estimate the ring pack contribution to HC emissions; the model was tested against the experimentally measured blowby. At high load conditions the model shows that the ring pack returns to the cylinder a mass of HC that exceeds that observed in the exhaust, and thus, is the dominant contributor to HC emissions. At light loads, however, the model predicts less HC mass returned from the ring pack than is observed in the exhaust. Time-resolved HC measurements were performed and used to assess the effect of combustion quality on HC emissions.
Technical Paper

A Co-Simulation Environment for Virtual Prototyping of Ground Vehicles

2007-10-30
2007-01-4250
The use of virtual prototyping early in the design stage of a product has gained popularity due to reduced cost and time to market. The state of the art in vehicle simulation has reached a level where full vehicles are analyzed through simulation but major difficulties continue to be present in interfacing the vehicle model with accurate powertrain models and in developing adequate formulations for the contact between tire and terrain (specifically, scenarios such as tire sliding on ice and rolling on sand or other very deformable surfaces). The proposed work focuses on developing a ground vehicle simulation capability by combining several third party packages for vehicle simulation, tire simulation, and powertrain simulation. The long-term goal of this project consists in promoting the Digital Car idea through the development of a reliable and robust simulation capability that will enhance the understanding and control of off-road vehicle performance.
Technical Paper

Piston-Liner Crevice Geometry Effect on HCCI Combustion by Multi-Zone Analysis

2002-10-21
2002-01-2869
A multi-zone model has been developed that accurately predicts HCCI combustion and emissions. The multi-zone methodology is based on the observation that turbulence does not play a direct role on HCCI combustion. Instead, chemical kinetics dominates the process, with hotter zones reacting first, and then colder zones reacting in rapid succession. Here, the multi-zone model has been applied to analyze the effect of piston crevice geometry on HCCI combustion and emissions. Three different pistons of varying crevice size were analyzed. Crevice sizes were 0.26, 1.3 and 2.1 mm, while a constant compression ratio was maintained (17:1). The results show that the multi-zone model can predict pressure traces and heat release rates with good accuracy. Combustion efficiency is also predicted with good accuracy for all cases, with a maximum difference of 5% between experimental and numerical results.
Technical Paper

Use of Fuzzy Logic in Wheel Slip Assignment - Part II: Yaw Rate Control with Sideslip Angle Limitation

2002-03-04
2002-01-1220
This paper is an extension to the work presented in part I [1]. The control objective is still the same - use a logic based control design technique to assign a wheel slip, λ, to each corner of a vehicle, to track overall desired vehicle dynamics. As in part I, a fuzzy logic based controller is the primary control, with additional logic to select the inside/outside classifiers for the wheels. In part I, only the reduction of yaw rate error, e, was considered. It was shown that, although the overall system had satisfactory performance, there was slight deteriorization in the tracking performance when trying to compensate through a significant vehicle sideslip angle, β. In this paper, additional logic is introduced into the control to limit the vehicle sideslip angle, β; thus, allowing for a more robust desired yaw rate, Ωd, tracking control performance. The emergency lane change maneuver is simulated to show the effectiveness of the redesigned control.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Vehicle Stability with Engine Drag Control

2002-03-04
2002-01-1217
This paper describes the development and implementation of an Engine Drag Control algorithm to improve vehicle stability performance. Engine drag can occur on low and high coefficient surfaces when the driver suddenly releases the throttle. If the engine drag force becomes larger than the frictional force between the tire and the road, the tires will break loose from the surface and slip. This could induce vehicle instability especially with rear drive vehicles on low-coefficient surfaces. The EDC algorithm has been developed to provide accurate control of the wheels. EDC will help reduce the yaw rate of the vehicle and thus achieve greater vehicle stability. The paper also presents methods used to test the robustness of such a system. The purpose of the testing was to ensure that there would be no false activations of EDC under normal driving conditions and also to ensure that, when the system is active, it is mostly transparent to the driver.
Technical Paper

Single Crystal Silicon Low-g Acceleration Sensor

2002-03-04
2002-01-1080
A single-crystal silicon capacitive acceleration sensor for low-g applications has been developed. The sensor element itself is formed entirely from single crystal silicon, giving it exceptional stability over time and temperature and excellent shock resistance. The sensor is produced using low-cost, high volume processing, test and calibration. The sensor integrated circuit (IC) contains a proofmass which moves in response to applied accelerations. The position of the proofmass is capacitively detected and processed by an interface IC. The sensor/interface IC system is packaged in a small outline IC (SOIC) package for printed circuit board mounting. The module is designed to measure full scale accelerations in the 0.75g to 3g range to suit a variety of automotive, industrial and consumer applications
Technical Paper

Implications of 3-D Internal Flow Simulation on the Design of Inward-Opening Pressure-Swirl Injectors

2002-10-21
2002-01-2698
A parametric study on the effects of critical injector design parameters of inwardly-opening pressure-swirl injectors was carried out using 3-D internal flow simulations. The pressure variation and the integrated momentum flux across the injector, as well as the flow distributions and turbulence structure at the nozzle exit were analyzed. The critical flow effects on the injector design identified are the swirler efficiency, discharge coefficient, and turbulence breakup effects on the spray structure. The study shows that as a unique class of injectors, pressure-swirl injectors is complicated in fluid mechanics and not sufficiently characterized or optimized. The swirler efficiency is characterized in terms of the trade-off relationship between the swirl-to-axial momentum-flux ratio and pressure drop across the swirler. The results show that swirl number is inversely proportional to discharge coefficient, and that hole diameter and swirler height is the most dominant parameters.
Technical Paper

Transient Simulation of DGI Engine Injector with Needle Movement

2002-10-21
2002-01-2663
Utilization of direct injection systems is one of the most promising technologies for fuel economy improvement for SI engine powered passenger cars. Engine performance is essentially influenced by the characteristics of the injection equipment. This paper will present CFD analyses of a swirl type GDI injector carried out with the Multiphase Module of AVL's FIRE/SWIFT CFD code. The simulations considered three phases (liquid fuel, fuel vapor, air) and mesh movement. Thus the transient behavior of the injector can be observed. The flow phenomena known from measurement and shown by previous simulation work [2, 7, 10, 11] were reproduced. In particular the simulations shown in this paper could explain the cause for the outstanding atomization characteristics of the swirl type injector, which are caused by cavitation in the nozzle hole.
Technical Paper

The BRAKE Project - Centralized Versus Distributed Redundancy for Brake-by-Wire Systems

2002-03-04
2002-01-0266
This paper presents the objectives and preliminary results of the BRAKE project - a joint effort of Delphi Automotive Systems, Infineon Technologies, Volvo Car Corporation and WindRiver. The objective of this project is to use microelectronics technologies to design a distributed Brake-by-Wire system including: A distributed fault tolerant system for enhanced safety An extension of the OSEK based operating system for a distributed time triggered architecture An open interface between vehicle control, and brake system control The results comprise the requirements, interface specification (see [1]), a full simulation model, a hardware-in-the-loop bench, and a demonstration vehicle. The application has been developed using advanced automatic code generation for Infineon's TriCore based automotive microcontrollers.
Technical Paper

Open-Interface Definitions for Automotive Systems1 Application to a Brake by Wire System

2002-03-04
2002-01-0267
Today automotive system suppliers develop more-or-less independent systems, such as brake, power steering and suspension systems. In the future, car manufacturers like Volvo will build up vehicle control systems combining their own algorithms with algorithms provided by automotive system suppliers. Standardization of interfaces to actuators, sensors and functions is an important enabler for this vision and will have major consequences for functionality, prices and lead times, and thus affects both vehicle manufacturers and automotive suppliers. The investigation of the level of appropriate interfaces, as part of the European BRAKE project, is described here. Potential problems and consequences are discussed from both a technical and a business perspective. This paper provides a background on BRAKE and on the functional decomposition upon which the interface definitions are based. Finally, the interface definitions for brake system functionality are given.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Vaporizing Continuous Multi-Component Fuel Sprays in a Port Fuel Injection Gasoline Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1231
Vaporization models for continuous multi-component liquid sprays and liquid wall films are presented using a continuous thermodynamics formulation. The models were implemented in the KIVA3V-Release 2.0 code. The models are first applied to clarify the characteristics of vaporizing continuous multi-component liquid wall films and liquid drops, and then applied to numerically analyze a practical continuous multi-component fuel - gasoline behavior in a 4-valve port fuel injection (PFI) gasoline engine under warm conditions. Corresponding computations with single-component fuels are also performed and presented for comparison purposes. As compared to the results of its single-component counterpart, the vaporizing continuous multi-component fuel drop displays a larger vaporization rate initially and a smaller vaporization rate as it becomes more and more dominated by heavy species.
Technical Paper

Development of a Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor Electrical Model for Optimum NOx Removal Performance

2000-10-16
2000-01-2893
A double dielectric barrier discharge reactor driven by an alternating voltage is a relatively simple approach to promote oxidation of NO to NO2 for subsequent reduction in a catalyst bed. The chemical performance of such a non-thermal plasma reactor is determined by its current and electric field behavior in the gap, and by the fraction of the current carried by electrons, because the key reactants which initiate the NO oxidation and accompanying chemical changes are produced there, mostly by electron impact. We have tried to determine by models and experiments the bounds on performance of double dielectric barrier reactors and guidelines for optimization. Models reported here predict chemical results from time-resolved applied voltage and series sense capacitor data.
Technical Paper

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit - A Paradigm Shift in Electric Supply for Transportation

2000-11-01
2000-01-C070
Delphi Automotive Systems and BMW have been jointly developing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology for application in the transportation industry primarily as an on-board Auxiliary Power Unit (APU). In the first application of this joint program, the APU will be used to power an electric air conditioning system without the need for operating the vehicle engine. The SOFC-based APU technology has the potential to provide a paradigm shift in the supply of electric power for passenger cars. Furthermore, supplementing the conventional fuel with reformate in the internal combustion engine, extremely low emissions and high system efficiencies are possible. This is consistent with the increasing power demands in automobiles in the new era of more comfort and safety along with environmental friendliness.
Technical Paper

Smart Sensors for Future Robust Systems

2000-11-01
2000-01-C055
"Smart'' sensor concepts must be considered as the demands of advanced automotive systems increase. These concepts are strongly influenced by the architectural and dependability aspects of future systems. Key features of smart sensors are: communication (two way) with a digital data bus, self- calibration, error source compensation, self-diagnostics, and programmability for "plug and play.'' This paper contains a discussion of the basic future sensor requirements, and it assesses four major sensor technologies with respect to their suitability to meet these requirements. For each technology, the merits and demerits will be reviewed and an example sensing application will be given in order to demonstrate how the technology can be adapted to meet the future requirements.
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