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Technical Paper

2D Mapping and Quantification of the In-Cylinder Air/Fuel-Ratio in a GDI Engine by Means of LIF and Comparison to Simultaneous Results from 1D Raman Measurements

The optimization of the vaporization and mixture formation process is of great importance for the development of modern gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, because it influences the subsequent processes of the ignition, combustion and pollutant formation significantly. In consequence, the subject of this work was the development of a measurement technique based on the laser induced exciplex fluorescence (LIF), which allows the two dimensional visualization and quantification of the in-cylinder air/fuel ratio. A tracer concept consisting of benzene and triethylamine dissolved in a non-fluorescent base fuel has been used. The calibration of the equivalence ratio proportional LIF-signal was performed directly inside the engine, at a well known mixture composition, immediately before the direct injection measurements were started.
Technical Paper

Visualization of the Qualitative Fuel Distribution and Mixture Formation Inside a Transparent GDI Engine with 2D Mie and LIEF Techniques and Comparison to Quantitative Measurements of the Air/Fuel Ratio with 1D Raman Spectroscopy

Mie-Scattering and laser induced exciplex fluorescence (LIEF) were used to visualize the distribution of liquid fuel and fuel vapor inside an optical accessible one-cylinder research engine with gasoline direct injection (GDI). Using a tracer which was developed especially for the environments of gasoline combustion engines, LIEF enables an extensive separation between liquid and vapor phase and delivers a signal proportional to the equivalence ratio. Simultaneous images of LIEF and Mie scattering proof the high quality of the phase separation using this tracer concept. The mixture formation process will be shown exemplary at one operation point with homogeneous load and another with stratified load. First results of determining the air/fuel ratio by means of linear Raman spectroscopy will be presented and compared with the two-dimensional qualitative distribution of the fuel vapor (LIEF).
Technical Paper

Determination of the Gas-Phase Temperature in the Vaporizing Spray of a GDI-Injector Using Pure Rotational CARS

Detailed experimental investigation of fuel sprays are of utmost importance for the development of appropriate injection systems for gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. A number of laser based techniques have been developed to study the spray formation. The temperature of the gas phase surrounding the fuel droplets was not accessible up to now. In this work for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, gas-phase temperatures were measured within the vaporizing spray of a high pressure GDI injector using pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS). Results from an isooctane fuel spray of a multi-hole injector in a heated injection chamber are presented with the probe volume located at a distance of 70mm downstream the injector nozzle in the centre of the spray cone.
Technical Paper

Vapor-Phase Structures of Diesel-Type Fuel Sprays: An Experimental Analysis

The vapor phase of an evaporating spray from a heavy-duty Diesel common-rail injection system has been investigated with an optical diagnostic technique based on linear Raman scattering, which has been extended to the application in fuel sprays. One-dimensional spatially resolved Raman measurements of the air/fuel-ratio have been performed in the spray region with high local and temporal resolution in an injection chamber at an air pressure of 4.5 MPa and at a temperature of 450°C. The influence of different parameters, such as rail pressure, nozzle geometry and injection duration on the temporal evolution of the local air/fuel-ratio in the vapor phase has been studied quantitatively, and results from a selected spatial location are compared. Furthermore, the effect of physical/chemical fuel properties on the evaporation dynamics has been investigated by performing measurements with two different fuels.
Technical Paper

Gasoline: Influence of Fuel-Oxygen on NOx-Emissions

Nitric oxides are the key pollutants emitted from SI engines today. In the work presented, the effect of different fuel-components on the NOx-emission of a four stroke SI engine and cross connections between different fuel properties were investigated in front of and behind the catalyst and compared to investigations described in literature. For the investigation presented a variety of different fuels has been produced. The content of aromatics, olefins, oxygen and the mid-range volatility has been changed systematically while only fuels with a good driveability were included in the investigation. The NOx-emission of 17 fuels tested was measured in front of and behind the catalyst. The tests were carried out with a single cylinder test engine using a constant air/fuel ratio.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Two Injectors by LIF with Respect to Mixture Formation and Combustion Inside the Cylinder of a Transparent SI Engine

Two different types of fuel injectors - a plate-type two-jet injector and a full-cone single-jet injector - have been applied to a fired four-valve SI engine with optical access. While the two-jet injector is optimized for the employed engine, the single jet injector leads to fuel wall film deposition inside the intake. As a third variation, an already vaporized and ideally premixed fuel / air mixture was fed to the engine. The three different types of mixture formation initially generate different local air / fuel ratios inside the cylinder, but 30° CA before TDC the distributions seem to be equal and nearly homogeneous. Nevertheless, the combustion process is different and the exhaust gas composition indicates that differences must be present, which will be discussed. Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) was used to compare the fuel vapor distributions and the fluctuations of the fuel concentration during intake and compression inside the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Characteristics and Application of Gasoline Injectors to SI Engines by Means of Measured Liquid Fuel Distributions

The spray formation of two different gasoline port fuel injectors has been studied in three stages of the mixture formation process using measured liquid fuel distributions. The injector characteristics were determined in fundamental chamber experiments providing the time dependent spray penetration and the internal structure of the spray in quiescent air by a laser light sheet technique. For the sane injectors the interaction between port flow and spray was investigated inside the port of a production engine. A strong dependence of the fuel distribution inside the port on the engine operation point was found for both injectors. This fuel distribution provides information on wall film generation and the optimum orientation of the injector inside the suction pipe.
Technical Paper

Optical Investigations on Partially Premixed Diesel Combustion for Different Operating Parameters

Combustion processes with partially or fully premixed cylinder load combined with self-ignition provide high combustion efficiency and low emissions of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and particulate matter at the same time. Since the number of diesel operated passenger cars is still rising, it would be interesting, if such a combustion concept can be realized in an ordinary DI-Diesel engine which is operated with conventional diesel fuel. In this study, the influence of nozzle geometry, Tintake, pTDC and injection timing on the functioning chain of combustion was analyzed in a transparent single-cylinder diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system by means of optical measurement techniques. Simultaneously, different optical diagnostics (laser-based and non laser-based) were used to study the fuel distribution, ignition and combustion in the combustion chamber of the optically accessible diesel engine. The liquid fuel was visualized by Mie scattering at 532nm.
Technical Paper

Locally Resolved Measurement of Gas-Phase Temperature and EGR-Ratio in an HCCI-Engine and Their Influence on Combustion Timing

Laser-based measurements of charge temperature and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ratio in an homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine are demonstrated. For this purpose, the rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy technique (CARS) was used. This technique allows temporally and locally resolved measurements in combustion environments through only two small line-of-sight optical accesses and the use of standard gasoline as a fuel. The investigated engine is a production-line four-cylinder direct-injection gasoline engine with the valve strategy modified to realize HCCI-operation. CARS-measurements were performed in motored and fired operation and the results are compared to polytropic calculations. Studies of engine speed, load, valve timing, and injection pressure were conducted showing the strong influence of charge temperature on the combustion timing.
Journal Article

Pilot Injection Ignition Properties Under Low-Temperature, Dilute In-Cylinder Conditions

Measurements of ignition behavior, homogeneous reactor simulations employing detailed kinetics, and quantitative in-cylinder imaging of fuel-air distributions are used to delineate the impact of temperature, dilution, pilot injection mass, and injection pressure on the pilot ignition process. For dilute, low-temperature conditions characterized by a lengthy ignition delay, pilot ignition is impeded by the formation of excessively lean mixture. Under these conditions, smaller pilot mass or higher injection pressures further lengthen the pilot ignition delay. Similarly, excessively rich mixtures formed under relatively short ignition delay conditions typical of conventional diesel combustion will also prolong the ignition delay. In this latter case, smaller pilot mass or higher injection pressures will shorten the ignition delay. The minimum charge temperature required to effect a robust pilot ignition event is strongly dependent on charge O2 concentration.
Technical Paper

Self-Ignition Calculation of Diesel Spray

This paper describes a computer simulation of Diesel spray formation and the locations of self-ignition nuclei. The spray is divided into small elementary volumes in which the amounts of fuel and fuel vapours, air, mean, maximum and minimum fuel droplet diameter are calculated, as well as their number. The total air-fuel and air-fuel vapour ratios are calculated for each elementary volume. The paper introduces a new criterion for determining self-ignition nuclei, based on assumptions that the strongest self-ignition probability lies in those elementary volumes containing the stoichiometric air ratio, where the fuel is evaporated or the fuel droplet diameter is equal to or lower than 0.0065 mm. The most efficient combustion in regard to consumption and emission will be in those elementary volumes containing stoichiometric air ratio, and fuel droplets with the lowest mean diameters. Measurements of injection and combustion were carried out in a transparent research engine.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Interaction of Charge Motion and Residual Gas Concentration in an Optically Accessible SI Engine

In spark-ignition engines, high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates have demonstrated their potential in reducing fuel consumption and emissions. However, irregular combustion at high residual gas concentrations limits the EGR rates. The following study presents a strategy that has been developed to investigate the influence of complex charge motion on mixture formation and combustion for high residual gas concentrations with the aim of extending these limits. An optically accessible single-cylinder SI Engine with direct injection was used to measure the charge distribution by means of laser induced fluorescence (LIF). A special device inside the inlet pipe gave the possibility to generate a defined swirl motion overlaying a tumble motion given by the design of the inlet ports.
Technical Paper

Influence of the fuel quantity on the spray formation and ignition under current engine relevant conditions

Flexible and multiple injections are an important strategy to fulfill today's exhaust emission regulations. To optimize injection processes with an increasing number of adjustable parameters knowledge about the basic mechanisms of spray breakup, propagation, evaporation and ignition is mandatory. In the present investigation the focus is set on spray formation and ignition. In order to simulate current diesel-engine conditions measurements were carried out in a high-temperature (1000 K) and high-pressure (10 MPa) vessel with optical accesses. A piezo servo-hydraulic injector pressurized up to 200 MPa was used to compare four single injection durations and four multi-injection patterns in the ignition phase. All measurements were performed with CEC RF-03-06, a legislative reference fuel. For the spray measurements, a program of 16 to 18 different operating points was chosen to simulate engine conditions from cold start to full load.
Journal Article

Investigation of Fuel Effects on Spray Atomization and Evaporation Studied for a Multi-hole DISI Injector with a Late Injection Timing

The influence of fuel composition on sprays was studied in an injection chamber at DISI conditions with late injection timing. Fuels with high, mid and low volatility (n-hexane, n-heptane, n-decane) and a 3-component mixture with similar fuel properties like gasoline were investigated. The injection conditions were chosen to model suppressed or rapid evaporation. Mie scattering imaging and phase Doppler anemometry were used to investigate the liquid spray structure. A spray model was set up applying the CFD-Code OpenFOAM. The atomization was found to be different for n-decane that showed a smaller average droplet size due to viscosity dependence of injected mass. And for evaporating conditions, a stratification of the vapor components in the 3-component fuel spray was observed.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Internal flow and Spray of Multihole DI Gasoline Spray using X-ray Imaging and CFD

Multi-hole DI injectors are being adopted in the advanced downsized DISI ICE powertrain in the automotive industry worldwide because of their robustness and cost-performance. Although their injector design and spray resembles those of DI diesel injectors, there are many basic but distinct differences due to different injection pressure and fuel properties, the sac design, lower L/D aspect ratios in the nozzle hole, closer spray-to-spray angle and hense interactions. This paper used Phase-Contrast X ray techniques to visualize the spray near a 3-hole DI gasoline research model injector exit and compared to the visible light visualization and the internal flow predictions using with multi-dimensional multi-phase CFD simulations. The results show that strong interactions of the vortex strings, cavitation, and turbulence in and near the nozzles make the multi-phase turbulent flow very complicated and dominate the near nozzle breakup mechanisms quite unlike those of diesel injections.