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Technical Paper

Study on Steering Effort Preference of Drivers Based on Driving Simulator

2007-08-05
2007-01-3575
This paper presents a study on steering effort preference of Chinese drivers based on ADSL Driving Simulator. The results of the simulation test demonstrates that Chinese drivers' steering effort preference increases with vehicle speed, which is similar to European and Japanese drivers', but the mean preference effort level itself is lower than that of European and Japanese drivers' and this same steering effort preference increases obviously with lateral acceleration in linear region (lateral acceleration level lower than 0.3g) while not as evidently in nonlinear region (lateral acceleration level higher than 0.3g).
Technical Paper

A Driver Direction Control Model and its Application in the Simulation of Driver-Vehicle-Road Closed-Loop System

2000-06-06
2000-01-2184
The research of driver behavior characteristics has been a focus of vehicle handling and stability performance. With the driver preview effort, many different driver preview models of direction control have been proposed and the simulations of driver-vehicle-road closed-loop system made. But in the simulation, most of the conventional models have the same precondition that the road was simply described as a pre-given preview course. How to simulate the driver dynamically deciding vehicle preview course based on the real road circumstance is the key to the further research of the driver model. In this paper, a new driver direction control model is established, which is called the Optimal Preview Lateral Acceleration (OPLA) Model and divided into three sub-models: driver’s information identification model, driver’s fuzzy decision model of vehicle preview course and driver’s performance first-order correction model.
Technical Paper

Numerical Achieved Extended Kalman Filter State Observer Design Based on a Vehicle Model Containing UniTire Model

2008-06-23
2008-01-1783
It is difficult to obtain state variables accurately or economically while vehicle is moving, however these state variables are significant for chassis control. Although many researches have been done, a complex model always leads to a control system with poor real-time performance, while simple model cannot show the real characteristics. So, in order to estimate the value of yaw rate and side slip angle accurately and sententiously, an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) observer is proposed, which is based on an ameliorated 2-DOF “bicycle model”. The EKF algorithm is achieved numerically and verified by the results from the real field test.
Journal Article

Fault-Tolerant Control for 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicle Based on EKF and SMC

2015-09-29
2015-01-2846
This paper presents a fault-tolerant control (FTC) algorithm for four-wheel independently driven and steered (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicle. The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) algorithm is utilized in the fault detection (FD) module so as to estimate the in-wheel motor parameters, which could detect parameter variations caused by in-wheel motor fault. A motion controller based on sliding mode control (SMC) is able to compute the generalized forces/moments to follow the desired vehicle motion. By considering the tire adhesive limits, a reconfigurable control allocator optimally distributes the generalized forces/moments among healthy actuators so as to minimize the tire workloads once the actuator fault is detected. An actuator controller calculates the driving torques of the in-wheel motors and steering angles of the wheels in order to finally achieve the distributed tire forces. If one or more in-wheel motors lose efficacy, the FD module diagnoses the actuator failures first.
Technical Paper

Integrated HIL Test and Development System for Pneumatic ABS/EBS ECU of Commercial Vehicles

2012-09-24
2012-01-2031
The quality of the brake system is a significant safety factor in commercial vehicles on the roads. With the development of automobile technology, the single function ABS system didn't meet active safety requirements of the user. The Electronically Controlled Brake System (EBS) system will replace the ABS system to become the standard safety equipment of commercial vehicles in the near future. EBS can be said an enhanced ABS system, it contains load sensor, brake valve sensor and pressure sensor of chamber, etc, and it is more advantages than ABS. This paper describes a flexible integrated test bench for ABS/EBS Electronic Control Unit (ECU) based on Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulation technique. It consists of most commercial vehicle pneumatic braking system components (from brake pedal valve, brake caliper to brake chambers), and uses the dSPACE real-time simulation system to communicate to the hardware I/O interface.
Technical Paper

Design, Development and Application of Test Bench for Electrically Controlled Steering Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-0702
This essay aims to develop an electrically controlled steering test bench and lay a solid foundation for the development of steering system. The first part mainly introduces the function, structure and working principle of the test bench. For the hardware system, it includes the steering system, fixture, sensors as well as a frameless disk motor for carrying out automatic motor input, and a dual linear motor system selected as the road resistance simulation actuator. As for the software, MATLAB/Simulink, CarSim, RTI and ControlDesk are used. Therefore, with the help of real-time simulation platform, researchers can not only build control strategy and dynamic model but also control the experiment and tune parameters in real-time. The second part of the essay aims to identify both electric and mechanical parameters of R-EPS system by carrying out tests on the proposed test bench. As parameters are successfully identified, the feasibility of the test bench is also verified.
Technical Paper

Research on a Novel Electro-Hydraulic Brake System and Pressure Control Strategy

2018-04-03
2018-01-0764
Based on the research and analysis of the current brake systems, this paper presents a novel electro-hydraulic brake system, which can better meet the functional requirements. The system mainly contains a master cylinder, two brake hydraulic cylinders and drive motors, two transmission mechanisms, thirteen solenoid valves, pedal force simulator, etc. Since the proposed brake system uses a dual motor along with two brake hydraulic cylinders, it has advantages in providing fast pressure response, flexible working modes, high precision and strong fault tolerance. In order to facilitate the study of pressure control algorithm for the proposed brake system, a mathematical model of the brake system is firstly established, then a multiplexed time-division pressure control algorithm is proposed to realize the simultaneous or partially simultaneous pressure control, which ensures the high precision and short response time.
Journal Article

Design and Position Control of a Novel Electric Brake Booster

2018-04-03
2018-01-0812
The electric vehicles and the intelligent vehicles put forward to new requirements for the brake system, such as the vacuum-independent braking, automatic or active braking, and regenerative braking, which are the key link for the vehicle’s safety and economy. However, the traditional vacuum brake booster is no longer able to meet these requirements. In this article, a novel integrated power-assisted actuator of brake system is proposed to satisfy the brake system requirements of the electric vehicles and intelligent vehicles. The electronic brake booster system is designed to achieve the function of boosting pedal force of driver, being independent on vacuum source, supplying autonomous or active braking. It is mainly composed of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), a two-stage reduction transmission (gears and a ball screw), a servo body, and a reaction disk. The scheme design and power-assisted braking control are the key for the electronic actuator.
Technical Paper

Research on Closed-Loop Comprehensive Evaluation Method of Vehicle Handling and Stability

2000-03-06
2000-01-0694
A closed-loop comprehensive evaluation and a test method for vehicle handling and stability have been studied by using development driving simulator. Simulator test scheme has been designed and carried out with 14 vehicle configurations, and subjective evaluation has been made for easy handling of vehicle by drivers. A closed-loop comprehensive evaluation index has been put forward considering the factors affecting vehicle handling and stability. The reliability of the index has been validated by driver's subjective evaluation. A driver/vehicle/ road closed-loop system model has been established, and the theoretical predictive evaluation has been carried out with 14 vehicle configurations. Simulation showed that similar result for both theoretical predictive evaluation and subjective evaluation.
Journal Article

Function-Based Architecture Design for Next-Generation Automotive Brake Controls

2016-04-05
2016-01-0467
This paper presents a unified novel function-based brake control architecture, which is designed based on a top-down approach with functional abstraction and modularity. The proposed control architecture includes a commands interpreter module, including a driver commands interpreter to interpret driver intention, and a command integration to integrate the driver intention with senor-guided active driving command, state observers for estimation of vehicle sideslip, vehicle speed, tire lateral and longitudinal slips, tire-road friction coefficient, etc., a commands integrated control allocation module which aims to generate braking force and yaw moment commands and provide optimal distribution among four wheels without body instability and wheel lock or slip, a low-level control module includes four wheel pressure control modules, each of which regulates wheel pressure by fast and accurate tracking commanded wheel pressure.
Technical Paper

Combined State Estimation and Active Fault Detection of Individual-Wheel-Drive Vehicles: An Adaptive Observer-Based Approach

2015-04-14
2015-01-1107
This paper presents an adaptive observer-based approach for the combined state estimation and active fault detection and isolation (FDI) of the individual-wheel-drive (IWD) vehicles. A 3-DOF vehicle model coupled with the Highway Safety Research Institute (HSRI) tire model is established and used as the observation model. Based on this model, the dual unscented Kalman filter (DUKF) technique is employed for the observer design to give fusion results of the interdependent state and parameter variables, which undergo nonlinear transformations, with the minimum square errors. Effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is examined and validated through co-simulation between MATLAB/Simulink and CarSim. The results demonstrate that the DUKF-based observer effectively filters the sensor signals, accurately obtains the longitudinal and lateral velocities, explicitly isolates the faulty wheel(s) and accurately estimates the actual torque(s) even with the presence of noise.
Technical Paper

Detection and Tracking Algorithm of Front Vehicle Based on Laser Radar

2015-04-14
2015-01-0307
Nowadays active collision avoidance has become a major focus of research, and a variety of detection and tracking methods of obstacles in front of host vehicle have been applied to it. In this paper, laser radars are chosen as sensors to obtain relevant information, after which an algorithm used to detect and track vehicles in front is provided. The algorithm determines radar's ROI (Region of Interest), then uses a laser radar to scan the 2D space so as to obtain the information of the position and the distance of the targets which could be determined as obstacles. The information obtained will be filtered and then be transformed into cartesian coordinates, after that the coordinate point will be clustered so that the profile of the targets can be determined. A threshold will be set to judge whether the targets are obstacles or not. Last Kalman filter will be used for target tracking. To verify the presented algorithm, related experiments have been designed and carried out.
Journal Article

Bilateral Control Method of Torque Drive/Angle Feedback Used for Steer-by-Wire System

2012-04-16
2012-01-0792
Steer-by-Wire system is capable of improving the performance of vehicle handling and stability, and assisting driving. It becomes a key technique to control front wheel angle and simulate the steering resistance delivered to the driver because of removing mechanical linkages between the steering wheel and the front wheels. This paper proposes a bilateral control method of steering wheel torque drive/pinion angle feedback, which is disaccustomed of controlling steering wheel block and steering actuator as master-slave plants. The pinion angle, steering wheel angle and its torque signals are used in the control logic without estimating or measuring the tire/road force. Simulations and vehicle experiments proceeded with this proposed method and the results confirmed that it achieves the bilateral control of the position and torque between the two plants.
Technical Paper

Research on Electric Vehicle Braking Force Distribution for Maximizing Energy Regeneration

2016-04-05
2016-01-1676
The driving range of the electric vehicle (EV) greatly restricts the development of EVs. The vehicles waste plenty of energy on account of automobiles frequently braking under the city cycle. The regenerative braking system can convert the braking kinetic energy into the electrical energy and then returns to the battery, so the energy regeneration could prolong theregenerative braking system. According to the characteristics of robustness in regenerative braking, both regenerative braking and friction braking based on fuzzy logic are assigned after the front-rear axle’s braking force is distributed to meet the requirement of braking security and high-efficient braking energy regeneration. Among the model, the vehicle model and the mechanical braking system is built by the CRUISE software. The paper applies the MATLAB/SIMULINK to establish a regenerative braking model, and then selects the UEDC city cycle for model co-simulation analysis.
Technical Paper

Passive Fault-Tolerant Performance of 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicles Based on MPC and Control Allocation

2013-09-08
2013-24-0145
The passive fault-tolerant performance of the integrated vehicle controller (IVC) applied on 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicles has been investigated in this study. The 4WID/4WIS EV is driven independently by four in-wheel motors and steered independently by four steering motors. Thanks to increased control flexibility of the over-actuated architecture, Control Allocation (CA) can be applied to control the 4WID/4WIS EVs so as to improve the handling and stability. Another benefit of the over-actuated architecture is that the 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicle has sufficient redundant actuators to fight against the safety critical situation when one or more actuators fail.
Technical Paper

Development of Simulation Platform and Control Strategy of Electronic Braking System for Commercial Vehicles

2014-09-30
2014-01-2286
Pneumatic Electric Braking System (EBS) is getting widely spread for commercial vehicles. Pneumatic EBS improves the problem of slow response of traditional pneumatic braking system by implementing brake-by-wire. However, the time-delay response and hysteresis of some electro-pneumatic components and some other issues decrease the response and control accuracy of the pneumatic EBS.
Journal Article

Development and Implement of a Model-Based Design Controller for PEPS System

2016-04-05
2016-01-0021
PEPS (Passive Entry and Passive Start) system is gradually becoming a main stream option in automotive keyless entry application, which improves the convenience and vehicle anti-theft performance. Based on the complex functions and safety technical requirements of the PEPS controller, and due to the development method of the model-based system design widely used in the automotive electronics industry, this paper presents a model-based on the development of PEPS controller method, which introduces the process of modeling and automatic code generation for the PEPS controller. Through Simulink/Stateflow of PEPS controller using logic system modeling, the PEPS controller complex system functions are divided into different function layers with each functional layer modeling respectively, and implement logic function design by the graphical language.
Technical Paper

Fault-Tolerant Control of Brake-by-Wire Systems Based on Control Allocation

2016-04-05
2016-01-0132
Brake-by-wire (BBW) system has drawn a great attention in recent years as driven by rapidly increasing demands on both active brake controls for intelligent vehicles and regenerative braking controls for electric vehicles. However, unlike conversional brake systems, the reliability of the brake-by-wire systems remains to be challenging due to its lack of physical connection in case of system failure. There are various causes for the failure of a BBW system, such as failure of brake controller, loss of sensor signals, failure of communication or even power supply, to name a few. This paper presents a fault-tolerant control under novel control architecture. The proposed control architecture includes a driver command interpreter module, a command integration module, a control allocation module, a fault diagnosis module and state observers. The fault-tolerant control is designed based on a quadratic optimal control method with consideration of actuator constraints.
Technical Paper

Linear Electro-Magnetic Valve Characteristic Analysis and Precise Pressure Control of the Electro-Hydraulic Brake System

2016-04-05
2016-01-0093
With the development of modern vehicle chassis control systems, such as Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS), Acceleration Slip Regulation (ASR), Electronic Stability Control (ESC), and Regenerative Braking System (RBS) for EVs, etc., there comes a new requirement for the vehicle brake system that is the precise control of the wheel brake pressure. The Electro-Hydraulic Brake system (EHB), which owns an ability to adjust four wheels’ brake pressure independently, can be a good match with these systems. However, the traditional control logic of EHB is based on the PWM (Pulse-Width Modulation), which has a low control accuracy of linear electromagnetic valves. Therefore, this paper presents a research of the linear electro-magnetic valve characteristic analysis, and proposes a precise pressure control algorithm of the EHB system with a feed forward and a PID control of linear electro-magnetic valves.
Journal Article

Based on the Unscented Kalman Filter to Estimate the State of Four-Wheel-Independent Electric Vehicle with X-by-Wire

2015-09-29
2015-01-2731
As a new form of electric vehicle, Four-wheel-independent electric vehicle with X-By-Wire (XBW) inherits all the advantages of in-wheel motor drive electric vehicles. The vehicle steering system is liberated from traditional mechanical steering mechanism and forms an advanced vehicle with all- wheel independent driving, braking and steering. Compared with conventional vehicles, it has more controllable degrees of freedom. The design of the integrated vehicle dynamics control systems helps to achieve the steering, driving and braking coordinated control and improves the vehicle's handling stability. In order to solve the problem of lacking of vehicle state information in the integrated control, some methods are used to estimate the vehicle state of four-wheel-independent electric vehicles with XBW. In order to improve the estimation accuracy, unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is used to estimate the vehicle state variables in this paper.
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