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Technical Paper

Study on Steering Effort Preference of Drivers Based on Driving Simulator

This paper presents a study on steering effort preference of Chinese drivers based on ADSL Driving Simulator. The results of the simulation test demonstrates that Chinese drivers' steering effort preference increases with vehicle speed, which is similar to European and Japanese drivers', but the mean preference effort level itself is lower than that of European and Japanese drivers' and this same steering effort preference increases obviously with lateral acceleration in linear region (lateral acceleration level lower than 0.3g) while not as evidently in nonlinear region (lateral acceleration level higher than 0.3g).
Technical Paper

A Driver Direction Control Model and its Application in the Simulation of Driver-Vehicle-Road Closed-Loop System

The research of driver behavior characteristics has been a focus of vehicle handling and stability performance. With the driver preview effort, many different driver preview models of direction control have been proposed and the simulations of driver-vehicle-road closed-loop system made. But in the simulation, most of the conventional models have the same precondition that the road was simply described as a pre-given preview course. How to simulate the driver dynamically deciding vehicle preview course based on the real road circumstance is the key to the further research of the driver model. In this paper, a new driver direction control model is established, which is called the Optimal Preview Lateral Acceleration (OPLA) Model and divided into three sub-models: driver’s information identification model, driver’s fuzzy decision model of vehicle preview course and driver’s performance first-order correction model.
Technical Paper

Numerical Achieved Extended Kalman Filter State Observer Design Based on a Vehicle Model Containing UniTire Model

It is difficult to obtain state variables accurately or economically while vehicle is moving, however these state variables are significant for chassis control. Although many researches have been done, a complex model always leads to a control system with poor real-time performance, while simple model cannot show the real characteristics. So, in order to estimate the value of yaw rate and side slip angle accurately and sententiously, an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) observer is proposed, which is based on an ameliorated 2-DOF “bicycle model”. The EKF algorithm is achieved numerically and verified by the results from the real field test.
Journal Article

Fault-Tolerant Control for 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicle Based on EKF and SMC

This paper presents a fault-tolerant control (FTC) algorithm for four-wheel independently driven and steered (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicle. The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) algorithm is utilized in the fault detection (FD) module so as to estimate the in-wheel motor parameters, which could detect parameter variations caused by in-wheel motor fault. A motion controller based on sliding mode control (SMC) is able to compute the generalized forces/moments to follow the desired vehicle motion. By considering the tire adhesive limits, a reconfigurable control allocator optimally distributes the generalized forces/moments among healthy actuators so as to minimize the tire workloads once the actuator fault is detected. An actuator controller calculates the driving torques of the in-wheel motors and steering angles of the wheels in order to finally achieve the distributed tire forces. If one or more in-wheel motors lose efficacy, the FD module diagnoses the actuator failures first.
Technical Paper

Integrated HIL Test and Development System for Pneumatic ABS/EBS ECU of Commercial Vehicles

The quality of the brake system is a significant safety factor in commercial vehicles on the roads. With the development of automobile technology, the single function ABS system didn't meet active safety requirements of the user. The Electronically Controlled Brake System (EBS) system will replace the ABS system to become the standard safety equipment of commercial vehicles in the near future. EBS can be said an enhanced ABS system, it contains load sensor, brake valve sensor and pressure sensor of chamber, etc, and it is more advantages than ABS. This paper describes a flexible integrated test bench for ABS/EBS Electronic Control Unit (ECU) based on Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulation technique. It consists of most commercial vehicle pneumatic braking system components (from brake pedal valve, brake caliper to brake chambers), and uses the dSPACE real-time simulation system to communicate to the hardware I/O interface.
Technical Paper

Study on Controller of Electronically Controlled Air Suspension for Bus

According to the vehicle’s driving conditions, electronically controlled air suspension (ECAS) systems can actively adjust the height of vehicle body, so that better ride comfort and handling stability will be achieved, which can’t be realized by traditional passive suspension. This paper presents a design and implementation of ECAS controller for vehicle. The controller is aimed at adjusting the static and dynamic height of the vehicle. To exactly track the height of the vehicle and satisfy the control demand of air suspension, a height sensor decoding circuit based on the inductance sensor is designed. Based on it, a new height control algorithm is adopted to achieve rapid and precise control of vehicle height. To verify the function of the designed controller and the proposed height control algorithm, an air spring loading test bench and an ECU-in-loop simulation test bench are respectively established.
Technical Paper

Study on Reconfigurable Driving Force Allocation Strategy of Distributed Driving Electric Vehicle

The distributed driving electric vehicle, uses four in-wheel motors as distributed power sources is a typical over-actuated system. Thus, this kind of vehicle has better stability potential and fault tolerance than the conventional one. In this paper, the general structure of fault-tolerance control (FTC) system based on control allocation is analyzed. And a reconfigurable driving force allocation strategy is proposed to ensure the trajectory tracking and stability when some motors’ faults occur. Both the constraints of tire force and actuators are taken into consideration. With motors’ faults treated as the constraints of actuators, FTC is integrated. For validation, the proposed allocation strategy is simulated in co-simulation environment based on Carsim and Matlab/Simulink.
Technical Paper

Design, Development and Application of Test Bench for Electrically Controlled Steering Systems

This essay aims to develop an electrically controlled steering test bench and lay a solid foundation for the development of steering system. The first part mainly introduces the function, structure and working principle of the test bench. For the hardware system, it includes the steering system, fixture, sensors as well as a frameless disk motor for carrying out automatic motor input, and a dual linear motor system selected as the road resistance simulation actuator. As for the software, MATLAB/Simulink, CarSim, RTI and ControlDesk are used. Therefore, with the help of real-time simulation platform, researchers can not only build control strategy and dynamic model but also control the experiment and tune parameters in real-time. The second part of the essay aims to identify both electric and mechanical parameters of R-EPS system by carrying out tests on the proposed test bench. As parameters are successfully identified, the feasibility of the test bench is also verified.
Technical Paper

Fault-Tolerant Control for 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicles

The passive fault-tolerant approach for four-wheel independently driven and steered (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicles has been investigated in this study. An adaptive control based passive fault-tolerant controller is designed to improve vehicle safety, performance and maneuverability when an actuator fault happens. The proposed fault tolerant control method consists of the following three parts: 1) a fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) module that monitors vehicle driving condition, detects and diagnoses actuator failures with the inequality constraints; 2) a motion controller that computes the generalized forces/moments to track the desired vehicle motion using Model Predictive Control (MPC); 3) a reconfigurable control allocator that redistributes the generalized forces/moments to four wheels with equality constrained optimization.
Technical Paper

Research on Closed-Loop Comprehensive Evaluation Method of Vehicle Handling and Stability

A closed-loop comprehensive evaluation and a test method for vehicle handling and stability have been studied by using development driving simulator. Simulator test scheme has been designed and carried out with 14 vehicle configurations, and subjective evaluation has been made for easy handling of vehicle by drivers. A closed-loop comprehensive evaluation index has been put forward considering the factors affecting vehicle handling and stability. The reliability of the index has been validated by driver's subjective evaluation. A driver/vehicle/ road closed-loop system model has been established, and the theoretical predictive evaluation has been carried out with 14 vehicle configurations. Simulation showed that similar result for both theoretical predictive evaluation and subjective evaluation.
Technical Paper

Combined State Estimation and Active Fault Detection of Individual-Wheel-Drive Vehicles: An Adaptive Observer-Based Approach

This paper presents an adaptive observer-based approach for the combined state estimation and active fault detection and isolation (FDI) of the individual-wheel-drive (IWD) vehicles. A 3-DOF vehicle model coupled with the Highway Safety Research Institute (HSRI) tire model is established and used as the observation model. Based on this model, the dual unscented Kalman filter (DUKF) technique is employed for the observer design to give fusion results of the interdependent state and parameter variables, which undergo nonlinear transformations, with the minimum square errors. Effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is examined and validated through co-simulation between MATLAB/Simulink and CarSim. The results demonstrate that the DUKF-based observer effectively filters the sensor signals, accurately obtains the longitudinal and lateral velocities, explicitly isolates the faulty wheel(s) and accurately estimates the actual torque(s) even with the presence of noise.
Technical Paper

Detection and Tracking Algorithm of Front Vehicle Based on Laser Radar

Nowadays active collision avoidance has become a major focus of research, and a variety of detection and tracking methods of obstacles in front of host vehicle have been applied to it. In this paper, laser radars are chosen as sensors to obtain relevant information, after which an algorithm used to detect and track vehicles in front is provided. The algorithm determines radar's ROI (Region of Interest), then uses a laser radar to scan the 2D space so as to obtain the information of the position and the distance of the targets which could be determined as obstacles. The information obtained will be filtered and then be transformed into cartesian coordinates, after that the coordinate point will be clustered so that the profile of the targets can be determined. A threshold will be set to judge whether the targets are obstacles or not. Last Kalman filter will be used for target tracking. To verify the presented algorithm, related experiments have been designed and carried out.
Journal Article

Bilateral Control Method of Torque Drive/Angle Feedback Used for Steer-by-Wire System

Steer-by-Wire system is capable of improving the performance of vehicle handling and stability, and assisting driving. It becomes a key technique to control front wheel angle and simulate the steering resistance delivered to the driver because of removing mechanical linkages between the steering wheel and the front wheels. This paper proposes a bilateral control method of steering wheel torque drive/pinion angle feedback, which is disaccustomed of controlling steering wheel block and steering actuator as master-slave plants. The pinion angle, steering wheel angle and its torque signals are used in the control logic without estimating or measuring the tire/road force. Simulations and vehicle experiments proceeded with this proposed method and the results confirmed that it achieves the bilateral control of the position and torque between the two plants.
Technical Paper

Friction Compensation Control Method Research of Electric Power Steering System

A new electric power steering system (EPS) dynamic friction model based on normalized Bouc-Wen model is given, as well as its structure form and model features. In addition, experimental method is used to identify corresponding parameters. In order to improve road feel feedback, this paper analyzes the shortcoming of traditional constant friction compensation control method and proposes a variable friction compensation control method which the friction compensation current changes according to the assist characteristic gain. Through simulation and real vehicle test verification, variable friction compensation control method eliminates the effect of basic assist characteristic, and improves the driver’s road feel under high speed.
Technical Paper

Research on Electric Vehicle Braking Force Distribution for Maximizing Energy Regeneration

The driving range of the electric vehicle (EV) greatly restricts the development of EVs. The vehicles waste plenty of energy on account of automobiles frequently braking under the city cycle. The regenerative braking system can convert the braking kinetic energy into the electrical energy and then returns to the battery, so the energy regeneration could prolong theregenerative braking system. According to the characteristics of robustness in regenerative braking, both regenerative braking and friction braking based on fuzzy logic are assigned after the front-rear axle’s braking force is distributed to meet the requirement of braking security and high-efficient braking energy regeneration. Among the model, the vehicle model and the mechanical braking system is built by the CRUISE software. The paper applies the MATLAB/SIMULINK to establish a regenerative braking model, and then selects the UEDC city cycle for model co-simulation analysis.
Technical Paper

An Active Return-to-Middle Control Method without Angle Sensor for EPS

Electric Power Steering System (EPS) can directly provide auxiliary steering torque via a motor. The motor and the reducer in mechanical system will make the friction torque in steering system larger, as a result, the ability of steering returning will be reduced. Therefore, during the design of EPS system control strategy, an extra active return-to-middle control strategy is needed. For the fact that most of the low-end vehicles equipped with EPS system do not have a steering wheel angle sensor, a control strategy has to work without the datum of steering wheel angle. This paper proposes an active return-to-middle control method without steering wheel angle sensor, based on the estimated aligning torque which is converted to the pinion, and expounds how to determine the steering system current motion state in detail. This control method will work just during the turning condition, so it has no effect on the EPS basic assist characteristics.
Technical Paper

Research on Vehicle Height Adjustment Control of Electronically Controlled Air Suspension

Electronically controlled air suspension (ECAS) systems have been widely used in commercial vehicles to improve the ride comfort and handling stability of vehicles, as it can adjust vehicle height according to the driving conditions and the driver's intent. In this paper, the vehicle height adjustment process of ECAS system is studied. A mathematical model of vehicle height adjustment is derived by combining vehicle dynamics theory and thermodynamics theory of variable mass system. Reasons lead to the problems of “over-charging”, “over-discharging” and oscillation during the process of height adjustment are analyzed. In order to solve these problems, a single neuron proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is proposed to realize the accurate control of vehicle height. By simulation and semi-physical rig test, the effectiveness and performance of the proposed control algorithm are verified.
Technical Paper

Passive Fault-Tolerant Performance of 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicles Based on MPC and Control Allocation

The passive fault-tolerant performance of the integrated vehicle controller (IVC) applied on 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicles has been investigated in this study. The 4WID/4WIS EV is driven independently by four in-wheel motors and steered independently by four steering motors. Thanks to increased control flexibility of the over-actuated architecture, Control Allocation (CA) can be applied to control the 4WID/4WIS EVs so as to improve the handling and stability. Another benefit of the over-actuated architecture is that the 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicle has sufficient redundant actuators to fight against the safety critical situation when one or more actuators fail.
Technical Paper

Development of Simulation Platform and Control Strategy of Electronic Braking System for Commercial Vehicles

Pneumatic Electric Braking System (EBS) is getting widely spread for commercial vehicles. Pneumatic EBS improves the problem of slow response of traditional pneumatic braking system by implementing brake-by-wire. However, the time-delay response and hysteresis of some electro-pneumatic components and some other issues decrease the response and control accuracy of the pneumatic EBS.
Technical Paper

Research on Integrated Chassis Control Strategy for Four-Wheel Independent Control Electric Vehicle

Four-wheel independent control electric vehicle is a new type of x-by-wire EV with four wheels independent steering and four wheels independent drive/brake systems. In order to take full advantage of the vehicle's performance potential, this paper presents a novel integrated chassis control strategy. In the paper, the strategy is designed by the hierarchical control structure and divided into integrated control layer and allocation layer. By this method, the control logical can be modularized and simplified. In the integrated control layer, Model Prediction Control (MPC) is adopted to design the integrated control unit, which belongs to be a kind of local optimization algorithm with feedback correction features. Using this method could avoid the system performance degradation caused by the control model mismatch. The control allocation layer is to optimally distribute the vehicle control forces to the steering/driving/brake actuators on each wheel.