Lateral Injury Criteria for the 6-year-old Pedestrian - Part II: Criteria for the Upper and Lower Extremities
Pediatric pedestrians are frequently involved in Pedestrian versus Motor Vehicle Collisions (PMVCs). While in recent years, the automotive industry has worked towards making cars less aggressive to pedestrians, the efforts have mainly focused on adult pedestrian safety. When they have included considerations for children, only head injuries have been evaluated. The development of automotive countermeasures that provide protection for both adult and pediatric pedestrians requires access to injury criteria for the entire body that specifically account for both the age-dependent tissue properties and the pedestrian's size. The objective of the present study is to derive lateral injury criteria for the upper and lower extremities that can be used in finite element and multi-body simulations of PMVCs involving the 6-year-old pedestrian (corresponding injury criteria for the head, neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis are derived in part I of this study).