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Technical Paper

Off-normal Situations Related to the Operation of the Electron-VM Oxygen Generation System aboard the International Space Station

2005-07-11
2005-01-2803
The Electron-VM Oxygen Generation System (OGS) is a main source of oxygen for crew breathing on the International Space Station (ISS) and the result of updating the Electron-V OGS that has been in successful operation for 17 years on Mir Space Station. The successful accomplishment of a manned flight program primarily has resulted in the stable operation of the system. The paper deals with analysis of off-normal situations related to the operation of the Electron-VM on board ISS. The system switching-off analysis based on the telemetry information processing and the results of the additional tests conducted under flight and ground conditions is performed. A principal cause of system switching-offs is a reduction in the pressure built by the circulating pumps due to ingress of gas bubbles into the suction pipeline. The results of the Electron-VM OGS switching-off analysis and the practical recommendations regarding its prevention are reviewed.
Technical Paper

Water Recovery and Urine Collection Abord the International Space Station

2003-07-07
2003-01-2622
The paper deals with the performance data of the service module Zvezda water supply and urine collection systems of the International Space Station (ISS) as of December 31, 2002. The water supply and demand balance are analyzed. The data of humidity condensate and recovered water compositions are reviewed. The effective cooperation of the international partners on part of life support is shown.
Technical Paper

Water Recovery and Urine Collection in the Service Module of the International Space Station

2001-07-09
2001-01-2355
The paper deals with the construction and performance data of the service module Zvezda water supply system of the International Space Station (ISS). The performance data at an initial phase of manned station functioning are provided. The data on humidity condensate and recovered water composition are reviewed. The water supply and demand balance are analyzed. The effective cooperation of international partners on part of water supply for the crew is shown.
Technical Paper

The Definition of Space Life Support System Preliminary Configuration Based on a Single Criteria Approach

2001-07-09
2001-01-2366
This paper reviews the preliminary definition of integrated life support system configurations based on a single criterion decision-making task (SCDMT). Comparative analysis results are shown for currently used effectiveness models based on SCDMT. Possible areas of application for those models are determined. It is also proven that well-known effectiveness model, which uses an equivalent mass approach to determine system expenditures, can be used only in cases where useful effect from system operation is the same. The article proposes the use of a global thermodynamic effectiveness criterion based on the exergy method to account for ECLSS functional expenditures, i.e. functional costs. Exergy is a concept that fuses energy and material quality information in a measure that is both descriptive and physically significant. This method accounts for nonequivalence of different forms of energy and allows measuring technological flows in the system using same measuring units.
Technical Paper

Updated Systems for Water Recovery from Humidity Condensate and Urine for the International Space Station

1997-07-14
972559
At the initial phase of the construction of the international space station (ISS) water supply will be provided by the systems located in the Russian segment. The paper reviews the systems for water recovery from humidity condensate and urine to be incorporated in the Russian segment of the ISS. The similar systems have been successfully operated on the Mir space station. The updates aim at enhancing system cost-effectiveness and reliability. The system for water recovery from humidity condensate (WRS-C) features an added assembly for the removal of organic contaminants to be catalytically oxidized in an air/liquid flow at ambient temperature and pressure. The system for water reclamation from urine (WRS-U) incorporates a new distillation subsystem based on vacuum distillation with a multistage rotary distiller and a vapor compression or thermoelectric heat pump. The updating of the WRS-C system will enable an increase in the multifiltration bed's life at least two fold.
Technical Paper

A Strategy of System Synthesis for Developing Integrated Regenerative Life Support Systems

1998-07-13
981719
This paper considers one of the possible approaches to the synthesis of technologies for developing future Integrated Regenerative Life Support Systems (IRLSS) for space vehicle crews. The solution of technology synthesis task involves the following phases: (a) the efficiency model structuring for technical decision making process; (b) presentation of a discrete set of alternative technologies and their formal description; (c) the decision making task introduction. Modified efficiency model under consideration is based on use of local efficiency criteria set, reflecting designed system and its subsystems properties, space vehicle properties for which this system is intended. For the local criteria after verification of the independence terms quantitative and qualitative efficiency factors are applied. The qualitative efficiency factors were evaluated on the scale of order. The consideration of uncertainty in criteria values is based on a fuzzy set theory.
Technical Paper

A Physical/Chemical System for Water and Atmosphere Recovery Aboard a Space Station

1993-07-01
932077
The paper deals with the problems of development of physico-chemical systems for water recovery and atmosphere revitalization for long-duration space stations. Schematics of regenerative life support systems featuring a high degree of closure and biotechnological components are presented. A year-long experiment has proved the possibility for Man to stay in a closed artificial environment for a long time by consuming substances regenerated by physico-chemical means from the end products of life. A complex of the life support systems (LSS) on Mir space station allowing for oxygen and 90% water recovery as well as its future updating is considered.
Technical Paper

A Physico/Chemical System for Hygiene Waste Water Recovery

1993-07-01
932076
The paper deals with some aspects and results of research in major processes and hardware of a system for hygiene waste water recovery and its architecture concepts. A principal system schematic and its functions on Mir space station are presented. It is shown that physico-chemical means ensure cost-effective recovery with minimum energy demand and resupply which is particulary important for long-duration space missions.
Technical Paper

Development of Urine Processor Distillation Hardware for Space Stations

1995-07-01
951605
This paper describes the results of research and tests of different patterns of distillation processes for water reclamation from urine accomplished by NIICHIMMASH in cooperation with other companies. Several typical patterns of evaporation to air flow from water-retentive porous bodies, from the surface confined by capillary/porous membranes and from free liquid surface in rotary units under atmospheric and reduced pressure are analyzed. Relevant condensation processes are reviewed. Performance data for distillation unit of SS MIR system for water reclamation from urine are outlined. The paper highlights the prospects of distillation hardware development.
Technical Paper

Systems for Water Reclamation from Humidity Condensate and Urine for Space Station

1994-06-01
941536
This paper deals with water reclamation from humidity condensate and urine schematics and processes realized on orbital space stations Salut and Mir. The results of research in updated processes and schematics for condensate separation, purification and distillation with heat energy recovery are described. It is shown that the processes and hardware make possible to reduce energy demand and the weight of the water recovery systems under operation on space stations.
Technical Paper

Operation Results Onboard the International Space Station and Development Tendency of Atmosphere Revitalization and Monitoring System

2004-07-19
2004-01-2494
The Regenerative Atmosphere Revitalization and Monitoring system (ARMS), been part of Integrated Life Support System (ILSS), is intended for maintenance in the manned modules of a necessary chemical composition of an artificial gas atmosphere (AGA) on base of the crew metabolism product transform to environment initial components. Generally, the ARMS structure includes the individual systems and units intended for: → oxygen generation; → carbon dioxide removal and it concentration; → trace contaminants removal; → carbon dioxide reduction with the goal to produce an additional quantity of water necessary to increase the degree of the oxygen loop clousure. The ARMS structure of the International Space Station (ISS) Russian Segment (RS) includes the Electron-VM Oxygen Generation System (OGS), Vozdukh Carbon Dioxide Removal System (CDRS) and SBMP Trace Contaminants Removal Means (TCRM) installed in the Service Module.
Technical Paper

A Problem of Physical/Chemical Synthesis of Food Products on Planetary Bases

1996-07-01
961410
Development of closed life support systems for water recovery, oxygen generation and food processing is achievable in the future. However, currently the possibility of partial reproduction of food components from metabolic products and biocomplex waste should be taken into account when advanced life support system development is under consideration. Studies on carbohydrate synthesis from products of life are of particular interest because carbohydrates hold the first place in terms of mass in the food. The paper discusses possible ways of carbohydrate synthesis by physical/chemical means. Separate stages of a carbohydrate synthesis process are considered.
Technical Paper

Water Supply Based on Water Reclamation from Humidity Condensate and Urine on a Space Station

1996-07-01
961408
The paper reviews an integrated system for space station water supply based on a combination of water recovery systems and a water resupply system. The water balance data and system performance data in long-duration operation on the Mir space station are presented. A water supply concept for the Russian's segment (RS) of the International Space Station (ISS) is substantiated.
Technical Paper

Problems of Developing Systems for Water Reclamation from Urine for Perspective Space Stations

1996-07-01
961409
The paper deals with possible performance enhancement of the system for water reclamation from urine based on a principle of atmospheric distillation. It is shown by way of example using the system operating on Mir that the introduction of heat energy recuperation, an increase in heat-and-mass transfer efficiency on evaporation and the optimization of the air flowrate in the distillation cycle allow a rise in the capacity of the distillation assembly and a reduction in specific energy. The system outfitted with a rotary evaporator/separator and a thermoelectric heat pump is reviewed. The design and experimental data verify the feasibility and benefits of the system updating.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Regenerative Life Support System Functioning

1996-07-01
961501
The paper is devoted to consideration of the possible approach to forecasting functioning physico/chemical Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) in regular and off-normal conditions of operation on the basis of methods of mathematical simulation. Prediction of RLSS functioning under operating conditions represents the special interest for the analysis of off-normal situations, caused by development of a resource or presence that or that or of the other of failure of the equipment, or change of external conditions. In the given situations working mechanisms of transfer of mass and energy change not only characteristic and modes of operations of separate apparatus, but also, in a number of cases. The given peculiarities should be taken into account at formation of the formalized descriptions of the RLSS hardware.
Technical Paper

The Concept of an Ecotechnical System and Its Application to the Synthesis of the Structure of Integrated Life Support System

2002-07-15
2002-01-2390
This paper describes the concept of Ecotechnical System (ETS) based on the analysis of mass, power and data flow exchange within a biocenosis and between a biocenosis and technical systems that support life and activity of any biological entity in isolated environment of space vehicle. A biocenosis is considered to be a gathering of live organisms (generally people, animals, plants and micro-organisms) in an artificial habitat of the isolated environment. An Ecotechnical System is defined and it is shown that the given concept brings together different life support systems based on physical-chemical and biological means of regeneration of crew metabolic products. The existing limitations to the ETS development are reviewed in the paper in respect to limited volumes of space vehicles based on the vehicle characteristics and particular space program tasks. Three step analysis approach proposed for ETS effectiveness evaluation.
Technical Paper

A Man-Made Gas Atmosphere Simulation Model of International Space Station's Russian Segment

1998-07-13
981717
This paper deals with a man-made Gas Atmosphere (MMGA) Simulation Model developed and software presented for the Russian Segment of the International Space Station (ISS). The simulation Model (SM) is intended for analysis of the MMGA parameter nonstationary values in isothermal and non-isothermal conditions under a variable number of crew taking into account the intensities of the crew activity. The person's structure of the SM, basic assumptions, taken for modeling and formalized descriptions of SM separate modules. Formalized descriptions by the Segment's Pressurized Modules are based on using the nonlinear equations of mass/energy balance for the controlling volume, taking into account all main sources and sinks of the environment separate components, which are a crew, Integrated Regenerative Life Support System (IRLSS) separate subsystems, ISS on-board systems.
Technical Paper

Rationale and Selection of a Distillation Subsystem for Water Reclamation from Urine

1998-07-13
981714
A selection of a distillation subsystem with a rotary multistage vacuum distiller (RMVD) and a heat pump (HP) for the system for water reclamation from urine for the international space station is substantiated. The results of computational/experimental analysis of specific energy for distillation with RMVD and HP of different type used are presented. The test results of an experimental system mockup are given. It is shown that the subsystem of a given type is stable in operation, features high condensate processing rate and low specific energy demand.
Technical Paper

An Efficiency of Technologies and a Strategy for Synthesis of Integrated Life Support System Structure

2000-07-10
2000-01-2396
The research conducted at NIICHIMMASH for the past several years in the area of Integrated Life Support System (ILSS) strategy development for technology efficiency analysis and system structure synthesis is reviewed in this paper. This study proposes an generalized efficiency model for ILSS development, which includes global, thermodynamic and local quantitative and qualitative factors. The research resulted in a strategy for the synthesis of ILSS structure based on evolutionary and integral- hypothhetical approaches. This strategy allows development of new system configurations, evaluation of existing ILSS effectiveness and considers decision marker's (DM) preferences. Uncertainty in the initial information about properties of the system or technology has a big influence on DM making decisions about future system appearance. Fuzzy set theory is used to define the uncertainty in the initial information.
Technical Paper

Simulation Model of Crew for Operation Research of Integrative Life Support Systems

2000-07-10
2000-01-2368
This paper reviews a Crew Simulation Model (CSM) for Space Vehicle Integrative Life Support System (ILSS) operation study. It is designed to simulate crew metabolic reaction mass and energy flows in accelerated time mode with each crew member specifics consideration. This CSM formally is based on human body general simulation, which includes main functional systems like: the cardiac-vascular, external respiration, thermal regulation and water/mineral balance. Work and rest time schedules are also considered as well as each crew member presence in a particular module. The CSM considers trace contaminants in metabolic products due to nutrition and environment temperature. This simulations' formal review is shown in the paper as well as formal implementation with computed experiment results. Some of the possible applications are also approached.
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