Biomechanics of Human Occupants in Simulated Rear Crashes: Documentation of Neck Injuries and Comparison of Injury Criteria
The objective of this study was to subject small female and large male cadavers to simulated rear impact, document soft-tissue injuries to the neck, determine the kinematics, forces and moments at the occipital condyles, and evaluate neck injury risks using peak force, peak tension and normalized tension-extension criteria. Five unembalmed intact human cadavers (four small females and one large male) were prepared using accelerometers and targets at the head, T1, iliac crest, and sacrum. The specimens were placed on a custom- designed seat without head restraint and subjected to rear impact using sled equipment. High-speed cameras were used for kinematic coverage. After the test, x-rays were obtained, computed tomography scans were taken, and anatomical sections were obtained using a cryomicrotome. Two female specimens were tested at 4.3 m/s (mean) and the other two were tested at 6.8 m/s (mean), and one large male specimen was subjected to 6.6 m/s velocity.