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Technical Paper

Requirements for Vehicle Dynamics Simulation Models

1994-03-01
940175
Computer simulation and real-time, interactive approaches for analysis, interactive driving simulation, and hardware-in-the-loop testing are finding increasing application in the research and development of advanced automotive concepts, highway design, etc. Vehicle dynamics models serve a variety of purposes in simulation. A model must have sufficient complexity for a given application but should not be overly complicated. In interactive driving simulation, vehicle dynamics models must provide appropriate computation for sensory feedback such as visual, motion, auditory, and proprioceptive cuing. In stability and handling simulations, various modes must be properly represented, including lateral/directional and longitudinal degrees of freedom. Limit performance effects of tire saturation that lead to plow out, spin out, and skidding require adequate tire force response models.
Technical Paper

Physiological and Response Measurements in Driving Tasks

1972-02-01
720139
Driver response and performance can be quantified by observing the stimulus-response environment. Yet the driver's inherent adaptability allows him to have seemingly adequate performance in potentially hazardous driving situations even though he may be operating near the acceptable safety limits. Physiological measures of the driver's internal state can provide further quantification of his performance level and can give a measure of his workload or safety performance margin. Measures of driver physiological and control responses have been made under gust disturbance conditions with the subject's car operating at various speeds. The experimental techniques and data are described, and correlations between the situational parameters and driver stress and control response are shown.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Computer Simulation of Driver/Vehicle Interaction

1987-05-01
871086
This paper presents an analysis of driver/vehicle performance over a range of maneuvering conditions including accident avoidance scenarios involving vehicle limit performance handling. Driver behavior is considered in the same dynamic analysis terms as vehicle response in order to give appropriate closed-loop measures of total system maneuvering capability and handling stability. A driver control structure is developed along with closed-loop system stability constraints on model parameters over a wide range of vehicle maneuvering conditions. Example simulation runs are presented for several accident avoidance scenarios.
Technical Paper

The Use of In-Vehicle Detectors to Reduce Impaired Driving Trips

1986-02-24
860360
For almost twenty years, researchers have attempted to develop an in-vehicle system which would prevent an impaired driver from operating his or her motor vehicle. These systems have ranged from breath testers to psychomotor tests, and have prevented operation of the vehicle by such methods as preventing the vehicle from starting or alerting drivers, and the police through alarm systems. This paper discusses the background leading to an in-vehicle system which was built and tested. We also discuss the system and its components, and present the results of two tests involving convicted drunk drivers. While the primary purpose of this project was to determine the feasibility of this type of system, the results of the two tests show promise for the reduction of impaired driving trips.
Technical Paper

A Biodynamic Model for the Assessment of Human Operator Performance under Vibration Environment

2005-06-14
2005-01-2742
A combined biodynamic and vehicle model is used to assess the vibration and performance of a human operator performing driving and other tasks. The other tasks include reaching, pointing and tracking by the driver and/or passenger. This analysis requires the coordinated use of separate and mature software programs for anthropometrics, vehicle dynamics, biodynamics, and systems analysis. The total package is called AVB-DYN, an acronym for Anthropometrics, Vehicle and Bio-DYNamics. The biodynamic component of AVB-DYN is described, and then compared with an experiment that studied human operator in-vehicle reaching performance using the U.S. Army TACOM Ride Motion Simulator.
Technical Paper

Motion Cueing Evaluation of Off-Road Heavy Vehicle Handling

2016-09-27
2016-01-8041
Motion cueing algorithms can improve the perceived realism of a driving simulator, however, data on the effects on driver performance and simulator sickness remain scarce. Two novel motion cueing algorithms varying in concept and complexity were developed for a limited maneuvering workspace, hexapod/Stuart type motion platform. The RideCue algorithm uses a simple swing motion concept while OverTilt Track algorithm uses optimal pre-positioning to account for maneuver characteristics for coordinating tilt adjustments. An experiment was conducted on the US Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) Ride Motion Simulator (RMS) platform comparing the two novel motion cueing algorithms to a pre-existing algorithm and a no-motion condition.
Technical Paper

The Use of Simulation in Truck Safety Research, Driver Training and Proficiency Testing

1990-10-01
902271
Real time man-in-the-loop simulation can be used in a variety of research, testing and training roles where safety, efficiency and/or economy are important. Simulation can allow complete control and uniformity over driving conditions and permit analysis of a range of vehicle and driver behavior variables. Simulation complexity and fidelity requirements will vary depending on application requirements. This paper reviews past and current driving simulation development efforts and applications. Simulation requirements are assessed relative to various applications, including vehicle handling, driver behavior, training, licensing and fitness for duty testing.
Technical Paper

Performance Testing as a Determinant of Fitness-For-Duty

1990-09-01
901870
Performance testing provides an important complement to urine testing as a determinant of fitness for duty. Performance testing can be conducted immediately to screen out impaired workers before they undertake safety related job functions. Urine testing involves the expense and delay of laboratory testing, and results relate more to life style than current on-the-job performance capability. This paper reviews performance based testing and discusses the development and application of two performance based screening devices. One device has the capability of rapidly screening for impaired psychomotor performance given previous baseline data. The second device provides the potential for screening psychomotor and divided attention performance without prior experience or baseline data.
Technical Paper

Real World Experience In Fitness-For-Duty Testing

1992-10-01
921908
This paper considers experience gained from conducting fitness-for-duty testing in the work place, and reviews results obtained with a specific psychomotor task. Performance testing can provide a means for assessing worker fitness-for-duty prior to their admittance to safety critical job functions, but the testing must be reliable and efficient. This paper will discuss the balance between efficacy and efficiency and provide example data from a test that is currently employed in the work place.
Technical Paper

Low Cost Driving Simulation for Research, Training and Screening Applications

1995-02-01
950171
Interactive driving simulation is attractive for a variety of applications, including screening, training and licensing, due to considerations of safety, control and repeatability. However, widespread dissemination of these applications will require modest cost simulator systems. Low cost simulation is possible given the application of PC level technology, which is capable of providing reasonable fidelity in visual, auditory and control feel cuing. This paper describes a PC based simulation with high fidelity vehicle dynamics, which provides an easily programmable visual data base and performance measurement system, and good fidelity auditory and steering torque feel cuing. This simulation has been used in a variety of applications including screening truck drivers for the effects of fatigue, research on real time monitoring for driver drowsiness and measurement of the interference effect of in-vehicle IVHS tasks on driving performance.
Technical Paper

A Human Factors Study of Driver Reaction to In-Vehicle Navigation Systems

1991-08-01
911680
This paper describes a laboratory simulation study of driver reaction to in-vehicle navigation systems. The study included a pre-test questionnaire on demographic background and commuting behavior, simulation testing of navigation decision making, and a post-test questionnaire on navigation behavior and reactions to in-vehicle navigation systems and the laboratory simulation. A total of 277 subjects, both male and female, were employed over a wide range of ages. Test subjects were assigned to one of four navigation system groups or a no-system control group for the purpose of comparing system performance. The simulation task required subjects to experience a commuting ‘drive’ on a Southern California freeway route and minimize trip time by diverting off the main route to avoid congestion. Subjects were given orientation and training on the simulation and their navigation system condition, and were motivated by rewards and penalties to minimize trip time.
Technical Paper

Meeting Important Cuing Requirements with Modest, Real-Time, Interactive Driving Simulations

1994-03-01
940228
Interactive simulation requires providing appropriate sensory cuing and stimulus/response dynamics to the driver. Sensory feedback can include visual, auditory, motion, and proprioceptive cues. Stimulus/response dynamics involve reactions of the feedback cuing to driver control inputs including steering, throttle and brakes. The stimulus/response dynamics include both simulated vehicle dynamics, and the response dynamics of the simulation hardware including computer processing delays. Typically, simulation realism will increase with sensory fidelity and stimulus/response dynamics that are equivalent to real-world conditions (i.e. without excessive time delay or phase lag). This paper discusses requirements for sensory cuing and stimulus/response dynamics in real-time, interactive driving simulation, and describes a modest fixed-base (i.e. no motion) device designed with these considerations in mind.
Technical Paper

A Computer Simulation Analysis of Safety Critical Maneuvers for Assessing Ground Vehicle Dynamic Stability

1993-03-01
930760
Ground vehicle dynamic stability, including spinout and rollover, is highly dependent on maneuvering conditions and the nonlinear force response characteristics of tires. Depending on vehicle configuration, unstable behavior requires high, sustained lateral acceleration, and some maneuver induced excitation of the roll and yaw mode dynamics. Dynamic instability in some vehicles can be induced by a steering reversal maneuver that involves sustained limit performance lateral acceleration. Using a validated vehicle dynamics simulation, analysis is presented to illustrate what constitutes a critical stability sensitive maneuver. Two example test cases are used to show that a critical stability sensitive maneuver must be more severe than a single lane change. Even reaching tire saturation limits during an aggressive single lane change does not give the sustained lateral acceleration required to provoke instability conditions.
Technical Paper

A Human Factors Simulation Investigation of Driver Route Diversion and Alternate Route Selection Using In-Vehicle Navigation Systems

1991-10-01
912731
This paper describes a human factors simulation study of the decision making behavior of drivers attempting to avoid nonrecurring congestion by diverting to alternate routes with the aid of in-vehicle navigation systems. This study is the first phase of a two part project in which the second phase will apply the driver behavior data to a simulation model analysis of traffic flow. The object of the driver behavior experiment was to compare the effect of various experimental navigation systems on driver route diversion and alternate route selection. The experimental navigation system configurations included three map based systems with varying amounts of situation information and a non map based route guidance system. The overall study results indicated that navigation system characteristics can have a significant effect on driver diversion behavior, with better systems allowing more anticipation of traffic congestion.
Technical Paper

Combined Terrain, Vehicle, and Digital Human Models Used for Human Operator Performance Analysis

2004-06-15
2004-01-2152
A combined biodynamic and vehicle model is used to assess the vibration and performance of a human operator performing driving and other tasks. The other tasks include reaching, pointing and tracking by the driver and/or passenger. This analysis requires the coordinated use of separate and mature software programs for anthropometrics, vehicle dynamics, biodynamics, and systems analysis. The total package is called AVB-DYN, an acronym for Anthropometrics, Vehicle, and Bio-DYNamics. The objectives and architecture are discussed, and then a preliminary version of this package is demonstrated in an example where a HMMWV (High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle) operator is performing a driving task.
Technical Paper

Driver/Vehicle Modeling and Simulation

2002-05-07
2002-01-1568
This paper describes the driver/vehicle modeling aspects of a computer simulation that can respond to highway engineering descriptions of roadways. The driver model interacts with a complete vehicle dynamics model that has been described previously. The roadway path is described in terms of horizontal and vertical curvature and cross slopes of lanes, shoulders, side slopes and ditches. Terrain queries are made by the vehicle dynamics to locate tires on the roadway cross-section, and to define vehicle path and road curvature at some distance down the road. The driver model controls steering to maintain lateral lane position. Speed is maintained at a speed limit on tangents, and decreased as needed to maintain safe lateral acceleration. Because the bandwidth of longitudinal (speed) control is much lower than lateral/directional (steering) control, the driver model looks further ahead for speed control than for steering.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Adverse Visibility on Driver Steering Performance in an Automobile Simulator

1977-02-01
770239
The driver's ability to control the lateral position of an automobile is dependent on his perception of the command path (roadway) to be followed. This perception is affected by both the configuration of road markings and other features, and the visibility of these elements. As visibility decreases, the driver's preview of the commanded path is reduced. Theory indicates that driver performance should degrade with reduced preview and configurational parameters which characterize the intermittent nature of delineation (e.g., dashed lines). This paper describes a simulation experiment in which driver behavior and driver/vehicle system performance were measured over a range of visibility and configuration parameter variations. Driver dynamic response and noise (remnant) were reliably affected by variations in visibility and configuration. These effects were also reflected in system performance measures such as lane deviations.
Technical Paper

Steady State and Transient Analysis of Ground Vehicle Handling

1987-02-23
870495
This paper presents simple linear and non-linear dynamic models and numerical procedures designed to permit efficient vehicle dynamics analysis on microcomputers. Vehicle dynamics are dominated by tire forces and their precursor input variables, and a few inertial and suspension properties. The steady state and dynamic models discussed herein include a comprehensive, unlimited maneuver tire model with relatively simple vehicle suspension kinematics and inertial dynamics to cover the full vehicle maneuvering range from straight running to combined limit cornering and braking or acceleration. An attempt was made to minimize the required tire and vehicle model parameter set and to include easily obtainable parameters. The computer analysis procedures include: A steady state model for determining perturbation side force coefficients, and a stability factor and maneuvering time constant for lateral/directional control.
Technical Paper

Driving Simulation — Requirements, Mechanization and Application

1980-02-01
800448
This paper discusses recent developments and application of driving simulators. Simulation of driving via films has been used for a number of years as a driver education tool. More recently, interactive simulators have been developed for research and training applications. Improvements are accelerating due to a combination of ongoing research needs, and general state of the art advances in hardware and software technology. Modern simulator requirements are reviewed from the point of view of both driver characteristics (vision, audition, proprioception, vestibular motion sensation) and task demands (e.g., steering and speed control, risk perception, decision making, general workload level). A variety of simulator applications are summarized, including comparison with subsequent field tests. These applications include studies involving drunk driving and risk taking, reduced visibility and delineation, and signing.
Technical Paper

A Downhill Grade Severity Rating System

1981-11-01
811263
A Grade Severity Rating System (GSRS) was developed as a means for reducing the incidence and severity of truck accidents on downgrades. The ultimate result is a roadside sign at the top of each hill. The sign is tailored to the individual hill and gives a recommended maximum speed (to be held constant for the entire grade descent) for each of several truck weight ranges. This concept represents a major step forward in terms of grade descent safety because it tells the driver what to do directly, rather than giving him information which still requires evaluation under different loading conditions.
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