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Technical Paper

On the Way to An International Standard for Automotive Applications-Osek/Vdx

Electronic systems in vehicles characteristically consist of several distributed electronic control units (ECUs) from different suppliers. This situation hinders the integration of automotive systems and increases the overall costs due to individual solutions coming from each supplier. In order to get rid of these disadvantages, the French-German project OSEK/VDX was founded and is now drawing attention worldwide. OSEK/VDX worked out a respective specification to standardize services and protocols of communication, network management and a real-time operating system. An overview of the current state of OSEK/VDX including specifications and harmonization process with ISO is given. Furthermore a description of the Modistarc project working on methodologies and tools for conformance testing of commercial OSEK/VDX implementations is contained.
Technical Paper

A Fuzzy System to Determine the Vehicle Yaw Angle

The reproduction of the vehicle motion is a crucial element of accident reconstruction. Apart from the position of the center of gravity in an inertial coordinate system, the vehicle heading plays an important role. The heading is the sum of the yaw angle and the vehicle body side slip angle. In standard vehicles, the yaw angle can be determined using the yaw rate sensor and the wheel speeds. However, the yaw rate sensor is often subject to temperature drift. The wheel speed signals are forged at low speeds or due to slip. These errors result in significant deviations of reconstructed and real vehicle heading. Therefore, an intelligent combination of these signals is required. This paper describes a fuzzy system which is capable to increase the accuracy of yaw angle calculation by means of fuzzy logic. Before the data is applied to the fuzzy system, it is preprocessed to ensure the accuracy of the fuzzy system inputs.
Technical Paper

Automotive Serial Controller Area Network

A high speed serial communication link has been developed for interconnecting electronic control units within automobiles. The incorporation of object oriented communication in conjunction with acceptance filtering introduces a new level of message handling efficiency and flexibility. Powerful error handling techniques guarantee safe operation in noisy automotive environments.
Technical Paper

Automatic Model Based Partitioning of Distributed Automotive Electric Systems

There are a number of tools available to assist the engineer during the automotive electronics design process, for example when transferring a graphical specification to a real time rapid prototyping environment. One step in this tool chain however is largely ignored by automated design tools: mapping a large monolithic model to a distributed system, more specifically the mapping of several functions on only a few electronic control units (ECUs) which are connected by a bus. In this paper we will present a method to analyze the underlying functional structure of a given model, partition it using a heuristic algorithm and verify the results with a model of the CAN bus. Based on a given functional model, we will show how to extract an algebraic representation of the communication behavior, the adjacency matrix. Using the adjacency matrix, the heuristic algorithm Best Gain First can be applied to map functions to ECUs.
Technical Paper

Misfire Detection for Vehicles with Dual Mass Flywheel (DMF) Based on Reconstructed Engine Torque

Today, in many passenger cars and light trucks, the conventional driveline is extended by a dual mass flywheel (DMF). The DMF reduces driveline oscillations by mechanically decoupling the crankshaft and the transmission. Existing engine control systems are general designed for use with conventional single mass flywheel (SMF) systems. In the future, to facilitate the optimal control of engines equipped with advanced DMF systems, these conventional control systems may require adaptation, modification or even replacement. In the past, misfire detection has been done by expensive dedicated sensors; seismic, ion current measurement at the spark plugs or even by measuring in-cylinder pressures directly. Typically misfire detection is performed using signals derived from the crankshaft position sensor, which works well for engines with a limited number of cylinders and which are connected to relatively simply drivelines.
Technical Paper

Distributed Realtime Processing in Automotive Networks

The formulation of software tasks as parallel processes allows their implementation within distributed microcontrollers. The requirements for Automotive Networks to support these applications are discussed. By introduction of a locality measure, a classification of networks can be made either into interactive distributed realtime processing or into classical communication. Given a sufficiantly small locality, the physical network extension does not have an impact on the implementation. A concept i presented how to integrate process dispachting and synchronization. Based upon this concept, functions may be formulated independant of their location in a specific microcontroller.
Technical Paper

The OSEK/VDX Standard for Automotive Applications - Current Status

The aim of OSEK/VDX is an industry standard for open architectures in vehicles. Originally founded as a Franco - German joint project, OSEK/VDX is now drawing worldwide attention. In the project, services and protocols are specified to standardize Communication, Network Management and a real-time Operating System. Its architecture offers a network-independent interface while taking into account the constraints of automotive applications in terms of size and cost. A structured and modular software implementation based on standardized interfaces and protocols as proposed by OSEK/VDX is a necessary condition for portability and extendibility, and thus reusability of existing software. An overview of the current status of OSEK/VDX is presented.
Technical Paper

Fault Detection in Distributed Automotive Electronic Systems Using Hierarchical Colored Bayesian Petri-Nets

In this paper the problem of fault detection in distributed systems is addressed. Due to the trend that these systems are incorporating an increasing number of subsystems from different suppliers fault detection is becoming an essential part of distributed system design. While meeting the typical constraints of the automotive industry there is the demand on increased safety and improved availability. Because of the connection of different subsystems, errors propagate through the system and may affect other subsystems where they can be detected. The key task which is dealt with in this paper is to detect the origin of these errors. Therefore, Hierarchical Colored Bayesian Petri-Nets are introduced to fulfill fault detection according to Bayesian networks. To reduce calculation efforts, the principle of clustering is included.
Technical Paper

Extended Kalman Filter for Vehicle Dynamics Determination Based on a Nonlinear Model Combining Longitudinal and Lateral Dynamics

The vehicle body sideslip angle (VBSSA) is a key variable in vehicle dynamics indicating critical driving situations. It is, e.g., essential in vehicle dynamics control concepts. Since it cannot be measured with standard sensors, it has to be determined via a model based approach. Thereto an Extended Kalman Filter will be presented that is capable of describing the VBSSA with high accuracy. The filter design is based on a nonlinear double track model combining the longitudinal and lateral dynamics. Starting point is a double track model with three state variables, that are the velocity in the center of gravity, the VBSSA and the yaw rate. Then, the longitudinal dynamics are incorporated, yielding the velocity and the longitudinal forces at the individual wheels. The resulting nonlinear state space model only requires information that is provided by the standard sensors available in series production vehicles. On basis of this nonlinear model an Extended Kalman Filter is derived.
Journal Article

Automated Configuration of TDMA-Based and Event-Triggered Vehicle-Networks with Respect to Real-Time Constraints

Today's vehicle networks are mainly based on the event-triggered CAN-bus. In future FlexRay, which is a TDMA-based bus, will more and more be used for the implementation of safety-relevant real-time systems due to its determinism. In order to configure a CAN-based network the priorities of the messages sending via the external bus have to be defined. In this paper an approach will be presented allowing automated priority determination. Subsequently it will be shown how to adapt this method to automated cycle configuration in case of a FlexRay-based system. In order to ensure determinism not only in TDMA-based but also in event-triggered networks, a method will be presented adapting priorities of messages intending to exceed their deadline. This can be easily realized without changing the CAN protocol.
Technical Paper

ISODATA Clustering for Optimized Software Allocation in Distributed Automotive Electronic Systems

In this paper an approach is presented to determine an adequate number of clusters automatically in case of clustering a distributed automotive electronic system. Hereby, this approach is based on the ISODATA clustering algorithm. Its advantages are its flexibility and less computational effort in comparison to normally used partitioning algorithms. In order to cluster a distributed automotive electronic system with respect to a reduced external communication the input data normally used for partitioning algorithms has to be adapted. Besides, a new overall quality criterion is introduced to validate the results of clustering in reference to the busload before test stage.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Lateral Vehicle Dynamics Control via Adaptation of a Quality Function

In this approach a nonlinear controller for the lateral vehicle dynamics is designed. The basis for the design is a nonlinear model of the lateral vehicle dynamics in state space representation consisting of three states: The vehicle velocity, the yaw rate as well as the vehicle body sideslip angle (VBSSA). As control variables the yaw rate and the VBSSA are chosen. To assure the vehicle follows the driver's directional intent, the yaw rate is adapted to a desired reference value determined by means of a linear single track model. The second control variable -the VBSSA- is utilized to reduce the lateral forces. Incorporating the VBSSA, the controller's behavior can be significantly improved. Thus, a nonlinear controller is designed which is capable to stabilize the vehicle in critical driving situations. This nonlinear controller is based on an adaptation of a quality function for the nonlinear model to the one for a linear reference system.
Technical Paper

Comparison & Development of Combustion Engine Models for Driveline Simulation

Today, in many passenger cars and light trucks, the conventional driveline is extended by a dual mass flywheel (DMF). The DMF reduces driveline oscillations by mechanically decoupling the crankshaft and the transmission. Existing engine control systems are designed for conventional single mass flywheel (SMF) systems. In the future, to facilitate the optimal control of engines equipped with advanced DMF systems, such conventional control systems may require adaptation, modification or even replacement. The design and testing of appropriate new control systems has required the development of various types of engine models. In this paper, various engine modeling techniques are introduced and compared in respect to their capabilities for both driveline simulation and control system development.
Journal Article

Adaptive Linear Quadratic Control for High Dynamical and Comfortable Behavior of a Heavy Truck

During the last few years numerous innovations in advanced driveline control have improved the performance of commercial vehicles. In this context a major goal of driveline control is the enhancement of dynamical behavior and driving comfort. However, fast engine torque changes during Tipin and Tipout operations improve the dynamical behavior but induce unintentional driveline jerking at the same time. Due to this fact that comfort is contradictory to dynamic, a control strategy is necessary, which can handle with both targets at the same time. Based on a simple model of the driveline two Linear Quadratic (LQ) controllers are developed: A comfort controller, which damps the driveline oscillations, and a dynamic controller, which guarantees a high dynamical performance. However, as both controllers have different targets it is not possible to activate both at the same time.
Technical Paper

Advanced Techniques for Off- and Online-Identification of a Heavy Truck Driveline

One goal of modern power train control systems in heavy trucks is to damp driveline oscillations using appropriate controllers. Modern control algorithms like state-space controllers are based on a state-space model, which should accurately characterize the real process behavior. Otherwise, optimal control can not be guaranteed. These state-space models include a huge number of parameters, which have to be identified by an identification process. However, existing driveline models contain two serious problems: an increasing offset over time between measured and simulated data and an inadequate detection of the longitudinal dynamics of the truck. Therefore, this article deals with two goals: to optimize the offline identification process for the special use in driveline systems and to establish an online adaptation of the model parameters to guarantee an optimal model fit.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of Future Vehicle Powernets

Future vehicle electrical systems will differ substantially from current ones due to rising requirements. For example driver-assistance and drive-by-wire systems will lead to novel and demanding electrical load profiles which in turn will pose new requirements on the electrical system. Furthermore safety concepts, reliability, availability and diagnosis are getting increasingly important in such systems and thus also in the vehicle's electrical system. In order to meet the upcoming requirements new concepts for future vehicle electrical systems have to be developed such that the new powernet is able to adapt flexibly to different situations or failures by routing the energy through different channels. For efficiency the corresponding development process should be based on modeling and simulation techniques. Depending on the design or analysis task, the powernet is represented through different modeling descriptions.
Technical Paper

Clustering of Complex Electronic Systems with Self-Ordering Maps

In this paper an approach to clustering of complex electronic systems using Self-Ordering Maps (SOMs) is presented. SOMs are neural networks which learn through a competitive learning algorithm. In order to use SOMs for the clustering of electronic networks, a representation of the communication behavior in n-dimensional space is developed. The SOM is then used as a nonlinear projection of this space onto a two-dimensional plane. Two examples of clustering are given. The more complex of the two is verified by comparing the behavior of the clustered system and the unclustered system on a simple model of the CAN bus. It is shown that SOMs can be used to effectively cluster complex electronic systems.
Technical Paper

Car Control by a Central Electronic System

Coordination and concentration of different electronic functions within a car with the objective of functional cooperation and, if possible, incorporation into a single package to reduce costs and improve reliability is discussed. The alternatives of a Special Purpose Computer or a General Purpose Realtime Computer are described with regard to available sensor technology.
Technical Paper

Error Handling Strategies for Automotive Networks

A significant portion of communication in Automotive Networks consists of signals, which are vital to the safety of the vehicle. In addition to requirements resulting from the actual transfer of information an Automotive Communication Protocol has to incorporate properties which ensure operational safety even in presence of errors. Based upon a discrimination into reversible errors and irreversible failures, defect nodes have to be determined and subsequently disconnected from the network. In this paper proper schemes for error detection, report, recovery and confinement are presented.
Technical Paper

Application Specific Microcontroller for Multiplex Wiring

The new aerial communication protocol “Controller Area Network” (CAN) efficiently supports distributed realtime control in automotive applications. In order to unload CPUs from high-speed message transfer, dedicated CAN hardware handles messages up to the communication object level. In multiplex wiring message rates are one to two orders of magnitude lower, allowing to implement the upper communication level more cost-effectively in software. This reduces CAN interface hardware to bitwise protocol handling only. It may be incorporated even into low-end microcontrollers without significantly increasing chip size. Thus the same CAN protocol supports the entire range of serial automotive communication, matching implementation costs to requirements at each performance level.