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Technical Paper

The Prospects of Using Alcohol-Based Fuels in Stratified-Charge Spark-Ignition Engines

2007-10-29
2007-01-4034
Near-term energy policy for ground transportation is likely to have a strong focus on both gains in efficiency as well as the use of alternate fuels; as both can reduce crude oil dependence and carbon loading on the environment. Stratified-charge spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engines are capable of achieving significant gains in efficiency. In addition, these engines are likely to be run on alternative fuels. Specifically, lower alcohols such as ethanol and iso-butanol, which can be produced from renewable sources. SIDI engines, particularly the spray-guided variant, tend to be very sensitive to mixture preparation since fuel injection and ignition occur within a short time of each other. This close spacing is necessary to form a flammable mixture near the spark plug while maintaining an overall lean state in the combustion chamber. As a result, the physical properties of the fuel have a large effect on this process.
Technical Paper

Factors Influencing Spark Behavior in a Spray-Guided Direct-Injected Engine

2006-10-16
2006-01-3376
The spark process has previously been shown to heavily influence ignition stability, particularly in direct-injected gasoline engines. Despite this influence, few studies have addressed spark behavior in direct-injected engines. This study examines the role of environmental factors on the behavior of the spark. Through measurement of the spark duration, by way of the ignition current trace, several observations are made on the influence of external factors on the behavior of the spark. Changing the level of nitrogen in the cylinder (to simulate EGR), the level of wetting and velocity imparted by the spray, the ignition dwell time and the orientation of the ground strap, observations are made as to which conditions are likely to produce unfavorable (shorter) spark durations. Through collection of a statistically significant number of sample spark lengths under each condition, histograms have been assembled and compared under each case.
Technical Paper

Cycle-Resolved Investigation of In-Cylinder and Exhaust NO in a Spray-Guided Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine: Effect of Intake Temperature and Simulated Exhaust Gas Recirculation

2005-10-24
2005-01-3685
The formation of NO was investigated in a spray-guided spark-ignition direct-injection gasoline engine. The influence of variations in intake air temperature and simulated exhaust gas recirculation was examined in an optical single-cylinder engine, fueled with iso-octane. Cycle-resolved simultaneous measurements of OH-chemiluminescence, NO laser induced fluorescence, and fast NO exhaust gas sampling allowed a detailed view of the formation process of NO in this engine. Overall, it was found that cycle-resolved information is needed to explain the differences found between operating conditions, since the initial high stratification of fuel leads to large spatial gradients in the NO concentration. Averaged in-cylinder NO distributions do not adequately reflect the formation process rather than show a smoothed distribution that may even be counter-intuitive based on averaged chemiluminescence data.
Technical Paper

Crank-Angle Resolved Imaging of Fuel Distribution, Ignition and Combustion in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

2005-10-24
2005-01-3753
A combination of imaging techniques for investigations of highly transient processes and cyclic variations in internal combustion engines is presented. The single high-speed camera setup uses a CMOS camera combined with a two-stage image-intensifier and two excimer lasers. Fuel mixing, ignition and combustion were monitored via planar laser induced fluorescence imaging of toluene as a tracer that was added to iso-octane in combination with the simultaneous recording of light emission from the spark plasma and OH* chemiluminescence of the developing flame. Image frame rates of 12 kHz for hundreds of cycles were achieved. Application to misfire events in a spray-guided gasoline direct-injection engine is described to illustrate the merits of the technique.
Technical Paper

Kinetic Energy and Dissipation Rate Spectra of High- and Low-Swirl Internal Combustion Engine Flows

2009-04-20
2009-01-0651
This paper presents total kinetic energy and dissipation rate spectra calculated from particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements in a motored, spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine. Velocity fields were obtained at two engine speeds and swirl conditions in the second half of the compression stroke. Two magnifications were used to achieve a spatial dynamic range covering from the full cross-section of the flat piston window (∼45 mm) down to 350 μm. Sets of 300 instantaneous vector fields were filtered using a Gaussian filter to isolate flow structures over a range of length-scales. The kinetic energy and dissipation rate spectra have been normalized using mean kinetic energy and mean piston speed. Results indicate that if the mean piston speed is selected as the representative outer variable, the kinetic energy and dissipation rate spectra at 2000 RPM and 600 RPM become self-similar over a portion of the spectra regardless of swirl level.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Turbocharged E85 Engine for Formula SAE Racing

2008-06-23
2008-01-1774
A summary of the design and development process for a Formula SAE engine is described. The focus is on three fundamental elements on which the entire engine package is based. The first is engine layout and displacement, second is the fuel type, and third is the air induction method. These decisions lead to a design around a 4-cylinder 600cc motorcycle engine, utilizing a turbocharger and ethanol E-85 fuel. Concerns and constraints involved with vehicle integration are also highlighted. The final design was then tested on an engine dynamometer, and finally in the 2007 M-Racing FSAE racecar.
Technical Paper

Mixture Evaporative Characteristics Prediction for LIF Measurements Using PSRK (Predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong) Equation of State

2002-10-21
2002-01-2750
This work presents a liquid-vapor phase equilibrium study to assist the assessment of the performance of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of ketonic dopants added to non-fluorescing fuels. The evaporative characteristics and relative concentrations of individual species of the mixture including air were evaluated by a PSRK (Predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong) equation of state approach. It was found important to extend the evaluations beyond the typical binary mixtures computations to faithfully represent the evaporation of tracers in the presence of air. Although the interaction parameter of O2-CH3CO in the functional group of UNIFAC for vapor-liquid phase equilibrium is not available, modeling was completed using the average value of O2-H2O and O2-CH3 groups. In comparison with experimental results of various mixture systems, the predicting capability of PSRK has been validated.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Combustion and NO Formation in a Spray-Guided Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine using Chemiluminescence Imaging, NO-PLIF, and Fast NO Exhaust Gas Analysis

2005-05-11
2005-01-2089
The spatial and temporal formation of nitric oxide in an optical engine operated with iso-octane fuel under spray-guided direct-injection conditions was studied with a combination of laser-induced fluorescence imaging, UV-chemiluminescence, and cycle resolved NO exhaust gas analysis. NO formation during early and late (homogeneous vs. stratified) injection conditions were compared. Strong spatial preferences and cyclic variations in the NO formation were observed depending on engine operating conditions. While engine-out NO levels are substantially lower for stratified engine operation, cyclic variations of NO formation are substantially higher than for homogeneous, stoichiometric operation.
Technical Paper

Infrared Borescopic Evaluation of High-Energy and Long-Duration Ignition Systems for Lean/Dilute Combustion in Heavy-Duty Natural-Gas Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-1149
Natural gas (NG) is attractive for heavy-duty (HD) engines for reasons of cost stability, emissions, and fuel security. NG cannot be reliably compression-ignited, but conventional gasoline ignition systems are not optimized for NG and are challenged to ignite mixtures that are lean or diluted with exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR). NG ignition is particularly challenging in large-bore engines, where completing combustion in the available time is more difficult. Using two high-speed infrared (IR) cameras with borescopic access to one cylinder of an HD NG engine, the effect of ignition system on the early flame-kernel development and cycle-to-cycle variability (CCV) was investigated. Imaging in the IR yielded strong signals from water emission lines, which located the flame front and burned-gas regions and obviated image intensifiers. A 9.7-liter, six-cylinder engine was modified to enable exhaust-gas recirculation and to provide optical access.
Technical Paper

Scale Similarity Analysis of Internal Combustion Engine Flows—Particle Image Velocimetry and Large-Eddy Simulations

2018-04-03
2018-01-0172
This presentation is an assessment of the turbulence-stress scale-similarity in an IC engine, which is used for modeling subgrid dissipation in LES. Residual stresses and Leonard stresses were computed after applying progressively smaller spatial filters to measured and simulated velocity distributions. The velocity was measured in the TCC-II engine using planar and stereo PIV taken in three different planes and with three different spatial resolutions, thus yielding two and three velocity components, respectively. Comparisons are made between the stresses computed from the measured velocity and stress computed from the LES resolved-scale velocity from an LES simulation. The results present the degree of similarity between the residual stresses and the Leonard stresses at adjacent scales. The specified filters are systematically reduced in size to the resolution limits of the measurements and simulation.
Technical Paper

Measured and LES Motored-Flow Kinetic Energy Evolution in the TCC-III Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0192
A primary goal of large eddy simulation, LES, is to capture in-cylinder cycle-to-cycle variability, CCV. This is a first step to assess the efficacy of 35 consecutive computed motored cycles to capture the kinetic energy in the TCC-III engine. This includes both the intra-cycle production and dissipation as well as the kinetic energy CCV. The approach is to sample and compare the simulated three-dimensional velocity equivalently to the available two-component two-dimensional PIV velocity measurements. The volume-averaged scale-resolved kinetic energy from the LES is sampled in three slabs, which are volumes equal to the two axial and one azimuthal PIV fields-of-view and laser sheet thickness. Prior to the comparison, the effects of sampling a cutting plane versus a slab and slabs of different thicknesses are assessed. The effects of sampling only two components and three discrete planar regions is assessed.
Technical Paper

Influence of Early and Late Fuel Injection on Air Flow Structure and Kinetic Energy in an Optical SIDI Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0205
The turbulent in-cylinder air flow and the unsteady high-pressure fuel injection lead to a highly transient air fuel mixing process in spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engines, which is the leading cause for combustion cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) and requires further investigation. In this study, crank-angle resolution particle image velocimetry (PIV) was employed to simultaneously measure the air flow and fuel spray structure at 1300 rpm in an optically accessible single-cylinder SIDI engine. The measurement was conducted at the center tumble plane of the four-valve pent-roof engine, bisecting the spark plug and fuel injector. 84 consecutive cycles were recorded for three engine conditions, i.e. (1) none-fueled motored condition, (2) homogeneous-charge mode with start of injection (SOI) during intake (50 crank-angle degree (CAD) after top dead center exhaust, aTDCexh), and (3) stratified-charge mode with SOI during mid compression (270 aTDCexh).
Technical Paper

Infrared Borescopic Analysis of Ignition and Combustion Variability in a Heavy-Duty Natural-Gas Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0632
Optical imaging diagnostics of combustion are most often performed in the visible spectral band, in part because camera technology is most mature in this region, but operating in the infrared (IR) provides a number of benefits. These benefits include access to emission lines of relevant chemical species (e.g. water, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide) and obviation of image intensifiers (avoiding reduced spatial resolution and increased cost). High-speed IR in-cylinder imaging and image processing were used to investigate the relationships between infrared images, quantitative image-derived metrics (e.g. location of the flame centroid), and measurements made with in-cylinder pressure transducers (e.g. coefficient of variation of mean effective pressure). A 9.7-liter, inline-six, natural-gas-fueled engine was modified to enable exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) and provide borescopic optical access to one cylinder for two high-speed infrared cameras.
Journal Article

Impact of Fuel Sprays on In-Cylinder Flow Length Scales in a Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0618
The interaction of fuel sprays and in-cylinder flow in direct-injection engines is expected to alter kinetic energy and integral length scales at least during some portions of the engine cycle. High-speed particle image velocimetry was implemented in an optical four-valve, pent-roof spark-ignition direct-injection single-cylinder engine to quantify this effect. Non-firing motored engine tests were performed at 1300 RPM with and without fuel injection. Two fuel injection timings were investigated: injection in early intake stroke represents quasi-homogenous engine condition; and injection in mid compression stroke mimics the stratified combustion strategy. Two-dimensional crank angle resolved velocity fields were measured to examine the kinetic energy and integral length scale through critical portions of the engine cycle. Reynolds decomposition was applied on the obtained engine flow fields to extract the fluctuations as an indicator for the turbulent flow.
Journal Article

Three-Dimensional Three-Component Air Flow Visualization in a Steady-State Engine Flow Bench Using a Plenoptic Camera

2017-03-28
2017-01-0614
Plenoptic particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) shows great potential for three-dimensional, three-component (3D3C) flow measurement with a simple single-camera setup. It is therefore especially promising for applications in systems with limited optical access, such as internal combustion engines. The 3D visualization of a plenoptic imaging system is achieved by inserting a micro-lens array directly anterior to the camera sensor. The depth is calculated from reconstruction of the resulting multi-angle view sub-images. With the present study, we demonstrate the application of a plenoptic system for 3D3C PTV measurement of engine-like air flow in a steady-state engine flow bench. This system consists of a plenoptic camera and a dual-cavity pulsed laser. The accuracy of the plenoptic PTV system was assessed using a dot target moved by a known displacement between two PTV frames.
Technical Paper

Is Toluene a Suitable LIF Tracer for Fuel Film Measurements?

2004-03-08
2004-01-1355
Quantitative LIF measurements of liquid fuel films on the piston of direct-injected gasoline engines are difficult to achieve because generally these films are thin and the signal strength is low. Additionally, interference from scattered laser light or background signal can be substantial. The selection of a suitable fluorescence tracer and excitation wavelength plays an important role in the success of such measurements. We have investigated the possibility of using toluene as a tracer for fuel film measurements and compare it to the use of 3-pentanone. The fuel film dynamics in a motored engine at different engine speeds, temperatures and in-cylinder swirl levels is characterized and discussed.
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