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Technical Paper

Statistical Analysis of Rigid Body Modes of Engine Mounting System Due to Mount Rates Variability

2006-10-31
2006-01-3466
While the engine mount rates need to be optimized to achieve the required frequency alignment and modal decoupling for quality performance, the robustness of the system needs to be studied as well. If a system exhibits acceptable modal characteristics with nominal optimized rates, the sensitivity of the system to variation of the rates from their nominal values affects the robustness of the system. Different factors can cause variation of the rates. Among them are rate changes from part to part arising from manufacturing process. In this paper the effect of mount rates variability on the modal characteristics is discussed. Monte Carlo simulation is used to predict how the rigid body modes and their couplings vary when the rate for each mount changes according to its statistical parameters. Through different examples the statistical variability of the modes to the rates variability is presented.
Technical Paper

Real-time Crash Detection and Its Application in Incident Reporting and Accident Reconstruction

2017-03-28
2017-01-1419
Characterizing or reconstructing incidents ranging from light to heavy crashes is one of the enablers for mobility solutions for fleet management, car-sharing, ride-hailing, insurance etc. While crashes involving airbag deployment are noticeable, light crashes without airbag deployment can be hidden and most drivers do not report these incidents. In this paper, we are using vehicle responses together with a dynamics model to trace back if abnormal forces have been applied to a vehicle so as to detect light crashes. The crash location around the perimeter of the vehicle, the direction of the crash force, and the severity of the crashes are all determined in real-time based on on-board sensor measurements which has further application in accident reconstruction. All of this information will be integrated to a feature called “Incident Report”, which enable reporting of minor accidents to the relevant entities such as insurance agencies, fleet managements, etc.
Technical Paper

Road User Risk with Older Light Trucks

1999-04-27
1999-01-2258
Do older light trucks, often with second (and subsequent) owners, present a higher risk to either their own occupants or to other road users? And is the safety record for newer trucks better or worse than the record for their older counterparts? To answer these questions, fatalities in crashes involving at least one light truck were examined using the Fatal Analysis Reporting System (FARS). Fatality rates for both occupants of the light truck and for other road users (occupants of other motor vehicles, pedestrians, etc.) in these crashes were computed, based both on the number of registered vehicles and on the vehicle miles of travel. Two trends in these fatality rates are observed. First, as light trucks age, a consistent decline is found in risk both to their own occupants and to other road users. Second, a distinct decrease is found in road user risk for newer light trucks compared to older light trucks when they were new, both for their own occupants and for other road users.
Technical Paper

Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Cruise Controller: Trailer Tow Use Case

2017-03-28
2017-01-0090
Conventional cruise control systems in automotive applications are usually designed to maintain the constant speed of the vehicle based on the desired set-point. It has been shown that fuel economy while in cruise control can be improved using advanced control methods namely adopting the Model Predictive Control (MPC) technology utilizing the road grade preview information and allowance of the vehicle speed variation. This paper is focused on the extension of the Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (ANLMPC) reported earlier by application to the trailer tow use-case. As the connected trailer changes the aerodynamic drag and the overall vehicle mass, it may lead to the undesired downshifts for the conventional cruise controller introducing the fuel economy losses. In this work, the ANLMPC concept is extended to avoid downshifts by translating the downshift conditions to the constraints of the underlying optimization problem to be solved.
Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis between American and European Requirements for Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Focusing on Commercial Vehicles

2019-09-15
2019-01-2141
Analysis of road accidents has shown that an important portion of fatal crashes involving Commercial Vehicles are caused by rollovers. ESC systems in Commercial Vehicles can reduce rollovers, severe understeer or oversteer conditions and minimize occurrences of jackknifing events. Several studies have estimated that this positive effect of ESC on road safety is substantial. In Europe, Electronic Stability Control (ESC) is expected to prevent by far the most fatalities and injuries: about 3,000 fatalities (-14%), and about 50,000 injuries (-6%) per year. In Europe, Electronic Stability Control Systems is mandatory for all vehicles (since Nov. 1st, 2011 for new types of vehicle and Nov. 1st, 2014 for all new vehicles), including Commercial Vehicles, Buses, Trucks and Trailers.
Technical Paper

Evolution of the New Ford Aerostar Impact Extruded Aluminum Wheel

1984-11-01
841694
Ford's continued effort to improve fuel economy in automotive applications has emphasized the need for lightweight components that retain all the toughness associated with Ford truck vehicle characteristics. The application of an impact extrusion process to wheel design and manufacture, for Ford Aerostar, provides strength, performance and style more efficiently than other traditional processes. It results in a valuable 33% weight saving over comparable HSLA steel wheels, and provides the customer with uncompromised value. The Ford Aerostar Impact Extruded Aluminum Wheel was designed to be of one-piece construction, manufactured from a less than 1″ thick aluminum wafer-shaped blank. The process permits manufacture in half the steps of a conventional stamped steel wheel, and eliminates extensive machining required with forged or cast aluminum wheels.
Technical Paper

Chassis Lightweighting Hole Placement with Weldline Evaluation

2020-04-14
2020-01-0493
Vehicle weight driven design comes amid rising higher fuel efficiency standard, and must meet the criteria - pass Proving ground test events that is equivalent customer usage. CAE Fatigue analysis for proving ground (CFP) is behind a success push to digitally simulate vehicle durability performance in high fidelity. The need for vehicle weight reduction often arises late in vehicle development phases when CAE Methods, time, and tangible cost effective opportunities are limited or non-existent. It is necessary to deploy a new CAE Method to identify opportunities for light-weighting hole placement in Chassis structures to deliver a cost effective light-weighting opportunity with no impact on fatigue life. The successful application of this methodology is on truck frame, which is key structural parts for vehicle chassis to support body and suspension and powertrain.
Technical Paper

Mass Optimization of a Front Floor Reinforcement

2020-01-13
2019-36-0149
Optimization of heavy materials like steel, in order to create a lighter vehicle, it is a major goal among most automakers, since heavy vehicles simply cannot compete with a lightweight model's fuel economy. Thinking this way, this paper shows a case study where the Size Optimization technique is applied to a front floor reinforcement. The reinforcement is used by two different vehicles, a subcompact and a crossover Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV), increasing the problem complexity. The Size Optimization technique is supported by Finite Element Method (FEM) tools. FEM in Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) is a numerical method for solving engineering problems, and its use can help to optimize prototype utilization and physical testing.
Journal Article

Cruise Controller with Fuel Optimization Based on Adaptive Nonlinear Predictive Control

2016-04-05
2016-01-0155
Automotive cruise control systems are used to automatically maintain the speed of a vehicle at a desired speed set-point. It has been shown that fuel economy while in cruise control can be improved using advanced control methods. The objective of this paper is to validate an Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (ANLMPC) implemented in a vehicle equiped with standard production Powertrain Control Module (PCM). Application and analysis of Model Predictive Control utilizing road grade preview information has been reported by many authors, namely for commercial vehicles. The authors reported simulations and application of linear and nonlinear MPC based on models with fixed parameters, which may lead to inaccurate results in the real world driving conditions. The significant noise factors are namely vehicle mass, actual weather conditions, fuel type, etc.
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