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White Paper

Innovative Assembly Systems for the Aerospace Industry

2017-10-31
WP-0004
The aerospace industry is facing new challenges to meet burgeoning customer demand. An unprecedented number of orders for commercial aircraft is forcing aerospace manufacturing to make gains in efficiency throughout aircraft production and operation. However, current manufacturing systems are using technologies and production methods unsuited to a future dynamic market. To ensure its profitability, the aerospace industry must seize the opportunity to innovate and readdress approaches to manufacturing. This whitepaper looks at four advanced manufacturing (AM) solutions designed to improve assembly process efficiency, automation, and accuracy.
Solution Notes

The Right Balance for Small UAVs: Defining top-level requirements for the power

2017-12-08
SN-0003
Small tactical UAVs (SUAVs) have made their mark in military operations with their ability to gather and provide localized, real-time information. Typical uses include perimeter surveillance of remote military compounds, over-the-horizon surveillance, and remote monitoring of critical logistics routes. However, their potential to take on increased and increasingly complex missions is hampered by their limited endurance. This work explores research done under the auspices of the European Commission’s Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking on a fuel cell and battery hybrid energy storage system that could increase the total amount of onboard energy storage, while continuing to deliver the peak power needs of the SUAV.
Technical Paper

High Temperature Application Accelerated Cycle Life Test for 12 Volt Lead-Acid SLI Automotive Storage Batteries

2007-04-16
2007-01-0637
The lead-acid battery industry in North America has recognized that there are limitations with the use of current SAE accelerated life tests. The SAE J240b test, when run at 75 °C, produces an accurate correlation between cycles completed on test and mileage accumulated in a test vehicle run in a high temperature climate for certain battery design technologies. However, a universal test for all lead-acid technologies does not presently exist. The SAE Automotive Storage Battery Standards Committee commissioned a Task Force to evaluate alternatives to the current standard. The work reported in this paper is unprecedented in that the top four battery producers in the U.S. combined resources to conduct a study involving laboratory and fleet testing of 10 different lead-acid designs and/or technologies. The results indicate that a universal test with correlation to the fleet is achievable.
Technical Paper

Mechatronics for “Shift by Wire” - A Technical Challenge

2007-04-16
2007-01-1309
Increasing demands for design freedom in modern automotive cockpits stand in contrast to the still predominant mechanical coupling of the driving mode selector to the automatic transmission. Furthermore, tendencies to enhance comfort, such as “keyless go”, are becoming ever more prevalent. A “Shift by wire” system is a viable solution fulfilling these requisites. A mechatronic module, optionally mountable to an existing transmission, incorporating the inter-functionality of actuation, sensing and control electronics will be presented. The mechatronic module must supply high torques within short switching times for the entire voltage range of the battery. Legal guidelines prescribe a redundant feature assuring that the vehicle can lock into the park position at all times. The mounting location on the transmission was decisive for the module design and choice of materials because it dictated severe temperature, vibration and sealing requirements.
Technical Paper

Integrated Modular Concepts for Improved ECLSS Command and Data Handling

2006-07-17
2006-01-2122
Current Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS), particularly on large systems, have a tendency to include several heterogeneous processing elements. This approach is also the default in the commercial aircraft industry. However, Honeywell has been extremely successful in the past decade in using an integrated modular approach to command and data handling for aircraft avionics. This approach, dubbed “Fifth Generation Avionics” by the Air Force's Wright Laboratory, has resulted in significant reductions in the size, weight, power, and acquisition costs of the data handling subsystem. Logistics, modification, and upgrade costs also decreased considerably. While commonality is maximized in the integrated modular architecture, each application continues to be independent with internal designs completely under the control of the application developer.
Technical Paper

Trace Contaminant Removal from Air via Photocatalytic Oxidation

2006-07-17
2006-01-2127
Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) has been evaluated for potential use in trace contaminant removal and disinfection of air from commercial aircraft cabins and spacecraft. For space applications, PCO has the advantage that contaminants are destroyed, rather than stored, or discharged to space, and that contaminants such as carbon monoxide, can be removed using the same system as any other oxidizable contaminant. In this paper, we report experimental studies showing the photocatalytic oxidation of trace contaminants at concentrations comparable to those expected in human-occupied space vessels or aircraft cabins. Competitive rate studies between various pollutants and acetaldehyde have been completed, and oxidative byproducts have been identified and quantified for several organic contaminants and carbon monoxide. Ozone removal has also been demonstrated under photocatalytic conditions.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Power Supplies of Electro-Mobiles

2007-04-16
2007-01-1316
In this paper we consider the questions of increasing the between-charge mileage (range) of electric vehicles and other vehicles with independent electrochemical power supplies. These are classified as hybrid vehicles, and can have various combinations of energy sources installed, such as: storage battery and electrical generator, driven by the engine, storage battery and solar panel, capacitor and electrical generator with engine, and others. The priorities for the development of the combined power supplies used now are considered and analyzed. On the basis of the power analysis of the combined power supply of the hybrid electro-mobile with a solar battery - of which the basic source of energy is the storage battery - the technique of defining the length of between-charge mileage of the vehicle is developed, depending on a combination of a set of parameters: both the components of the combined power supply, and the parameters of the electrical vehicle.
Technical Paper

On-Board Battery Condition Diagnostics Based on Mathematical Modeling of an Engine Starting System

2007-04-16
2007-01-1476
On-line estimation of the battery potential and ability of successfully starting a given engine under specific environmental conditions is a major problem in predicting maintenance strategy of any cars fleet. Battery aging and low operation temperatures are important parameters that may lead to starting failure when this is needed. Several indirect methods have been proposed to evaluate the battery condition. State-of-charge (SOC), state-of-health (SOH), cold cranking amperage (CCA), and internal resistance, are commonly used worldwide to characterize a battery condition. In many cases these indirect methods don't provide reasonable conclusions and practically poor correlation has been found between the predictions and the real battery performance. In the present paper, we propose a new quasi direct approach that is based on mathematical modeling of dynamic behavior of a starting system.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2007-04-16
2007-01-1545
A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) design with design parameters electric motor size, engine size, battery capacity, and battery chemistry type, is optimized with minimum cost as a measure of merit. The PHEV is required to meet a fixed set of performance constraints consisting of 0-60 mph acceleration, 50-70 mph acceleration, 0-30 mph acceleration in all electric operation, top speed, grade ability, and all electric range. The optimization is carried out for values of all electric range of 10, 20, and 40 miles. The social and economic impacts of the optimum designs in terms of reduced gasoline consumption and carbon emissions reduction are calculated. Argonne National Laboratory's Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit is used to simulate the performance and fuel economy of the PHEV designs. The costs of different PHEV components and the present value of battery replacements over the vehicle's life are used to determine the design's drivetrain cost.
Technical Paper

Electrothermal Behavior of a Complete Alternator Assembly within a Battery Charging System using Virtual Prototyping Techniques

2007-04-16
2007-01-1631
This paper illustrates the usage of virtual prototyping to observe the impact of self heating thermal effects on the performance of a complete claw pole alternator assembly. A typical automotive alternator is a subsystem that consists of an electromechanical rotor/stator assembly with electrical rectification and regulation components. Often in literature, thermal effects, if considered, remain exclusive to the alternator core, and do not effectively tie together the impact on other components of the alternator assembly. The scope of this work considers the implementation of a more detailed subsystem of electro-thermal components, rectifiers and a regulator within the context of a software implementation of an electro-mechanical alternator assembly. Alternator measurements, virtual prototype characterization, and validation via simulation comparisons with physical measurements are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Mixed Signal Power IC for Automotive Electronics

2007-04-16
2007-01-1595
Many ICs are used in various electronic components in automotive applications, such as ECUs (electronic control units) and smart actuators. Automotive ICs required the following features: (1) high integration of analog, digital and output devices; (2) high breakdown voltage for analog devices standing the battery voltage; (3) highly accurate control for analog circuits; (4) susceptibility under harsh operating conditions, such as high ambient temperature and high humidity; and (5) high surge immunity such as ESD (electrostatic discharge) robustness. To meet these requirements, we developed analog and output devices with improved surge endurance based on SOI wafer and trench-dielectric-isolation technologies. Analog circuit applications, especially accurate power management or high-precision solenoid driving, demands stable temperature-compensated output. Load dump and battery-jumping also needs high voltage protection and high noise immunity for these devices.
Technical Paper

A Quantitative Study for Critical Factors of Automotive Battery Durability

2007-04-16
2007-01-1594
Due to the increasing numbers of the electric components in vehicles, the reliability of these components is given much weight in the reliability of whole vehicles. Especially the research on the charging system including batteries has been regarded as a key issue for many years in order to secure the fundamental reliability of electric components. As a result of this requirement, the necessity of the optimized design of a charging system including batteries has become a one of the most important issues in vehicle design. Particularly, the main functions of the battery have been broadening not only starting an engine but supplying electric energy to electric components when the alternator could not provide the enough energy to them. This expansion of the battery function causes negative effects to the battery life expectancy. And the battery installation condition is getting worse due to the excessive engine heat.
Technical Paper

A New High-Reliable Thick Film System for Automotive Use

2007-04-16
2007-01-1593
This paper describes the development processes of a highly reliable thick film system for automotive use. There are mainly two thick film systems for automotive use: The Ag system using Ag as the conductor and the Cu system using Cu as the conductor. The resistor of the Ag system is inexpensive, however, the conductor is less reliable. On the contrary, the conductor of the Cu system has superior characteristics, however, the resistor is expensive. In order to solve these contradictory problems of both systems, a composite system consisting of a resistor of the Ag system and the Cu conductor was recently developed. However, the system still has two reliability problems concerning car electronics components which require high reliability, namely the reliability of the soldering joint strength of the conductor and the high voltage characteristics of the resistor.
Technical Paper

High-pressure Metal Hydride Tank for Fuel Cell Vehicles

2007-07-23
2007-01-2011
High-pressure metal hydride (MH) tank has been designed based on a 35 MPa cylinder vessel. The heat exchanger module is integrated into the tank. Its advantage over high-pressure cylinder vessels is its large hydrogen storage capacity, for example 9.5 kg with a tank volume of 180 L by Ti25Cr50V20Mo5 alloy. Cruising range is about 900 km, over 3 times longer than that of a 35 MPa cylinder vessel system with the same volume. The hydrogen-charging rate of this system is equal to the 35 MPa cylinders without any external cooling facility. And release of hydrogen at 243 K is enabled due to the use of hydrogen-absorbing alloy with high-dissociation pressure, for example Ti35Cr34Mn31 alloy.
Technical Paper

Commercial Aircraft Certification for ETOPS Operations

2007-11-28
2007-01-2521
The ETOPS (Extended Range Operation with Two Engine Airplanes) certification is required for two engine airplanes which operate over a route that contains a point farther than one hour flying time at the normal one-engine inoperative cruise speed from an adequate airport. ETOPS regulations are applicable to routes over water as well as remote land areas. This paper summarizes the ETOPS certification process for Commercial Aircraft, including the following topics: Brief ETOPS history; Scope and Applicability; Regulations and Guidelines Applicable for ETOPS Certification; Relevant Aircraft Manufacturer Activities; Aircraft Operator Responsibilities
Technical Paper

Thermal Management Evolution and Controlled Coolant Flow

2001-05-14
2001-01-1732
A tremendous amount of research has been done on the coolant system of engines, however, the configuration remains virtually the same since the early 1900's. Recent testing has shown that by controlling components such as thermostats and water pumps, efficiency and emission improvements can be realized. With the nearing of higher voltage and hybrid systems, along with the availability of high efficiency electric pumps and valves, we are fast approaching the implementation of controlled coolant flow technology. This paper will discuss the problems with the current cooling systems, some of the work that has been done recently and what an ideal controlled coolant system may look like in the future.
Technical Paper

A Preliminary Study of Energy Recovery in Vehicles by Using Regenerative Magnetic Shock Absorbers

2001-05-14
2001-01-2071
Road vehicles can expend a significant amount of energy in undesirable vertical motions that are induced by road bumps, and much of that is dissipated in conventional shock absorbers as they dampen the vertical motions. Presented in this paper are some of the results of a study aimed at determining the effectiveness of efficiently transforming that energy into electrical power by using optimally designed regenerative electromagnetic shock absorbers. In turn, the electrical power can be used to recharge batteries or other efficient energy storage devices (e.g., flywheels) rather than be dissipated. The results of the study are encouraging - they suggest that a significant amount of the vertical motion energy can be recovered and stored.
Technical Paper

A Generalized Model for Vehicle Thermodynamic Loss Management and Technology Concept Evaluation

2000-10-10
2000-01-5562
The objective of this paper is to develop a generalized loss management model to account for the usage of thermodynamic work potential in vehicles of any type. The key to accomplishing this is creation of a differential representation for vehicle loss as a function of operating condition. This differential model is then integrated through time to obtain an analytical estimate for total usage (and loss) of work potential consumed by each loss mechanism present during vehicle operation. The end result of this analysis is a better understanding of how the work potential initially present in the fuel, batteries, etc. is partitioned amongst all losses relevant to the vehicle's operation. The loss partitioning estimated from this loss management model can be used in conjunction with cost accounting systems to gain a better understanding of underlying drivers on vehicle manufacturing and operating costs.
Technical Paper

Aircraft Design Optimizing Operators, Environmental System and Manufacturers Requirements

2000-10-10
2000-01-5546
The aircraft industry in the coming years will produce airliners of different categories for a constantly growing market. Despite this apparently advantageous position it seems increasingly difficult to design new products and new technologies which promise the same rate of economic improvements the customers enjoyed in the past. By realizing this, the analysis of the future market driven aircraft requirements becomes increasingly important. Product strategies considering a total system approach become a more and more important factor in the aircraft design process. Competition in the global transport aircraft market forces aircraft manufacturers progressively more to take the right decisions today for investments in cost effective technologies for the products of tomorrow to stay successful, efficient and respond exactly to the variety of future customer and transportation system requirements.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Computational Characterization of Three-Dimensional Cervical Spine Flexibility

2000-11-01
2000-01-SC11
Cervical spine behavior for generalized loading is often characterized using a full three-dimensional flexibility matrix. While experimental studies have been aimed at determining cervical motion segment behavior, their accuracy and utility have been limited both experimentally and analytically. For example, the nondiagonal terms, describing coupled motions, of the matrices have often been omitted. Flexibility terms have been primarily represented as constants despite the known nonlinear stiffening response of the spine. Moreover, there is presently no study validating the flexibility approach for predicting vertebral motions; nor have the effects of approximations and simplifications to the matrix representations been quantified. Yet, the flexibility matrix currently forms the basis for all multibody dynamics models of cervical spine motion.
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