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Technical Paper

Mobility and fuel economy of hybrid-driven vehicles in terrain~Results from computer simulation

2000-06-12
2000-05-0394
An important requirement for the application of hybrid drives in future terrain vehicles is their competitiveness with regard to the driving properties and the fuel economy. Therefore, a two-axle, all-wheel-driven military transport vehicle equipped with a serial hybrid propulsion system has been regarded and examined by computer simulation. The tool, used for this purpose, is the simulation program ORSIS, (Off Road Systems Interactive Simulation), which has been developed at the University of the Federal Armed Forces in Hamburg. By generating a realistic surrounding area with reproducible conditions ORSIS allows an objective comparison of different vehicle types and the investigation of the influence of modified vehicle parameters. The paper presents results from computer simulations which include acceleration and braking procedures, determination of maximum drawbar pull, and the estimation of fuel consumption under realistic conditions by driving on determined routes.
Technical Paper

Speed adaptation system for vehicles using RF communication

2000-06-12
2000-05-0380
This paper introduces a speed adaptation system using roadside-to-vehicle RF communication. The RF transmitter transmits transmitter''s ID, speed limit, message to the drivers. The messages include occurrence of accident, freezing road, existence of gas station, or construction on the road, etc. At present, drivers identify the speed limit from speed sign board. But drivers cannot concentrate his attention continuously on finding speed sign board, so over speed takes place unintentionally. And one of current information medium to the drivers is variable message sign board (VMS) showing the present road status such as severe congestion, occurrence of accident, or heavy rain. But due to high installation cost of VMS, insufficient number of VMS units are installed on the road. So timely notification of traffic accident to the following drivers is impossible now. Our system is low cost to be installed at close intervals on the highway.
Technical Paper

Development of mayday system

2000-06-12
2000-05-0381
In the event of an emergency situation or a roadside trouble, drivers need rapid help. But, in many cases, it takes too much time to get help, and it even results in a more fatal situation. Rapid response to run-off-the-road and other accidents can help reduce the number of resulting deaths. In many countries, mayday service was developed and commercialized to provide a call and dispatching service in an emergency situation. Daewoo Motor is developing a DreamNet™ system which uses technologies for real-time emergency call and dispatching. The DreamNet™ system is composed mainly of in-vehicle unit, communications system and DreamNet™ service center. The system can be operated by user''s request and also be activated by an external event such as accident, emergency and theft of the vehicle. It transmits the location and type of distress information of the vehicle to the DreamNet™ service center.
Technical Paper

Structuring Neural Network Driver Model and Analyzing Its Characteristics

2000-06-12
2000-05-0376
Using the results of lane-change tests performed on a driving simulator, driver models were developed by means of a neural-network system. Several kinds of driver visual information were used as input data for structure of the neural network, and the steering angle was employed as learning information. A series of simulations employing the trained neural network was conducted to determine the allowable ranges of initial vehicle position, velocity, stability factor, and other variables for successful lane-change maneuvers and for stable running against side winds.
Technical Paper

Driver → vehicle behavior → intelligent vehicle

2000-06-12
2000-05-0377
In this article, the authors try to get their own contribution for solving any actual problems in vehicle stability and handling framework. It used submodeling techniques for entire dynamic mechanical system. Fuzzy modeling is used for one realistic description of dynamic mechanical system represented by vehicle. It applied one solving algorithm of fuzzy relational equations, having genetics algorithm support technique. Finally, it construct one neural network will be fast learning from relations equations solutions. The online work is required approximate equal with driver behavior.
Technical Paper

Expressway speed limits: Germany is right, ECMT is tragically wrong

2000-06-12
2000-05-0362
Three years of research, and two papers, showing a strong correspondence between traffic fatality rates and the business cycle, have proven that, alcohol aside, the fundamental cause of traffic accidents is the mentally distracted driver. This paper is in four parts. A quick review of the discovery/development of the Driver''s Economic Distraction Indicator (DEDI - SAE 970280 on European expressways in the ''70s) and its application to all traffic fatalities in countries around the world (in F98S565). The DEDI is then updated to the ''90s while exploring: a) the use of M2 (as recommended by the American economist, Dr. Milton Friedman) instead of M1; b) OECD''S new Composite Leading Indicators; and c) the use of a locally available leading economic indicator (i.e., new vehicle sales) to give an early warning of a rise in local traffic accidents.
Technical Paper

A forward collision warning an avoidance algorithm

2000-06-12
2000-05-0366
The number of automobiles is rapidly increasing, as are the importance of the car as a way of transportation, and the variety of its uses. In these environments, a safety, one of the primary factors, which must be considered in automotive engineering, demands a system that aids the driver''s perception, in addition to the existing passive method, which relies on just man''s ability. In this point of view, development of the promoted system that complements the passive safety devices is demanded. A system like this should make driving safe and satisfy the need for comfort, while decreasing the driver''s burden and fatigue. The object of this paper is the development of an algorithm that warns the collision ahead and avoids this situation, using some information about the host-car, target-car, surroundings, road conditions, etc. The warning system is developed using a decision algorithm of the degree of safety. To show the validity system based on our safety algorithm.
Technical Paper

The development of in-vehicle unit of advanced vehicle information and communication system

2000-06-12
2000-05-0370
This paper presents an in-vehicle information system, AVICS in development. With AVICS, the driver could get the various information on traffic, news, weather, restaurants, and so on, which the AVICS information center provides via mobile telecommunication network. The driver requests the information to operator in center by voice with hands-free system or by handling the menu offered in the form of web-page. The in-vehicle unit for AVICS is designed to interface with wireless network with a built-in RF MODEM, to control NAVI system, and to display the information on the LCD monitor of AV system. The Internet browser is customized to parse specific HTML tags, application software is realized on 32-bit RISC processor. In this paper, we will overview the concept of AVICS and focus on development of in-vehicle unit of AVICS.
Technical Paper

Map database for ITS and driver assistance

2000-06-12
2000-05-0371
Today''s maturing navigable map database serves as one of the cornerstones needed for the development and growing commercial success of ITS applications worldwide. Beyond convenience and commercial success, tomorrow''s map database will help make the automotive environment progressively safer and more secure.
Technical Paper

Total networked truck driver information and multiplexing vehicle area networks

2000-06-12
2000-05-0372
The truck market is more and more demand driven and complexity has grown substantially. Especially in combination with sophisticated bodies and trailers flexible electronic solutions are required to cope with this complexity. A new approach to meet these demands is to use standardized PLC functionality for vehicle multiplexing and visualization electronics. The VDO KIBES Mk II system is such a solution especially designed for the commercial vehicle market. With software-controlled modules replacing hardwired control centers the vehicles can be easily differentiated at the latest possible time. For the traffic information terminals the first devices are modern radios. Besides classical traffic news the RDS/TMC system delivers continuous digital information for the chosen area. Alternatively telematic service providers can transmit trip-individual traffic and weather information, e.g., through GSM mobile phones.
Technical Paper

The CMC SyTech engine in the new aXcessaustralia hybrid car

2000-06-12
2000-05-0353
The Australian concept car "aXcessaustralia II" is a serial hybrid car of the so-called "New Generation Hybrids." Its internal combustion engine drives an electrical power generator. The wheels are driven by the electrical traction motor only, which receives its energy from a combination of batteries, capacitors and the electrical power generator. In a drivetrain, which consists of a combustion engine, a generator, a traction motor, two different systems for electrical energy storage and the necessary electronics to apply the most fuel efficient power strategy, all components require an extremely high degree of weight optimization to avoid offsetting the fuel savings achieved with the system by an increased overall vehicle weight. They also need to be extremely efficient in themselves.
Technical Paper

Design and Safety Considerations for Automated Battery Exchange Electric Vehicles

2000-06-12
2000-05-0356
The exchange of the energy storage unit from an electric vehicle is considered an alternative to in-vehicle battery charging. If the exchange process is mechanically assisted or automated, the exchange can potentially be accomplished in much less time than that required for in-vehicle charging. Many means for accomplishing battery exchange have been proposed or attempted, with various degrees of success, from the late 1800's through the present. In recent years, battery exchange methods have not been embraced by the electric vehicle industry, in deference to fast in-vehicle battery charging. Only a small number of semi-automated mechanizations have actually been demonstrated. The history of electric vehicle battery exchange is reviewed, focusing on innovations and technical lessons learned. Design and deployment considerations are identified for battery exchange in general, and specific embodiments thereof. A technical comparison with fast charging is presented.
Technical Paper

The development of warm-up control strategies for a methanol reformer fuel cell vehicle

2000-06-12
2000-05-0330
A fuel-cell-powered vehicle requires a plentiful supply of hydrogen to achieve good performance. This can be produced from methanol via an on-board reformer and gas clean-up unit. Since the reformer can take several minutes to reach its operating temperature, it is initially necessary to provide an alternative power source, such as a battery or ultra-capacitor, in order to drive the vehicle. This paper describes the use of a fuel cell vehicle simulation to predict behavior over a drive cycle from a cold start and to evaluate different warm-up control strategies in terms of performance and fuel efficiency.
Technical Paper

ENEA activities in fuel-cell-powered vehicles: Pressure vessels testing

2000-06-12
2000-05-0331
Among the research and development subjects of ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technology, Energy and Environment) an important theme is the study of innovative vehicles with high energy efficiency and low emissions. Our programs are aimed at designing and setting up innovative vehicles with electric propulsion. These vehicles will be of two main types: battery-powered (pure- electric) and hybrid (fuel cell/battery and diesel/battery). At the moment, the fuel-cell technology applied to engines for vehicular applications displays broad margins of convenience over any known alternative engine for what concerns the compliance with any present and foreseeable environmental and energy saving regulations. On the other hand, the use of hydrogen, produced on board from fuels or stored as a liquid or a gas, raises new problems from the point of view of safety regulations and standards both in the design and use of vehicles and in the fuel production and distribution.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Diesel Nitrogen Oxide Reduction By Exhaust Gas Recirculation

2000-06-12
2000-05-0335
This paper concerns mainly with the research work of diesel nitrogen oxide reduction by Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). Using exhaust gas cleaned by a high efficiency bag filter as EGR gas, a 1110 DI diesel engine test bed was set up, and tests were made to investigate the EGR effects on engine performances, including engine emissions and fuel economy. The results showed that the EGR could be used as an effective way to reduce diesel nitrogen oxides with very little economy penalty. When the engine works at low or moderate loads, 25 to 40 percent of the EGR rate is good for better trade-off of engine economy and emissions. The nitrogen oxide reduction efficiency can be as high as 50% to 60% based on emission concentrations, and can be even higher based on total exhaust gas emissions of nitrogen oxides. Larger EGR rate can attain higher nitrogen oxide reduction efficiency, but the engine economy, HC and CO emissions will worsen.
Technical Paper

Three-way catalysts for partial lean-burn engine vehicle

2000-06-12
2000-05-0322
Emission of carbon dioxide from mobile sources seriously concerned to solve greenhouse effect and high price of gasoline in some countries have resulted in the development of lean-burn concept engine. In spite of many studies on the lean deNOx catalyst, we have no clear solution to obtain high fuel economy and high efficiency of NOx conversion in lean-burn application. This paper describes applicability and problems of NOx adsorber system to partial lean-burn vehicle, the development of three-way catalyst with improvement of washcoat technology based on three-way catalyst used for gasoline application, and comparison test results of evaluations is synthesized gas activity test, Federal Test Procedure (FTP) test, etc. This study shows improved three-way catalysts in partial lean- burn vehicle have max. 89% of NOx conversion in FTP without adding rich spike and regeneration functions to engine management system.
Technical Paper

Noise analysis and modeling with neural networks and genetic algorithms

2000-06-12
2000-05-0291
The aim of the project is to reliably identify the set of constructive features responsible for the highest noise levels in the interior of motor vehicles. A simulation environment based on artificial intelligence techniques such as neural networks and genetic algorithms has been implemented. We used a system identification approach in order to approximate the functional relationship between the target noise series and the sets of constructive parameters corresponding to the cars. The noise levels were measured with a microphone positioned on the driver''s chair, and corresponded to a variation of the engine rotation of 600-900 rot/min. The database includes 45 different cars, each described by vectors of 67 constructive features.
Technical Paper

The Driver Side Air Bag Development for Light Truck

2000-06-12
2000-05-0273
This study presents a driver side airbag development procedure of a cab-over type light truck which weighs from 2000kg to 3500kg. For the airbag development, crash tests are performed according to FMVSS 208 regulation used for passenger car. Test results are used to develop an airbag ECU and get a vehicle pulse for computer simulation and sled test. This study proposes a modified airbag deployment criterion, T150mm−25ms, for cab-over type truck. A finite element computer model for occupant behavior analysis is developed and utilized to find optimal airbag parameter values. Then, sled test is performed to verify the computed airbag parameter values and tune them if necessary. Finally, crash test equipped with airbag is performed again to check the improvement of injury coefficients. This study suggests three things to overcome the difficulties in femur protection capability.
Technical Paper

Development of the All-Aluminum Light Body Structure for the Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2000-06-12
2000-05-0267
Global environmental problems have become the focus of much attention in recent years as an issue to be dealt with on an international scale. To alleviate these problems, automobile manufacturers are attempting to develop recyclable body parts and reduce vehicle exhaust emissions. These efforts have spurred the development of Low Emission Vehicles (LEV) and recyclable materials. One type of LEV is called the Hybrid Electric Vehicle which functions as either an electric car or an internal combustion vehicle and can operate as either type according to driving conditions. This hybrid vehicle is superior to conventional automobiles due to reduced exhaust emissions yet has the disadvantage of increased weight since it holds motors, batteries, and drivetrain control systems as well as a conventional internal combustion engine. We succeeded in eliminating this disadvantage by developing a lighter body using aluminum structural material.
Technical Paper

The new generation of BMW child seat and occupant detection system SBE2

2000-06-12
2000-05-0274
A new generation of BMW child seat and occupant detection system SBE2 for a smart airbag system is described. The SBE2 system consists of two subsystems: OC (occupant classification) and FDS (field detection system). The OC system is a force-sensitive sensor array that measures a pressure profile. The FDS system detects child seat and occupant according to the change of electrical field generated by four capacitive plates. Combining the signals from both subsystems, the BMW SBE2 system can distinguish fully automatically between a child seat and a person.
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