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White Paper

REDUCING DOWNTIME THROUGH THE USE OF PREDICTIVE ANALYTICS AND TECHNICAL TRAINING ADVANCEMENTS

2018-01-05
WP-0007
The exponential increase in the number of aircraft and air travelers has triggered new innovations aimed to make airline services more reliable and consumer friendly. Quick and efficient maintenance actions with minimum downtime are the need of the hour. Another major challenge is ensuring maintenance personnel are trained effectively; technology like augmented reality and Virtual Maintenance Trainers (VMTs) may provide safe and efficient training in lieu of live, instructor-led arrangements. And while traditional User/Maintenance Manuals provide useful information when dealing with simple machines, when dealing with complex systems of systems and miniaturized technologies, like unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), new technologies like augmented reality can rapidly and effectively support the maintenance operations.
White Paper

The Use of Imaging for Powder Metal Characterization and Contamination Identification

2018-04-05
WP-0008
As AM technologies are being used with higher frequencywithin the automotive and aerospace industries, the interest in powder characterization and contaminant identification is growing—especially for suppliers looking to gain entry into these highly regulated industries. Standards for powder materials and methods used for aerospace applications are still be developed, and regulatory agencies such as the Federal Aviation Administration have been requesting that standards be developed as guidance for the industry. Methods such as CCSEM and HLS could be viable options for suppliers needing to adhere to a powder specification by demonstrating compliance. Solutions exist to integrate such methods into a production environment as exemplified by RJ Lee Group.
Tech Insights

Balance of Plant: Integrating PEM Fuel Cells into Aircraft

2017-11-13
TI-0002
While all-electric aircraft remain at the bleeding edge of the aviation industry, incorporating technologies like proton exchange membrane fuel cells into existing aircraft can result in considerable auxiliary capability with low environmental impact. However, proper consideration must be given to supporting systems to achieve a reliable balance of plant-especially when those systems interface with existing aircraft architectures. The scope of the BoP is to manage and condition the reactant flows to and from the fuel-cell module and to provide power to system components.
Solution Notes

The Right Balance for Small UAVs: Defining top-level requirements for the power

2017-12-08
SN-0003
Small tactical UAVs (SUAVs) have made their mark in military operations with their ability to gather and provide localized, real-time information. Typical uses include perimeter surveillance of remote military compounds, over-the-horizon surveillance, and remote monitoring of critical logistics routes. However, their potential to take on increased and increasingly complex missions is hampered by their limited endurance. This work explores research done under the auspices of the European Commission’s Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking on a fuel cell and battery hybrid energy storage system that could increase the total amount of onboard energy storage, while continuing to deliver the peak power needs of the SUAV.
Technical Paper

Relative motion estimation using radar and vision data integration

2000-06-12
2000-05-0379
A radar sensor is an essential part for forward collision warning and avoidance. The radar sensor gives information of relative distance and speed. However, some lane change situations need additional sensors for reliable estimation of relative motion. So, the authors introduce a vision system that can detect interruption by lane changing and give approximate relative distance. Vision data are used to verify radar data, and vision/radar data are used for more accurate estimation of relative motion. The authors perform a vehicle test for the verification of this algorithm.
Technical Paper

Development of mayday system

2000-06-12
2000-05-0381
In the event of an emergency situation or a roadside trouble, drivers need rapid help. But, in many cases, it takes too much time to get help, and it even results in a more fatal situation. Rapid response to run-off-the-road and other accidents can help reduce the number of resulting deaths. In many countries, mayday service was developed and commercialized to provide a call and dispatching service in an emergency situation. Daewoo Motor is developing a DreamNet™ system which uses technologies for real-time emergency call and dispatching. The DreamNet™ system is composed mainly of in-vehicle unit, communications system and DreamNet™ service center. The system can be operated by user''s request and also be activated by an external event such as accident, emergency and theft of the vehicle. It transmits the location and type of distress information of the vehicle to the DreamNet™ service center.
Technical Paper

Structuring Neural Network Driver Model and Analyzing Its Characteristics

2000-06-12
2000-05-0376
Using the results of lane-change tests performed on a driving simulator, driver models were developed by means of a neural-network system. Several kinds of driver visual information were used as input data for structure of the neural network, and the steering angle was employed as learning information. A series of simulations employing the trained neural network was conducted to determine the allowable ranges of initial vehicle position, velocity, stability factor, and other variables for successful lane-change maneuvers and for stable running against side winds.
Technical Paper

Driver → vehicle behavior → intelligent vehicle

2000-06-12
2000-05-0377
In this article, the authors try to get their own contribution for solving any actual problems in vehicle stability and handling framework. It used submodeling techniques for entire dynamic mechanical system. Fuzzy modeling is used for one realistic description of dynamic mechanical system represented by vehicle. It applied one solving algorithm of fuzzy relational equations, having genetics algorithm support technique. Finally, it construct one neural network will be fast learning from relations equations solutions. The online work is required approximate equal with driver behavior.
Technical Paper

Offset paraboloidal reflector antenna for millimeter-wave radar

2000-06-12
2000-05-0378
Vehicular collision avoidance radar systems using millimeter-wave have been developed in recent years. Because of their simple structures, a microstrip antenna or a lens antenna is often used as the radar antenna. However, the antenna efficiencies of these antennas are low, in general. Therefore, the types of antenna that have small antenna aperture are difficult to obtain high antenna gains. In addition, it is difficult to radiate many beams at narrow beam intervals with a lens antenna. We developed an offset paraboloidal reflector antenna (the OP antenna) for the vehicular collision avoidance radar. This antenna consists of one pyramidal horn antenna and one offset paraboloidal reflector. They pyramidal horn and the radio frequency unit (the RF unit) of the radar are fixed in the radar head. To scan the beam, only the reflector is rotated. Using a reflector-rotating mechanism, the OP antenna can radiate many beams toward different directions.
Technical Paper

Basic Considerations for the Concepts of Wheeled off-Road Vehicles

2000-06-12
2000-05-0387
The demand for greater mobility on unprepared terrain in all seasons by agriculture, construction, and the military has stimulated interest in the study of off-road vehicles. Thus the use of automobiles for cross-country movements and the potential for building more efficient automobiles and vehicles with high off-road mobility has also increased significantly. The engineers and designers of off-road vehicles face a lack of generally recognized theories. Usually, the concept of terrain vehicles are developed very empirically and are based on principles of mechanics and land locomotion. The author presents a general overview on models and considerations for wheeled off-road vehicle concepts. First vehicle and soil are defined, then the interaction between these two elements is discussed. Based on these models, methods to predict and measure traction of off-road vehicles are evaluated. The relevant elements of off-road vehicles and their influence on mobility are presented.
Technical Paper

ADM A NEW DRIVE-TRAIN MANAGEMENT

2000-06-12
2000-05-0389
The new drive-train system Automatic Drive-Train Management (ADM) controls all traction systems present in a vehicle. Applications include the all wheel drive feature in transfer cases and differential locks in axles. Compared to manually operated or automated traction control systems ADM has the advantage of transferring 100 percent of the torque automatically. The range of application for the ADM system would be a 4×2 truck tractor to a 6×6 off-road vehicle. A key feature of the ADM system is the synchronized engagement of gears in a two-speed transfer case while the vehicle is moving.
Technical Paper

A study of the technology development process for automotive sensors

2000-06-12
2000-05-0385
An automotive sensor development process is discussed in this paper from the viewpoint of whether it is suitable for achieving new sensors having technological competitiveness. A concrete example of the application of this development process to automotive sensors is presented to demonstrate that it produces technologically competitive sensors. In the first section, a general process is proposed for automotive sensor development. The fundamental concepts underlying this process are summarized below. 1. An analysis of the object to be measured is the starting point for sensor development. This analysis is carried out from four perspectives: (1) the measurement of phenomena for which an electronic system is technologically advantageous; (2) the mechanism of the object to be measured; (3) the characteristic behavior of the object; and (4) the special features of the object. And 2.
Technical Paper

Expressway speed limits: Germany is right, ECMT is tragically wrong

2000-06-12
2000-05-0362
Three years of research, and two papers, showing a strong correspondence between traffic fatality rates and the business cycle, have proven that, alcohol aside, the fundamental cause of traffic accidents is the mentally distracted driver. This paper is in four parts. A quick review of the discovery/development of the Driver''s Economic Distraction Indicator (DEDI - SAE 970280 on European expressways in the ''70s) and its application to all traffic fatalities in countries around the world (in F98S565). The DEDI is then updated to the ''90s while exploring: a) the use of M2 (as recommended by the American economist, Dr. Milton Friedman) instead of M1; b) OECD''S new Composite Leading Indicators; and c) the use of a locally available leading economic indicator (i.e., new vehicle sales) to give an early warning of a rise in local traffic accidents.
Technical Paper

The development of in-vehicle unit of advanced vehicle information and communication system

2000-06-12
2000-05-0370
This paper presents an in-vehicle information system, AVICS in development. With AVICS, the driver could get the various information on traffic, news, weather, restaurants, and so on, which the AVICS information center provides via mobile telecommunication network. The driver requests the information to operator in center by voice with hands-free system or by handling the menu offered in the form of web-page. The in-vehicle unit for AVICS is designed to interface with wireless network with a built-in RF MODEM, to control NAVI system, and to display the information on the LCD monitor of AV system. The Internet browser is customized to parse specific HTML tags, application software is realized on 32-bit RISC processor. In this paper, we will overview the concept of AVICS and focus on development of in-vehicle unit of AVICS.
Technical Paper

A throttle/brake control law for vehicle intelligent cruise control

2000-06-12
2000-05-0369
A throttle/brake control law for the intelligent cruise control (ICC) system has been proposed in this paper. The ICC system consists of a vehicle detection sensor, a controller and throttle/brake actuators. For the control of a throttle/brake system, we introduced a solenoid-valve-controlled electronic vacuum booster (EVB) and a step-motor-controlled throttle actuator. Nonlinear computer model for the electronic vacuum booster has been developed and the simulations were performed using a complete nonlinear vehicle model. The proposed control law in this paper consists of an algorithm that generates the desired acceleration/deceleration profile in an ICC situation, a throttle/brake switching logic and a throttle and brake control algorithm based on vehicle dynamics. The control performance has been investigated through computer simulations and experiments.
Technical Paper

Stop and go cruise control

2000-06-12
2000-05-0368
This paper will address the basic requirements for realizing a stop and go cruise control system. Issues discussed comprise: functional, sensor and basic HMI requirements, primary characterization of naturalistic stop and go driving, and the basic approach of the transformation of situational knowledge in an elementary controller.
Technical Paper

Adaptive, real-time traffic control management

2000-06-12
2000-05-0374
This paper presents an architecture for distributed control systems and its underlying methodological framework. Ideas and concepts of distributed systems, artificial intelligence, and soft computing are merged into a unique architecture to provide cooperation, flexibility, and adaptability required by knowledge processing in intelligent control systems. The distinguished features of the architecture include a local problem solving capability to handle the specific requirements of each part of the system, an evolutionary case-based mechanism to improve performance and optimize controls, the use of linguistic variables as means for information aggregation, and fuzzy set theory to provide local control. A distributed traffic control system application is discussed to provide the details of the architecture, and to emphasize its usefulness. The performance of the distributed control system is compared with conventional control approaches under a variety of traffic situations.
Technical Paper

Total networked truck driver information and multiplexing vehicle area networks

2000-06-12
2000-05-0372
The truck market is more and more demand driven and complexity has grown substantially. Especially in combination with sophisticated bodies and trailers flexible electronic solutions are required to cope with this complexity. A new approach to meet these demands is to use standardized PLC functionality for vehicle multiplexing and visualization electronics. The VDO KIBES Mk II system is such a solution especially designed for the commercial vehicle market. With software-controlled modules replacing hardwired control centers the vehicles can be easily differentiated at the latest possible time. For the traffic information terminals the first devices are modern radios. Besides classical traffic news the RDS/TMC system delivers continuous digital information for the chosen area. Alternatively telematic service providers can transmit trip-individual traffic and weather information, e.g., through GSM mobile phones.
Technical Paper

Analytical system for combustion engine exhaust emissions

2000-06-12
2000-05-0346
As emission regulations become tighter and tighter, equipment must evolve to be able to achieve the new standards. Also additional test requirements demand a system that is flexible and can accommodate differences both in the tests and the test facility. By that test cell equipment for chassis dynamometer as well as engine dynamometer applications is getting increasingly complex. That also will require new concepts for the design of such systems. In the past emission system design was more likely a collection and packaging process, which has interfaced various independent components. Now, the development of modern analytical emission systems requires a true holistic design process. This paper will describe the demands and the realization of a modern emission system. It can be shown that an extended effort during the design process will result in a high performance system, which still remains simple and robust.
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