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White Paper

Innovative Assembly Systems for the Aerospace Industry

2017-10-31
WP-0004
The aerospace industry is facing new challenges to meet burgeoning customer demand. An unprecedented number of orders for commercial aircraft is forcing aerospace manufacturing to make gains in efficiency throughout aircraft production and operation. However, current manufacturing systems are using technologies and production methods unsuited to a future dynamic market. To ensure its profitability, the aerospace industry must seize the opportunity to innovate and readdress approaches to manufacturing. This whitepaper looks at four advanced manufacturing (AM) solutions designed to improve assembly process efficiency, automation, and accuracy.
Solution Notes

The Right Balance for Small UAVs: Defining top-level requirements for the power

2017-12-08
SN-0003
Small tactical UAVs (SUAVs) have made their mark in military operations with their ability to gather and provide localized, real-time information. Typical uses include perimeter surveillance of remote military compounds, over-the-horizon surveillance, and remote monitoring of critical logistics routes. However, their potential to take on increased and increasingly complex missions is hampered by their limited endurance. This work explores research done under the auspices of the European Commission’s Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking on a fuel cell and battery hybrid energy storage system that could increase the total amount of onboard energy storage, while continuing to deliver the peak power needs of the SUAV.
Technical Paper

Exterior Water Management Using a Custom Euler-Lagrange Simulation Approach

2007-04-16
2007-01-0101
The reduction of hardware vehicle models during development drives the necessity to transfer most hardware tests to VR Simulation. Exterior water management is one of the topics, where complex physics meet everyday situations. A vehicle contamination test conducted in a wind tunnel is selected to be transferred to numerical simulation. The method of choice is the Euler-Lagrange approach with modeled ‘liquid’ wall particles. A new wall film model has been developed in the present study to include the observed liquid properties in physical test. This model takes the local wetting conditions into account and constitutes a reformulation of the local force balance of the wall liquid. Also the wall film separation model has been refined and improved. With this new approach, the gas/liquid, liquid/solid and liquid/liquid interaction has been remodeled.
Technical Paper

Requirements for Fuel Consumption Measurement for Emissions Regulations US07/10 and for Euro 4/5Design Criteria and Layout of the Fuel Measurement Systems

2007-01-23
2007-01-0059
New heavy-duty diesel engine emission test regulations require even tougher emission limits verified with steady-state as well as transient test procedures, which are becoming increasingly important. The target of this paper is to describe the requirements and tasks for the fuel consumption measurement system and to discuss critical parameters which are essential for the layout of the fuel measurement system. The resulting fuel measurement system will be described and the performance ability will be demonstrated by measurement results and application examples. High absolute measurement accuracy of the fuel mass flow sensor, high fuel temperature control accuracy, appropriate fuel pressure control and fast time response of the complete fuel measurement system are all crucial factors needed to achieve repeatable specific fuel consumption values within 1 g/kWh and an overall time response of less than 300 ms.
Technical Paper

A Study of Durability Problems and Solutions for Vehicle Hub Bearing

2007-04-16
2007-01-0633
Noise from hub-bearings of used vehicles originates from various sources as the seal, capacity, shape of related parts, lot characteristics, production quality, test method, and lack of tightening torque. To investigate the effect of each source on the durability of hub-bearings, used cars as well as part and actual car's accelerated durability tests are performed. In this investigation, load conditions around the hub in various field conditions are analyzed, followed by the improvement of ideal life-cycle equation and part durability test procedure. A new process including design, test, quality and production guidelines are suggested for hub-bearing durability improvement.
Technical Paper

High Temperature Application Accelerated Cycle Life Test for 12 Volt Lead-Acid SLI Automotive Storage Batteries

2007-04-16
2007-01-0637
The lead-acid battery industry in North America has recognized that there are limitations with the use of current SAE accelerated life tests. The SAE J240b test, when run at 75 °C, produces an accurate correlation between cycles completed on test and mileage accumulated in a test vehicle run in a high temperature climate for certain battery design technologies. However, a universal test for all lead-acid technologies does not presently exist. The SAE Automotive Storage Battery Standards Committee commissioned a Task Force to evaluate alternatives to the current standard. The work reported in this paper is unprecedented in that the top four battery producers in the U.S. combined resources to conduct a study involving laboratory and fleet testing of 10 different lead-acid designs and/or technologies. The results indicate that a universal test with correlation to the fleet is achievable.
Technical Paper

A Hardware-in-the-loop Test Bench for Production Transmission Controls Software Quality Validation

2007-04-16
2007-01-0502
Production software validation is critical during software development, allowing potential quality issues that could occur in the field to be minimized. By developing automated and repeatable software test methods, test cases can be created to validate targeted areas of the control software for confirmation of the expected results from software release to release. This is especially important when algorithm/software development timing is aggressive and the management of development activities in a global work environment requires high quality, and timely test results. This paper presents a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench for the validation of production transmission controls software. The powertrain model used within the HIL consists of an engine model and a detailed automatic transmission dynamics model. The model runs in an OPAL-RT TestDrive based HIL system.
Technical Paper

Valve Event Detection Using Knock Sensor Signals

2007-04-16
2007-01-1288
To make electrical or electro-hydraulic gas exchange valve actuators more economically feasible for the production of cam-less engines, it is desirable to achieve valve position information from existing engine sensors rather than to develop and install new sensors for each gas exchange valve. Time and frequency domain characteristics of acoustic (knock) sensor signals were analyzed using both cross-correlation and Fourier analyses to determine characteristics that indicate valve position. The time-domain signatures for valve events were found to be inconsistent from cycle to cycle and thus difficult to identify using cross-correlation techniques. Frequency content of the engine vibration as it varied with crankshaft angle was analyzed to find valve position dependent patterns. Analysis revealed a wideband signal that correlates to intake and exhaust valve closing events.
Technical Paper

Mechatronics for “Shift by Wire” - A Technical Challenge

2007-04-16
2007-01-1309
Increasing demands for design freedom in modern automotive cockpits stand in contrast to the still predominant mechanical coupling of the driving mode selector to the automatic transmission. Furthermore, tendencies to enhance comfort, such as “keyless go”, are becoming ever more prevalent. A “Shift by wire” system is a viable solution fulfilling these requisites. A mechatronic module, optionally mountable to an existing transmission, incorporating the inter-functionality of actuation, sensing and control electronics will be presented. The mechatronic module must supply high torques within short switching times for the entire voltage range of the battery. Legal guidelines prescribe a redundant feature assuring that the vehicle can lock into the park position at all times. The mounting location on the transmission was decisive for the module design and choice of materials because it dictated severe temperature, vibration and sealing requirements.
Technical Paper

Fuel Tank and Charcoal Canister Fire Hazards during EVAP System Leak Testing

2007-04-16
2007-01-1235
The combination of on-board diagnostics and evaporative emission control (EVAP) systems has led to a growing need to identify and repair leaks in automotive EVAP systems. The normal leakfinding method involves purging the system with a smoke fluid, usually air or nitrogen containing an oil aerosol and then looking for a visual indication of the leak. The purge flow used to distribute smoke through the system displaces substantial amounts of fuel vapor from the tank vapor space and can also raise the oxygen level inside the fuel system. If any ignition source is present, the formation of flammable mixtures both inside and outside the vehicle systems can lead to a flash fire hazard associated with leak finding procedures. Currently available fire statistics (such as NFPA) are not sufficiently detailed to attribute service shop fires to specific testing procedures.
Technical Paper

Determining the Precision of the Hybrid III Small Female Neck Calibration Laboratory Test Procedure Using ASTM E 691

2007-04-16
2007-01-1172
Lab-to-lab differences have become a very important consideration in the verification testing of Hybrid III 5th Female necks in user labs. It has been observed that a neck certified by one laboratory does not always pass the same certification test in a different lab. This has led the Anthropomorphic test device Certification Research group (ACR) to investigate the precision of the test procedure in relation to the test specification corridors. This study adapts an industry recognized ASTM procedure to measure the precision of the SAE neck calibration laboratory test procedure in Engineering Aid 25 [1]. The ASTM procedure is ASTM E 691-99 “Standard Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method” [2]. This paper details how the ASTM procedure was adapted and presents the results of the ASTM E 691 statistical analysis procedures.
Technical Paper

Development of Advanced Metallic Substrate Design for Close Coupled Converter Application

2007-04-16
2007-01-1262
The implementations of the Tier 2 and LEVII emission levels require fast catalyst light-off and fast closed loop control through high-speed engine management. The paper describes the development of innovative catalyst designs. During the development thermal and mechanical boundary conditions were collected and component tests conducted on test rigs to identify the emission and durability performance. The products were evaluated on a Super Imposed Test Setup (SIT) where thermal and mechanical loads are applied to the test piece simultanously and results are compared to accelerated vehicle power train endurance runs. The newly developed light-off catalyst with Perforated Foil Technology (PE) showed superior emission light-off characteristic and robustness.
Technical Paper

Elaboration of a Correlation Factor Based On Fleet Tests and Mobile Air Conditioning (MAC) System Laboratory Tests

2007-04-16
2007-01-1187
The EU Commission has decided to establish a regulatory type test approval method for the guarantee of initial leak tightness of R-134a MAC systems in Europe. This method of test will be applicable as of July 2007. In order to establish the method of test the European Association of Car Manufacturers (ACEA) has launched a study for the development of a technically-sound method. The Center for Energy and Processes has carried out the study at three levels: a fleet tests of 40 vehicles, laboratory tests on 40 MAC systems identical to the ones installed on the fleet cars, and tests of 160 components. The paper describes the charge and recovery method in order to guarantee a precision of recovery of 0/-1 g for the fleet of vehicles. Results of the fleet tests show that the average emission level is of 10 g/yr. The paper describes also the laboratory method of test based on the measurement of the R-134a concentration inside mini-sheds using infrared techniques.
Technical Paper

Effects of Substrate Diameter and Cell Density FTP Performance

2007-04-16
2007-01-1265
An experiment was performed with a 1.3L catalytic converter design containing a front and rear catalyst each having a volume of 0.65 liters. This investigation varied the front catalyst parameters to study the effects of 1) substrate diameter, 2) substrate cell density, 3) Pd loading and 4) Rh loading on the FTP emissions on three different vehicles. Engine displacement varied from 2.4L to 4.7L. Eight different converters were built defined by a Taguchi L-8 array. Cold flow converter restriction results show the tradeoff in converter restriction between substrate cell density and substrate diameter. Vehicle FTP emissions show how the three vehicles are sensitive to the four parameters investigated. Platinum Group Metals (PGM) prices and Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions were used to define the emission value between the substrate properties of diameter and cell density to palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh) concentrations.
Technical Paper

Driver Airbag Linear Impactor Dynamic Testing Method and Data Analysis

2006-04-03
2006-01-1436
A sub-system test method for driver air bags has been established to quantify their dynamic restraint capability. The sub-system includes a driver airbag module as well as a steering wheel with rim supported. The test is called Driver Air Bag Linear Impactor Test – Dynamic (DABLIT-D). This test method can be used for not only A to B comparisons, but also for evaluating the performance of any DAB module design in general. A variety of impactor, pendulum and drop tower test methods are currently used at suppliers. DABLIT-D is aimed to standardize airbag testing. A DOE test series was done to determine the best test parameters. Production and prototype hardware were tested to investigate the characteristics of the sub-assemblies that provide restraint capability. A modification of the Weibull function was used to characterize the resultant data.
Technical Paper

Tire Cornering Force Test Method for Winter Surfaces

2006-04-03
2006-01-1627
Tire cornering forces are often measured in the laboratory on a high-friction surface and little information exists on the nature of cornering on other surfaces. Thus, the impact of winter roads on vehicle behavior is difficult to fully capture in vehicle dynamics simulations. The CRREL (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory) Instrumented Vehicle was used to measure cornering forces on winter surfaces. The vehicle was instrumented for forces, speeds, and a variety of other measures. Tests were performed at the Keweenaw Research Center in Northern Michigan, during February 2005, and included measurements on ice, packed snow, and undisturbed snow. Packed snow density was 0.5 g/cm3 and loose snow densities ranged from 0.07 to 0.23 g/cm3 with depths from 5 to 23 cm. The test technique involved towing the vehicle in a straight line while sweeping the steering angle from zero to approximately 17 degrees both left and right.
Technical Paper

ATV Jules Verne Thermal Vacuum Test Predictions

2006-07-17
2006-01-2117
The first ATV Flight Unit Jules Verne will be subjected to a Thermal Vacuum Test during 2006. The paper describes the large Test Prediction campaign performed by ALCATEL ALENIA SPACE (AAS) with the ATV Integrated Overall Thermal Mathematical Model (IOTMM) developed by AAS, considering the reference inputs data provided by EADS-ST. The prediction results will be used to adjust and validate the final test procedure with regard to the sequence of operations and set-points to be applied during the TV Test. The ATV Jules Verne TV test will be performed at ESA-ESTEC LSS vacuum test chamber.
Technical Paper

Integrated Modular Concepts for Improved ECLSS Command and Data Handling

2006-07-17
2006-01-2122
Current Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS), particularly on large systems, have a tendency to include several heterogeneous processing elements. This approach is also the default in the commercial aircraft industry. However, Honeywell has been extremely successful in the past decade in using an integrated modular approach to command and data handling for aircraft avionics. This approach, dubbed “Fifth Generation Avionics” by the Air Force's Wright Laboratory, has resulted in significant reductions in the size, weight, power, and acquisition costs of the data handling subsystem. Logistics, modification, and upgrade costs also decreased considerably. While commonality is maximized in the integrated modular architecture, each application continues to be independent with internal designs completely under the control of the application developer.
Technical Paper

Trace Contaminant Removal from Air via Photocatalytic Oxidation

2006-07-17
2006-01-2127
Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) has been evaluated for potential use in trace contaminant removal and disinfection of air from commercial aircraft cabins and spacecraft. For space applications, PCO has the advantage that contaminants are destroyed, rather than stored, or discharged to space, and that contaminants such as carbon monoxide, can be removed using the same system as any other oxidizable contaminant. In this paper, we report experimental studies showing the photocatalytic oxidation of trace contaminants at concentrations comparable to those expected in human-occupied space vessels or aircraft cabins. Competitive rate studies between various pollutants and acetaldehyde have been completed, and oxidative byproducts have been identified and quantified for several organic contaminants and carbon monoxide. Ozone removal has also been demonstrated under photocatalytic conditions.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Power Supplies of Electro-Mobiles

2007-04-16
2007-01-1316
In this paper we consider the questions of increasing the between-charge mileage (range) of electric vehicles and other vehicles with independent electrochemical power supplies. These are classified as hybrid vehicles, and can have various combinations of energy sources installed, such as: storage battery and electrical generator, driven by the engine, storage battery and solar panel, capacitor and electrical generator with engine, and others. The priorities for the development of the combined power supplies used now are considered and analyzed. On the basis of the power analysis of the combined power supply of the hybrid electro-mobile with a solar battery - of which the basic source of energy is the storage battery - the technique of defining the length of between-charge mileage of the vehicle is developed, depending on a combination of a set of parameters: both the components of the combined power supply, and the parameters of the electrical vehicle.
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