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White Paper

Innovative Assembly Systems for the Aerospace Industry

2017-10-31
WP-0004
The aerospace industry is facing new challenges to meet burgeoning customer demand. An unprecedented number of orders for commercial aircraft is forcing aerospace manufacturing to make gains in efficiency throughout aircraft production and operation. However, current manufacturing systems are using technologies and production methods unsuited to a future dynamic market. To ensure its profitability, the aerospace industry must seize the opportunity to innovate and readdress approaches to manufacturing. This whitepaper looks at four advanced manufacturing (AM) solutions designed to improve assembly process efficiency, automation, and accuracy.
Solution Notes

The Right Balance for Small UAVs: Defining top-level requirements for the power

2017-12-08
SN-0003
Small tactical UAVs (SUAVs) have made their mark in military operations with their ability to gather and provide localized, real-time information. Typical uses include perimeter surveillance of remote military compounds, over-the-horizon surveillance, and remote monitoring of critical logistics routes. However, their potential to take on increased and increasingly complex missions is hampered by their limited endurance. This work explores research done under the auspices of the European Commission’s Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking on a fuel cell and battery hybrid energy storage system that could increase the total amount of onboard energy storage, while continuing to deliver the peak power needs of the SUAV.
Technical Paper

The CMC SyTech engine in the new aXcessaustralia hybrid car

2000-06-12
2000-05-0353
The Australian concept car "aXcessaustralia II" is a serial hybrid car of the so-called "New Generation Hybrids." Its internal combustion engine drives an electrical power generator. The wheels are driven by the electrical traction motor only, which receives its energy from a combination of batteries, capacitors and the electrical power generator. In a drivetrain, which consists of a combustion engine, a generator, a traction motor, two different systems for electrical energy storage and the necessary electronics to apply the most fuel efficient power strategy, all components require an extremely high degree of weight optimization to avoid offsetting the fuel savings achieved with the system by an increased overall vehicle weight. They also need to be extremely efficient in themselves.
Technical Paper

Design and Safety Considerations for Automated Battery Exchange Electric Vehicles

2000-06-12
2000-05-0356
The exchange of the energy storage unit from an electric vehicle is considered an alternative to in-vehicle battery charging. If the exchange process is mechanically assisted or automated, the exchange can potentially be accomplished in much less time than that required for in-vehicle charging. Many means for accomplishing battery exchange have been proposed or attempted, with various degrees of success, from the late 1800's through the present. In recent years, battery exchange methods have not been embraced by the electric vehicle industry, in deference to fast in-vehicle battery charging. Only a small number of semi-automated mechanizations have actually been demonstrated. The history of electric vehicle battery exchange is reviewed, focusing on innovations and technical lessons learned. Design and deployment considerations are identified for battery exchange in general, and specific embodiments thereof. A technical comparison with fast charging is presented.
Technical Paper

ENEA activities in fuel-cell-powered vehicles: Pressure vessels testing

2000-06-12
2000-05-0331
Among the research and development subjects of ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technology, Energy and Environment) an important theme is the study of innovative vehicles with high energy efficiency and low emissions. Our programs are aimed at designing and setting up innovative vehicles with electric propulsion. These vehicles will be of two main types: battery-powered (pure- electric) and hybrid (fuel cell/battery and diesel/battery). At the moment, the fuel-cell technology applied to engines for vehicular applications displays broad margins of convenience over any known alternative engine for what concerns the compliance with any present and foreseeable environmental and energy saving regulations. On the other hand, the use of hydrogen, produced on board from fuels or stored as a liquid or a gas, raises new problems from the point of view of safety regulations and standards both in the design and use of vehicles and in the fuel production and distribution.
Technical Paper

Development of the All-Aluminum Light Body Structure for the Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2000-06-12
2000-05-0267
Global environmental problems have become the focus of much attention in recent years as an issue to be dealt with on an international scale. To alleviate these problems, automobile manufacturers are attempting to develop recyclable body parts and reduce vehicle exhaust emissions. These efforts have spurred the development of Low Emission Vehicles (LEV) and recyclable materials. One type of LEV is called the Hybrid Electric Vehicle which functions as either an electric car or an internal combustion vehicle and can operate as either type according to driving conditions. This hybrid vehicle is superior to conventional automobiles due to reduced exhaust emissions yet has the disadvantage of increased weight since it holds motors, batteries, and drivetrain control systems as well as a conventional internal combustion engine. We succeeded in eliminating this disadvantage by developing a lighter body using aluminum structural material.
Technical Paper

Vehicle electric power simulator for optimizing the electric charging system

2000-06-12
2000-05-0054
The electrical power system is the vital lifeline to most of the control systems on modern vehicles. The demands on the system are highly complex, and a detailed understanding of the system behavior is necessary both to the process of systems integration and to the economic design of a specific control system or actuator. The vehicle electric power system, which consists of two major components: a generator and a battery, has to provide numerous electrical and electronic systems with enough electrical energy. A detailed understanding of the characteristics of the electric power system, electrical load demands, and the driving environment such as road, season, and vehicle weight are required when the capacities of the generator and the battery are to be determined for a vehicle. An easy-to-use and inexpensive simulation program may be needed to avoid the over/under design problem of the electric power system. A vehicle electric power simulator is developed in this study.
Technical Paper

Cost-effective pollution abatement for SI engines with a 42V board net

2000-06-12
2000-05-0055
Higher initial load is known to allow faster catalyst heating and lower cold-start emission values. The generally expected change of the board net voltage to 42 Volts allows the use of additional or improved electric systems for increased vehicle comfort and safety. The resulting configuration offers as well new degrees of freedom in terms of board net energy management, which can be used to provide additional features, one of them the optimization of the engine load operation in the cost-start phase. In this paper, a case study is used to show how a sensible choice of the operating point of the starter/generator in the cold-start phase allows to reduce very strongly emissions with no additional exhaust aftertreatment equipment.
Technical Paper

The Development of the Electric Propulsion System for the Zero Emission Scooter in Taiwan

1997-10-27
978482
In year 2000, Taiwan EPA will implement a regulation for a 2% of mandatory sales of electric scooters to reduce the motorcycle emission. In order to cope with this regulation, Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) and local motorcycle makers have carried out an electric scooter development which involves developing from the electric propulsion system development to the prototyping scooter to run a series fleet tests. By installing the lead-acid battery into the scooter, the maximum speed can be reached to 50 km per hour, the cruise mileage per charging is 60 km. In addition to these, the preliminary test results show that the scooter can satisfy most of the target customers. This article will describe the development of the zero emission scooter from the electric propulsion system to a small scale of fleet test.
Technical Paper

The Volkswagen Electric Drive Vehicle: Objectives and Technology

1998-10-19
98C056
In addition to the price factor, the success of an electric vehicle primarily depends on its performance characteristics and operating range. Advances both in vehicle design and better technology help to improve these characteristics, thus providing the customer with a convincing vehicle concept. Three vehicle generations will be examined and the development advances between 1993 and 2003 will be listed by way of comparison. Improvement potential and technical limits will be analyzed from cost aspects. Since the limits of battery technology cannot be extended at will, it is necessary to develop both battery-driven electric vehicles and vehicles fitted with hybrid drive units. Based on the drive technology of purely electric-powered vehicles, concepts of range extender hybrid and fuel-cell hybrid vehicles will be presented.
Technical Paper

The Role of Power Electronics in Future Automotive Systems

1998-10-19
98C009
As features in vehicles and their associated loading on the vehicle's power supply increase, the existing 14V power supply system is being pushed to its limits. At some point it will be necessary to provide a complementary higher supply voltage for higher power loads to ensure reliable operation. Industry efforts have been underway to define the next step(s) toward a common architecture. These efforts are currently focused on a dual voltage 14V/42V system with specified voltage limits. A change in the vehicle's power supply voltage and over-voltage specifications have a direct impact on semiconductors. Cost, reliability, available process technology, and packaging are among the areas that are affected. Reducing or eliminating the load dump transient can provide cost reduction, especially for power switching devices. Smart semiconductor switches with integrated diagnostic and protection features provide the potential to replace fuses in the new architecture.
Technical Paper

Future Electrical Power Supply System

1998-10-19
98C007
The development of innovative vehicle systems is driven by the demand for improvement in comfort, reduction in fuel consumption, environmental protection and an increase in efficiency. A resultant trend is the substitution of mechanical systems by electrical solutions. A basic requirement is an optimized electrical power supply. During the development of the future electrical power supply, the following changes can be observed: 1) High power components require higher voltages. As a result, multi-voltage electrical power supply systems will appear. 2) Demands for increased availability and reliability require the introduction of state monitoring, redundant paths, components and functions. 3) The relationship between electrical load requirements, deliverable power and fuel consumption, force the introduction of electrical power supply management. These trends will be discussed, and the consequences of a future electrical power supply architecture derived from it.
Technical Paper

Making the Case for a Next Generation Automotive Electrical System

1998-10-19
98C006
Introduction of an array of new electrical and electronic features into future vehicles is generating vehicle electrical power requirements that exceed the capabilities of today's 14 volt electrical systems. In the near term (5 to 10 years), the existing 14V system will be marginally capable of supporting the expected additional loads with escalating costs for the associated charging system. However, significant increases in vehicle functional content are expected as future requirements to meet longer-term (beyond 10 years) needs in the areas of emission control, fuel economy, safety, and passenger comfort. A higher voltage electrical system will be required to meet these future requirements. This paper explores the functional needs that will mandate a higher voltage system and the benefits derivable from its implementation.
Technical Paper

Sealed Nickel-Zinc Battery for Electric Mower Uses

1991-11-01
911296
A sealed nickel-zinc battery has been developed to replace the sealed lead-acid battery which was the only battery available for powering an electric undergrowth mower (or a shrub trimmer, or a shrub cutter). The sealed nickel-zinc battery weighs approximately 60% of the weight of the sealed lead-acid battery for a given energy stored, with battery discharge performance at a high current drain, particularly at a low temperature, coupled with a somewhat longer cycling life in a repeated use with a high current drain and charging with a charger exclusively designed for this battery. Unlike the other nickel-zinc battery, this sealed nickel-zinc battery does not use mercury as an additive to the zinc electrode, and so is environmentally benign.
Technical Paper

Sealed Lead-Acid Battery for Agricultural Equipment Use

1991-11-01
911299
Conventional automotive batteries have been used in agricultural equipment. However, these batteries do not necessarily respond to what the user actually needs. The following complaints are often heard: * Engines do not start after long-term off-season storage. * Inconvenient services, such as recharging, are required. * These heavy batteries have no place to hold on to and is hard to carry. These problems occur simply because regular automotive batteries are applied. To create a truly appropriate battery for this application, some extensive study of actual use of batteries in agricultural equipment have been conducted. A sealed maintenance-free battery that is perfectly suited to this application, requires no service maintenance work, and results in no messy acid leakage was developed.
Technical Paper

Effect of Charging Alcoholic Fuel with Electricity on Engine Performances

1989-11-01
891337
By using an inside visible carburettor, effects of high voltage application to the injected fuel on its behaviour and engine performances are investigated. At first five electrode arrangements around the venturi are examined to clearify the charging mechanism on the injected fuel and its effect on the fuel atomization. The experimental results show that when induced charging, corona charging and electrostatic force are effectively applied to the injected fuel, its atomization is remarkably improved. The diameter of fuel droplets monotonously decreases with increase of applied voltage and the effect is more distinct when the induced air velocity is low. Firing engine test is also carried out and it is revealed that when the throttle valve opening is large, the application of voltage considerably spreads the combustible range toward leaner side. Cyclic variation is reduced and startability is improved by the charge under the severe operating condition.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Primary Energy Consumption by Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles and Electric Vehicles

1989-11-01
891381
We calculated energy efficiency from primary energy sources (petroleum, coal, natural gas) to finished energy products (gasoline and electricity), and projected fuel economy of ICEVs and electricity consumption of EVs. The resultant pre-mile primary energy consumption of EVs and ICEVs shows that when petroleum is the primary energy source, EVs will consume more energy than ICEVs in 1989, and less in 2000, assuming advanced batteries and technologies for EVs are developed by 2000. If coal is the primary energy source, EVs will consume less energy than ICEVs in 1989, and much less in 2000.
Technical Paper

Development of Starting Fluid for Diesel and Study of Its Functioning Mechanism

1989-11-01
891202
This paper describes the functions of starting fluid for diesel from seven main factors, namely, initial ignition, the life of initial fire, antiknock, pressure spray, lubrication, mutual solubility and antifreeze. The influence of spontaneous ignition temperature TB, ignition lag Τi and centane number CN of the fluid mixture on low temperature starting is studied. The cold starting properties are predicted from the chemical bond energies of various components in the fluid and related statistical data. As compared with similar domestic and imported or foreign products, the fluid mixture developed by the author is excellent in its rapid starting and low fluid consumption, together with its superior antiknock property. Thus, the starting load on engine and batteries are reduced and their service lives can be prolonged. The energy cost and other expenditures can also be saved.
Technical Paper

Developments in the Design and Performance of Automotive Starter Batteries 1975-1985

1983-11-07
830916
The Automotive Starter Battery is undergoing a metamorphosis in response to the needs for reduced component weight and lower-in-service maintenance. Revision of rating standards and developments in machine technology has allowed battery design engineers to stretch the capabilities of the lead-acid system. This paper traces the development of automotive starter batteries through the seventies, describes the major recent innovations and indicates additional design changes which should allow this system to meet the challenges of the mid to late eighties.
Technical Paper

Electric Vehicles Studies and Development in Fiat

1978-01-01
785093
State-of-art of FIAT's electric vehicles technology is examined. Concepts are explained concerning the choice of possible alternative solutions in the basic definition of electric vehicles. Propulsion systems characteristics, batteries parameters, operational requirements and economics are strictly interrelated. This matter is object of a parametric analysis in the paper. The result is the definition of optimization criteria related to the different applications. The most significant FIAT's developments in the field of electric vehicles are mentioned
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