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White Paper

Innovative Assembly Systems for the Aerospace Industry

2017-10-31
WP-0004
The aerospace industry is facing new challenges to meet burgeoning customer demand. An unprecedented number of orders for commercial aircraft is forcing aerospace manufacturing to make gains in efficiency throughout aircraft production and operation. However, current manufacturing systems are using technologies and production methods unsuited to a future dynamic market. To ensure its profitability, the aerospace industry must seize the opportunity to innovate and readdress approaches to manufacturing. This whitepaper looks at four advanced manufacturing (AM) solutions designed to improve assembly process efficiency, automation, and accuracy.
Solution Notes

The Right Balance for Small UAVs: Defining top-level requirements for the power

2017-12-08
SN-0003
Small tactical UAVs (SUAVs) have made their mark in military operations with their ability to gather and provide localized, real-time information. Typical uses include perimeter surveillance of remote military compounds, over-the-horizon surveillance, and remote monitoring of critical logistics routes. However, their potential to take on increased and increasingly complex missions is hampered by their limited endurance. This work explores research done under the auspices of the European Commission’s Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking on a fuel cell and battery hybrid energy storage system that could increase the total amount of onboard energy storage, while continuing to deliver the peak power needs of the SUAV.
Technical Paper

A Stochastic Energy Management Strategy for Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles

2007-01-23
2007-01-0011
An energy management strategy is needed to optimally allocate the driver's power demands to different power sources in the fuel cell hybrid vehicles. The driver's power demand is modelled as a Markov process in which the transition probabilities are estimated on the basis of the observed sample paths. The Markov Decision Process (MDP) theory is applied to design a stochastic energy management strategy for fuel cell hybrid vehicles. This obtained control strategy was then tested on a real time simulation platform of the fuel cell hybrid vehicles. In comparison to the other 3 strategies, the constant bus voltage strategy, the static optimization strategy and the dynamic programming strategy, simulations in the Beijing bus driving cycle demonstrate that the obtained stochastic energy management strategy can achieve better performance in fuel economy in the same demand of dynamic.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Auditory Warning Approach for Driver Assistance and Active Safety Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-0443
Production vehicles are becoming increasingly equipped with driver assistance and active safety systems that warn the driver of potential crash threat situations. For such systems, it is important to understand how drivers perceive and respond to these warnings. An integral part of such systems is the manner in which auditory warnings are presented to drivers. This research measured the ability of drivers to effectively localize warning sound candidates, and developed an integrated approach for presenting these warnings to drivers in vehicles equipped with multiple driver assistance and active safety systems.
Technical Paper

Radio Usage: Observations from the 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study

2007-04-16
2007-01-0441
This paper discusses radio usage habits observed during analysis of 700 hours of video sampled from the 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study database. Analysts used large-scale printouts of each vehicle's radio faceplate and recorded interactions based on video analysis of hand movement and location (without the assistance of audio recordings). The duration and specific manipulations or adjustments were recorded for each interaction. The results summarize the length and type of interactions, most often-used controls, and total percentage of time drivers interacted with the radio.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Vehicle Dynamics Based on Human Sensitivity (Second Report) -A Study of Cornering Feel-

2007-04-16
2007-01-0447
Vehicle body movements that occur during cornering have a strong influence on the evaluation of ride and handling. As a first step, we analyze subjective comments from trained drivers and find that the sense of vision played a major part in cornering feel. As a result of quantitative evaluations, we hypothesize that smaller time lag between roll angle and pitch angle made cornering feel better. We perform a human sensitivity evaluation, which confirmed this hypothesis. Given this result, we derive analytical equations for the roll center kinematics and the damping characteristics, in order to find a theoretical condition for the time lag of 0sec (giving a good cornering feel). We verify this by experiment.
Technical Paper

State Drivers’ Manuals Can Kill Your Kids

2007-04-16
2007-01-0445
If one compares America's road safety record with that of other developed nations, worrying situations and statistics are revealed. Among these is the fact that of the 30 member-countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD], the USA lies in a saddening and reprehensible 29th position for the per capita rate of road deaths, with a rate over three times worse than that found in the leading nations. The writer of this paper will propose that much could be done to rectify this devastating state of affairs, including major improvements in the quality and standardization of information given to new young drivers, particularly in state drivers’ manuals.
Technical Paper

Integrating CE-based Applications into the Automotive HMI

2007-04-16
2007-01-0446
Being able to integrate consumer electronics (CE) devices into the automobile is an increasingly important goal. In this paper, we focus on the HMI (human machine interaction) aspects of consumer electronics in the car. We describe the requirements concerning HMI integration of consumer electronics and offer several possible solutions. One of the requirements is minimal driver distraction. A desired property in this context concerns the mental model that the user builds of the service that is to be operated: ideally, this model (i.e., appearance and interaction logic) need not change when integrating the service into the automobile, even though the operating elements differ considerably (e.g., touch screen vs. iDrive commander). A further requirement is posed by the dynamic nature of CE services: often, they are not known at design/deploy time of the HMI software of the automobile.
Technical Paper

Effect of Car Cabin Environment on Driver's Comfort and Fatigue

2007-04-16
2007-01-0444
Objective of this research is to evaluate the car cabin environment on the driver's comfort and fatigue. In the first experiment, subjects were exposed to 4 conditions, performing 3 kinds of simulated driving task. The visual recognition and reaction task developed in this study was adequate to be used for evaluation of driver's performance and fatigue. When the break up time (BUT) of subjects' eyes gets shorter due to indoor environment, their performance would become lower. Female subjects were more sensitive in eye comfort and visual fatigue than males. In the second experiment, subjects stayed for 90 minutes in a car cabin with 2 humidity conditions, performing the Visual recognition and reaction task. Humidity in car cabin affected human skin moisture and humidity sensation. BUT at low humidity was shorter than at high humidity although no statistically significant difference was observed in eye dryness sensation and visual fatigue.
Technical Paper

In-Car Auditory Signals

2007-04-16
2007-01-0450
This paper describes in-car auditory signals and compares them with auditory signals other fields of application. A lot of systems, e.g. navigation, in-car interface system or the on-board computer use short sound messages to give feedback to the driver. The aim of the study is to examine auditory signals of existing cars. Such signals can be used to convey information and also an emotional relation towards the brand. Therefore, physical parameters of these signals are described and some of the signals are tested in a usability test. The result shows that the signals have a simple design. They do neither convey information nor let anybody identify with the brand. Furthermore, they have a high potential for improvement with new sound generating systems. Through comparison with medical equipment and robotic systems concrete input for development can be identified.
Technical Paper

A-TRIX: A Three-Wheels Electric Scooter with Innovative Tilting Mechanism

2007-04-16
2007-01-0454
The paper describes A-Trix, an electric scooter with three wheels conceived as a new vehicle devoted to the urban mobility (Figure 1). A-Trix has a vehicle dynamics potentially interesting for people looking for a new way to drive with fun. The driver operates the scooter in standing position, tilting his body to the left or to the right to turn the vehicle, as he would be while skiing. This main idea was used in the design of the vehicle. An innovative tilting mechanism was developed to satisfy the requirements such as simplicity, mechanic solution, low design and production cost, etc. The paper describes the main concept on which the scooter design was based, presents the original tilting mechanism conceived and carried out, and summarizes the most important results obtained.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Technique Based on Finite Element and Experimental Data for Automotive Applications

2007-04-16
2007-01-0466
This paper presents the hybrid technique application in identifying the noise transfer paths and the force transmissibility between the interfaces of the different components in the vehicle. It is the stiffness based formulation and is being applied for the low to mid frequency range for the vibration and structure borne noise. The frequency response functions such as dynamic compliance, mobility, inertance, and acoustic sensitivity, employed in the hybrid method, can either be from the test data or finite element solution or both. The Source-Path-Receiver concept is used. The sources can be from the road surface, engine, transmission, transfer case, prop-shaft, differential, rotating components, chain drives, pumps, etc., and the receiver can be driver/passenger ears, steering column, seats, etc.
Technical Paper

Optical Sensor Concepts for Future Head-Lighting System

2007-04-16
2007-01-0611
To enhance drivers' convenience and safety, headlamps and headlamp control systems have been remarkably improved. For example, in daytime driving condition, auto-lighting systems support drivers especially when they repeat entering and exiting tunnels in mountain areas. On the other hand, in nighttime driving conditions, the higher luminance headlamp HID gives drivers the enhanced visibility and Adaptive Front-lighting System (AFS) offers them the increased forward visibility on curves. Nevertheless, their performances are not yet enough developed to meet the market demands. In case of entering tunnels, the lighting-up timing is sometimes later than desired. In case of HID and AFS, their potentials are sometimes unnecessarily restrained to prevent glare to oncoming vehicles even they don't exist. These problems should be solved by adding the scene sensor to those systems.
Technical Paper

Horizontal Adjusting Control for Automotive Headlight System

2007-04-16
2007-01-0610
A well-designed headlamp system should allow enough illumination to road conditions and less glare to an oncoming vehicle for night-time driving or in darkness. However, loads and body motions of a running vehicle can affect the beam direction of a headlamp. Besides, car braking and acceleration also cause vehicle pitching and then change beam direction. Change of beam direction due to the above factors results in insufficient illumination in front of a car and glaring to the oncoming vehicles. To solve the above problems, one solution is to equip a vehicle with a horizontal adjustable headlight system for night-time driving or in darkness. However, some road conditions, such as speed breaker or pavement with pot-hole, can cause high frequency vehicle vibrations, which will cause high frequency headlight adjustments if the headlamp is adjustable. These unnecessary high-frequency adjustments might also cause safety problems to drivers.
Technical Paper

High Temperature Application Accelerated Cycle Life Test for 12 Volt Lead-Acid SLI Automotive Storage Batteries

2007-04-16
2007-01-0637
The lead-acid battery industry in North America has recognized that there are limitations with the use of current SAE accelerated life tests. The SAE J240b test, when run at 75 °C, produces an accurate correlation between cycles completed on test and mileage accumulated in a test vehicle run in a high temperature climate for certain battery design technologies. However, a universal test for all lead-acid technologies does not presently exist. The SAE Automotive Storage Battery Standards Committee commissioned a Task Force to evaluate alternatives to the current standard. The work reported in this paper is unprecedented in that the top four battery producers in the U.S. combined resources to conduct a study involving laboratory and fleet testing of 10 different lead-acid designs and/or technologies. The results indicate that a universal test with correlation to the fleet is achievable.
Technical Paper

The Challenges of Next Generation Automotive Benchmarks

2007-04-16
2007-01-0512
More than ever, microcontroller performance in cars has a direct impact on the driving experience, on compliance with improved safety, ever-stricter emissions regulations, and on fuel economy. The simple microcontrollers formerly used in automobiles are now being replaced by powerful number-crunchers whose performance can no longer be measured in MIPS. Instead, their effectiveness is based on a coherent partitioning between analog and digital, hardware and software, tools and methodology. To make an informed choice among the available devices, what the designer needs are benchmarks that are specific to automotive applications, and which provide a realistic representation of how the device will perform in the automotive environment. This presentation will explore the role of new benchmarks in the development of complex automotive applications.
Technical Paper

Architecture Exploration for Time-Critical and Cost-Sensitive Distributed Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-1277
Emerging technologies provide opportunities for the implementation of advanced car features enhancing the safety and the comfort of the driver, but at the same time, the correct implementation of these features imposes new design challenges on electronics, software, and controls designers due to the large number of in-vehicle computers and serial data communications. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive view of methods and tools that support the designers in facing such challenges. We propose an approach for quantitative architecture exploration based on the scoring of the possible alternatives via metrics of interest, and we illustrate some early results with a case study example.
Technical Paper

Rear Signal Lighting: From Research to Standards, Now and in the Future

2007-04-16
2007-01-1229
Rear signal lighting on vehicles has two primary functions: informing other drivers about the presence of a vehicle on the roadway, and alerting those other drivers to intentions of a vehicle's driver before actions such as turning or stopping occur. In the present paper, reports, articles and other technical literature, pertaining to rear lighting signal system photometric requirements and use of dynamic display features, are reviewed. The objective is to synthesize recommendations for configuring rear lighting in order to optimize systems for different ambient weather and lighting conditions, dirt accumulation, and warning functions. Research results from European, North American and Japanese contexts are discussed.
Technical Paper

Mechatronics for “Shift by Wire” - A Technical Challenge

2007-04-16
2007-01-1309
Increasing demands for design freedom in modern automotive cockpits stand in contrast to the still predominant mechanical coupling of the driving mode selector to the automatic transmission. Furthermore, tendencies to enhance comfort, such as “keyless go”, are becoming ever more prevalent. A “Shift by wire” system is a viable solution fulfilling these requisites. A mechatronic module, optionally mountable to an existing transmission, incorporating the inter-functionality of actuation, sensing and control electronics will be presented. The mechatronic module must supply high torques within short switching times for the entire voltage range of the battery. Legal guidelines prescribe a redundant feature assuring that the vehicle can lock into the park position at all times. The mounting location on the transmission was decisive for the module design and choice of materials because it dictated severe temperature, vibration and sealing requirements.
Technical Paper

Adaptive Crashworthiness of Front-End Structure of Motor Vehicles

2007-04-16
2007-01-1180
The aim of this research is to present a new concept of adaptive crashworthiness system. Main objectives of the proposed system are to predict, control and adjust the impact characteristics to various conditions by decreasing the pre-designed crushing stiffness of the vehicle frontal deformation zone. According to the initial pre-crash parameters (velocity, mass, stiffness and overlap) the prospective system can select proper crushing force. In most basic approach each absorber has two levels of the crushing stiffness - high and low. De-stiffening feature is driven by pyrotechnic detachable connectors integrated in the frontal car structure, which can be destroyed causing disconnection of selected structural members, excluding them from the energy dissipation process. Pyrotechnical stiffness control can be activated in a very short time, sufficient to act during typical road accidents. Among other things, the presented idea can be used to solve mass compatibility problems.
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