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Technical Paper

Speech processing for vehicles: What's next?

2000-10-16
2000-01-CO77
The human voice is and remains the best form of communication. Therefore, spoken language interfaces to computers are a topic that has engaged engineers and speech scientists since the fifties. Once limited to the realm of science fiction, speech technology has now passed the threshold of practicality. The commercial deployment of these systems has already begun, although the applications are still specialized for certain purposes. This paper presents a speech recognition system that is particularly suited for drivers and passengers in a vehicle environment. The first chapter is describing a typical system design of today. Tens of thousands of these units are already in use. Thereafter a future system design will be described, in which the voice control of a navigation system is the most challenging problem. Finally the papers shows as an outlook, what comes next after the future. In particular, distributed speech processing systems will be used based on client-server architecture.
Technical Paper

Automobile Bodies, from the Abstract Customer's Viewpoint

1928-01-01
280057
CONSTRUCTIVE criticism of automobile bodies as now built is given herein, based on experience gained in driving five-passenger sedan cars of many makes a total distance of nearly 10,000,000 miles in one year in tests at the General Motors Proving Ground. The fault finding, although humorously exaggerated, will be valuable if taken seriously, as it gives to all body designers and builders the benefit of testing experience that few companies are in a position to gain at first hand. The author treats his subject from the viewpoint of the abstract customer; that is, the automobile-purchasing public as a whole and as represened by the imaginary average man, who is assumed to have average stature and body structure and to drive all the different makes of car. Thus he is assumed to change from one to another make frequently, instead of becoming used to only one or two cars.
Technical Paper

The Economic Speed-Weight Relation in Air Transportation

1929-01-01
290068
POINTING out that the fundamental object of securing speed, economy, safety and comfort is the same irrespective of the form of transportation used, the author emphasizes the necessity of establishing a balance among these more or less conflicting desirable factors of performance and determining just what that performance may be. The specific basic assumptions upon which the calculations of the paper are made are stated as being that an airplane cruises at 85 per cent of its maximum speed; that two-thirds of the maximum rated horsepower is consumed in level cruising-flight; fuel for a 400-mile flight is carried; the total weight of the powerplant is 2.5 lb. per hp.; weight of the airplane structure is 33 per cent of the total weight carried; and the pay-load is assumed to be two-thirds of the figure remaining after subtracting the structure, the powerplant, and the fuel weight.
Technical Paper

The Employment of Less Volatile Fuels for Motorcoach Engines

1929-01-01
290078
THE AMERICAN public demands that, in safety, comfort, appearance, speed, acceleration and deceleration, motorcoaches shall compare favorably with the present-day automobile, according to the author. These demands have resulted in a substantial increase in weight that has required the use of much larger engines, and this has brought about a tremendous increase in fuel consumption. Since fuel costs represent a large percentage of the total cost of operation, the possibility of decreasing these expenditures is receiving considerable attention. In addition, and apart from the increase in fuel usage resulting, taxation is causing grave concern. The author describes the fuel issue as it now exists in the United States. Data are submitted showing the tax situation, costs and refining operations, the potential saving assuming the employment of the less volatile fuels, their possible method of employment, advantages, disadvantages and the like.
Technical Paper

Application of Motor Transport to the Movement of Freight

1929-01-01
290079
AFTER defining the function of transport as the transfer of persons and things from one part of the earth's surface to another in the minimum time and at the minimum cost, and dividing modern transport into human, animal and mechanical, the author proceeds to describe the part played by commercial motor-vehicles in the Country's economic structure. Since food and drink are necessities of life, the first examples of motor-truck transportation discussed include the haulage of milk, bakery products, livestock, produce, vegetables and fruit. These are followed by the use of the motor-truck in local and long-distance general hauling, retail delivery service of dry-goods and chain-store supplies, the oil industry and for the transportation of express matter. A section follows on the use made of this form of transportation by public utilities and municipalities.
Technical Paper

Long-Haul Passenger Transportation

1929-01-01
290084
THE creation of additional operating divisions and maintenance units, based on the California Transit Co. system originally operated by the author, which had proved successful in long-haul passenger transportation on the Pacific Coast, expanded the business so that the Yelloway Pioneer Stages, Inc., now includes about 9000 miles of route. The design of the equipment for the service was developed to meet the severe operating conditions, which demand that the same vehicle run satisfactorily over a sea-level desert and through mountainous country having an average altitude of more than 5000 ft. and, at the same time, that safety and comfort be provided for the passengers. This requires factors of strength and safety that are greatly in excess of those possessed by the ordinary commercial motorcoach.
Technical Paper

Long-Distance Passenger Services

1929-01-01
290083
EXTENSION of motorcoach services over routes of 100 miles or more in length in all parts of the Country is shown by a map, and figures are given of the number of routes, the miles of highway over which the services are operated, running time, rates of fare charged and like data. Facilities and operating methods differentiating long-distance from suburban services are mentioned and the similarity to railroad practice pointed out. A characteristic of routes ranging from several hundred to nearly 1500 miles is that service is afforded continuously for 24 hr. per day seven days per week and many passengers ride day and night. Such long runs are broken into stages so that a driver does not work more than 8 to 10 hr. as a rule and vehicles are changed at the end of a run of a certain distance, which may vary from about 200 to nearly 750 miles.
Technical Paper

Bodily Steadiness-A Riding-Comfort Index

1930-01-01
300003
This is the fourth report by Dr. Moss on the investigation of riding comfort at the George Washington University and is a progress report on the measurement of automobile riding-qualities. The previous reports were published in the S.A.E. JOURNAL as follows: September, 1929, p. 298; January, 1930, p. 99; and April, 1930, p. 513. In this report, which was presented at the 1930 Semi-Annual Meeting, the author describes improvements made in two wabblemeters for measuring physiological fatigue caused by riding and the use of two accelerometers to correlate the behavior of the automobile with the physiological results. Results obtained with two groups of subjects, one consisting of taxicab drivers and the other of university students, are summarized, and the results of preliminary tests of the comparative riding-qualities of different cars as shown by their effects on the subjects are also given.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Comfort in Automobile Riding

1930-01-01
300002
EXPERIMENTS that have been in progress since the 1929 Semi-Annual Meeting to measure the fatigue caused by an automobile ride, using the human body as a measuring instrument, and to predict there-from the possible effects of various types of spring-suspension, shock-absorber and other comfort-giving components are described. Initially, the problem was approached from the physiological standpoint because fatigue is definitely known to be a physiological phenomenon and, if the physiological changes are sufficiently marked to be measured, physiological tests are definite and quantitative. Changes in the human body are a good index of relative comfort, and, if the normal reactions of an individual or any group of individuals before a test are known, similar measurements at the end of a test or at the end of an automobile ride should show an appreciable difference.
Technical Paper

The WHY and HOW of THE RUBBER-TIRED RAILROAD-COACH

1933-01-01
330001
Railroads are facing a crisis in operating costs, the urge toward reduction of unnecessary weight has become widespread and the crusade for noise abatement is no longer to be denied, according to the author. The pneumatic-tired railroad-coach not only answers these requirements, he says, but anticipates a demand for a new traveling comfort. The desire to rubberize railroad equipment is old but much fruitless research has resulted from directing it chiefly toward solid-rubber or cushion tires. Road and rail surfaces present entirely different problems so far as the tire is concerned. No uniformity of conditions obtains on highways but rails are even and smooth. A badly aligned joint such as would wreck a metal wheel makes no impression on a pneumatic tire. As simple as the tire problem may seem, its solution represents years of courageous and skillful research on the part of the Michelin company in France.
Technical Paper

Relation of Design to Airplane Maintenance

1932-01-01
320066
LOW-COST maintenance is secured by attacking the problem before the design is started. The author tells how this important feature can be designed into the airplane. Maintenance requirements should be written into the contract specifications which should indicate the time within which each part should be inspected and serviced. A suggested set of such specifications is submitted. By this procedure maintenance time can be cut in half. The work of designing must not be rushed. To provide for quick maintenance, some broad changes from customary design are needed and will add to first cost but save money in the long run. Numerous recommendations are made as to design or type of important elements which will facilitate maintenance, avoid exasperation and add to passenger safety and comfort.
Technical Paper

Is 50 Miles Per Gallon Possible With Correct Streamlining?

1933-01-01
330041
THIS is Part 2 of a study of air resistance in terms that the automobile engineer can understand without delving deeply into aerodynamics. In Part 1, after analyzing car resistance mathematically, the author related how air resistance was determined by wind-tunnel tests of various body models and presented tabulated and charted results. A study of the test methods used is presented herewith, together with comparisons made between the results obtained in Part 1 and those obtained in Part 2 from road tests of a car equipped with a so-called “floating envelope.” Fuel consumption is considered also, since full advantage of streamlining cannot be obtained without improvement of the transmission to provide for sufficient activity of a car at the lower speeds. In conclusion, the salient facts of the entire paper are summarized and seven specific suggestions for streamlining are made to car builders.
Technical Paper

Is 50 Miles Per Gallon Possible With Correct Streamlining?

1933-01-01
330039
THIS is Part 1 of a study of air resistance in terms that the automobile engineer can understand without delving deeply into aerodynamics. The study was suggested by the fact that motor-vehicles are now being driven at a speed at which most of the engine power is used to overcome air resistance, although the greater part of this resistance is unnecessary and can be eliminated by correct shaping of the vehicle body. It is a progress report of research just begun. After analyzing car resistance mathematically, the author relates how air resistance was determined by wind-tunnel tests of various body models. Numerous illustrations are utilized to portray the models and the testing equipment, and the data obtained are tabulated and charted.
Technical Paper

Automobile Engineering Progress

1932-01-01
320023
GENERAL DESIGN and detail mechanical developments that have been made in the last year and incorporated in automobile, truck and motorcoach models for 1932 are reviewed by the author, who also points out noticeable trends in a number of directions. He deals in order with the cars as a whole and with each major component, from the powerplant to the tires and body, as found in many leading makes. Decision of the industry not to announce the details of new models until the end of the year, at or immediately before the opening of the New York Automobile Show in January, interfered with the presentation at this time of a complete picture of all the improvements made in American motor-vehicles, but enough information is believed to be given to show the more important developments and the ways in which the automotive engineers have responded to the desire of the times for greater refinement and efficiency in automobiles.
Technical Paper

Essentials of Motorcoach Maintenance

1931-01-01
310047
AFTER reviewing motorcoach history and outlining the transition period of development, the author says that operation and maintenance go hand in hand, but too much stress is placed on maintenance methods and not enough on operation. He has yet to find a transportation superintendent who makes motorcoach operation a subject of paramount importance, although the manner in which the coach is driven may decide whether that particular coach makes money or loses it. In the author's opinion, the success of any coach and its freedom from repairs are dependent upon how well the driver knows how to drive it and, secondly, upon systematic lubrication and scheduled maintenance. The selection and training of drivers is a function of the transportation department, and too much stress cannot be laid on these functions and on continuous close supervision so that the department is certain that the vehicles are driven correctly.
Technical Paper

The Relationship between Automobile Construction and Accidents

1932-01-01
320056
DISPARITY between the factors of automobile and highway design that are far advanced and the factors that lag far behind constitutes the cause of many of our transportation difficulties, according to the author. The paper therefore aims to show the demand for safety and its economic advantage to the automotive industry and to indicate some of the principles necessary for its accomplishment. After stating that the automobile manufacturers should take a far-sighted view of the situation, take positive steps toward safety and cash in on the demand that is growing and that cannot be stopped by denying its existence, the author considers and comments upon some of the characteristics of automobiles that undoubtedly are partly responsible for accident potentialities. Visibility from the driver's seat is considered in detail, together with devices that assist visibility. The other driver's viewpoint also is considered.
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