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White Paper

REDUCING DOWNTIME THROUGH THE USE OF PREDICTIVE ANALYTICS AND TECHNICAL TRAINING ADVANCEMENTS

2018-01-05
WP-0007
The exponential increase in the number of aircraft and air travelers has triggered new innovations aimed to make airline services more reliable and consumer friendly. Quick and efficient maintenance actions with minimum downtime are the need of the hour. Another major challenge is ensuring maintenance personnel are trained effectively; technology like augmented reality and Virtual Maintenance Trainers (VMTs) may provide safe and efficient training in lieu of live, instructor-led arrangements. And while traditional User/Maintenance Manuals provide useful information when dealing with simple machines, when dealing with complex systems of systems and miniaturized technologies, like unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), new technologies like augmented reality can rapidly and effectively support the maintenance operations.
White Paper

Studies into Additive Manufacturing for In-Space Manufacturing

2017-06-26
WP-0001
NASA has embarked on an ambitious program to integrate additive manufacturing techniques and to develop processes for the microgravity environment. The most recent example of this program is the successful launch and deployment of the first 3D printer on the International Space Station. In this one-year effort, students were required to meet a series of milestones to design, manufacture, and test their ideas in close cooperation with members of the NASA Exploration Augmentation Module (EAM) concept team.The participants in this project were tasked with thinking of new solutions using AM that would simultaneously be recyclable with minimal loss in mechanical properties but also have the capacity for high mechanical properties. Working in interdisciplinary teams, the participant teams investigated the use of recycled materials, characterization, testing, modeling, and tool development.
White Paper

The Use of Imaging for Powder Metal Characterization and Contamination Identification

2018-04-05
WP-0008
As AM technologies are being used with higher frequencywithin the automotive and aerospace industries, the interest in powder characterization and contaminant identification is growing—especially for suppliers looking to gain entry into these highly regulated industries. Standards for powder materials and methods used for aerospace applications are still be developed, and regulatory agencies such as the Federal Aviation Administration have been requesting that standards be developed as guidance for the industry. Methods such as CCSEM and HLS could be viable options for suppliers needing to adhere to a powder specification by demonstrating compliance. Solutions exist to integrate such methods into a production environment as exemplified by RJ Lee Group.
Solution Notes

Drilling Material Stacks: Can it be both automated and affordable?

2017-06-26
SN-0001
Automating a manufacturing process often comes with substantial investment or sustained operational costs of complex subsystems. But, by reducing complexity and using technologically mature components, it is possible to develop viable scaled and robust automated solutions. For the past several years, aerospace manufacturers have endeavored to automate manufacturing processes as much as possible for both production efficiencies and competitive advantage. Automating processes like drilling, fastening, sealing, painting, and composite material production have reaped a wide range of benefits; from improving quality and productivity to lowering worker ergonomic risks. The results have improved supply chains from small component manufacturers all the way up to airframe assemblers. That said, automation can be very expensive, and difficult to introduce when a product is anywhere beyond the beginning of its life cycle.
Technical Paper

Modeling Coupled Processes of CO and Soot Formation and Oxidation for Conventional and HCCI Diesel Combustion

2007-04-16
2007-01-0162
The study of soot oxidation and CO formation in internal combustion engine applications is the subject of numerous recent investigations. Their modeling is particularly important for Diesel operating conditions. Models have been developed recently at IFP to account for the complicated kinetic processes involved in CO / soot production and oxidation. This paper presents the equations for CO formation and oxidation based on a reduced 6 step chemistry model coupled with the PSK reduced soot production and oxidation mechanism. The species are accounted for in the conservation equations. Model development is done on the framework of the ECFM3Z engine combustion model. The global CO/soot model is first validated in a constant volume high pressure cell against LII measurements. Model parameters are adjusted and kept constant for the remaining of the simulations. Then, engine simulations are used to validate the model behavior in conventional and HCCI Diesel conditions.
Technical Paper

Effects of Average Driving Cycle Speed on Lean-Burn Natural Gas Bus Emissions and Fuel Economy

2007-01-23
2007-01-0054
Although diesel engines still power most of the heavy-duty transit buses in the United States, many major cities are also operating fleets where a significant percentage of buses is powered by lean-burn natural gas engines. Emissions from these buses are often expressed in distance-specific units of grams per mile (g/mile) or grams per kilometer (g/km), but the driving cycle or route employed during emissions measurement has a strong influence on the reported results. A driving cycle that demands less energy per unit distance than others results in higher fuel economy and lower distance-specific oxides of nitrogen emissions. In addition to energy per unit distance, the degree to which the driving cycle is transient in nature can also affect emissions.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Smoke Emission Studies on a Hydrogen Fuel Supplemented DI Diesel Engine

2007-01-23
2007-01-0055
Hydrogen addition to ethylene and acetylene -air laminar diffusion flames has shown substantial reduction in soot formation. In the present study, hydrogen was carbureted in a single cylinder, naturally aspirated DI diesel engine, and combustion events and smoke emissions were studied. With hydrogen induction particularly when its energy share increased above 15%, contrary to the results reported by earlier investigators a sharp decrease in ignition delay (ID), very high peak pressure rates, increase in smoke and loss in fuel efficiency were observed. At hydrogen energy share of about 30%, ignition delay drops to nearly 0-1degree CA and peak rates of pressure rise to 25-30 bar/deg CA. Smoke emissions at low hydrogen induction rates reduced slightly but increased sharply above 15 to 20% hydrogen energy share.
Technical Paper

EGR and Intake Boost for Managing HCCI Low-Temperature Heat Release over Wide Ranges of Engine Speed

2007-01-23
2007-01-0051
Reaching for higher loads and improving combustion-phasing control are important challenges for HCCI research. Although HCCI engines can operate with a variety of fuels, recent research has shown that fuels with two-stage autoignition have some significant advantages for overcoming these challenges. Because the amount of low-temperature heat release (LTHR) is proportional to the local equivalence ratio (ϕ), fuel stratification can be used to adjust the combustion phasing (CA50) and/or burn duration using various fuel-injection strategies. Two-stage ignition fuels also allow stable combustion even for extensive combustion-phasing retard, which reduces the knocking propensity. Finally, the LTHR reduces the required intake temperature, which increases the inducted charge mass for a given intake pressure, allowing higher fueling rates before knocking and NOx emissions become a problem. However, the amount of LTHR is normally highly dependent on the engine speed.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of New Low Rhodium Three-Way Catalyst Technology

2007-01-23
2007-01-0046
Rhodium is an important component of three-way catalysts for emissions control on gasoline engines1. It has unparalleled activity in NOx reduction under stoichiometric conditions, where very high conversion efficiencies are required to meet current and future legislative targets. Over 90% of world rhodium usage is in such catalysts, and in recent times the price of rhodium has increased enormously2. This has lead to significant focus on reducing the quantity of rhodium required whilst still retaining the ability to meet the most stringent emissions legislation. Experiments are described where three-way catalysts employing advanced washcoat formulations and coating techniques are evaluated with a range of rhodium levels right down to 1g/ft3 which nevertheless still meet Euro 4 emissions limits after 100,000 km-equivalent bench engine ageing.
Technical Paper

A Novel Strategy for Fast Catalyst Light-Off without the Use of an Air Pump

2007-01-23
2007-01-0044
A novel engine management strategy for achieving fast catalyst light-off without the use of an exhaust air pump in a port-fuel-injected, spark ignition engine was developed. A conventional 4-cylinder engine was operated with three cylinders running rich and the fourth one as an air pump to supply air to the exhaust manifold. Under steady-state cold coolant conditions, this strategy achieved near total oxidation of CO and HC with sufficiently retarded spark timing, resulting in a 400% increase in feedgas enthalpy flow and a 90% reduction in feedgas HC emissions compared to conventional operation. The strategy was also evaluated for crank starts. Using the existing engine hardware, implementing the strategy resulted in a reduction in catalyst light-off time from 28.0 seconds under conventional operation to 9.1 seconds.
Technical Paper

Catalyzed Particulate Filters for Mobile Diesel Applications

2007-01-23
2007-01-0041
Catalyst coated silicon carbide filters were developed and applied for light-duty and heavy-duty diesel applications. This catalyst coating is suitable also for industrial applications and to be used on cordierite or sintered metal filters. Development activities yield solgel type coating for particulate filters with properties allowing very thin coating, containing metal oxides interacting with active sites, e.g. precious metals (Pt, Pd). A tailored catalyst composition was developed for the catalytic activity and durability in oxidation and soot regeneration reactions. The combination of thermal and catalytic particulate oxidation by oxygen and NO2 was investigated using different regeneration strategies in engine exhaust and laboratory conditions. The passive regeneration by NO2 initiated around 310°C with CPF only. One of the main targets was to lengthen the intervals between active regeneration phases by catalyzed particulate filters which enhance passive regeneration properties.
Technical Paper

Modeling of the Catalyzed Continuously Regenerating Diesel Particulate Filter (CCR-DPF) System: Model Development and Passive Regeneration Studies

2007-01-23
2007-01-0043
Particulate Matter (PM) emissions are of increasing importance, as diesel emissions legislation continues to tighten around the world. Diesel PM can be controlled using Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs), which can effectively reduce the level of carbon (soot) emissions to ambient background levels. The Johnson Matthey Continuously Regenerating Trap (CRT®) [1], which will be referred to as the Continuously Regenerating DPF (CR-DPF) for the remainder of this paper, has been widely applied in Heavy Duty Diesel (HDD) applications, and has been proved to have outstanding field durability [2]. To widen the potential application of this system, addition of a platinum based catalyst to the DPF has been shown to lead to a higher PM removal rate under passive regeneration conditions, using the NOx contained in the exhaust gases.
Technical Paper

Advanced Diesel Particulate Filter Design for Lifetime Pressure Drop Solution in Light Duty Applications

2007-01-23
2007-01-0042
Highly efficient wall-flow diesel particulate filters (DPF) are the primary means of PM emissions control in light-duty diesel vehicles. The successful commercialization of DPF technology has allowed combining attractive characteristics (good fuel economy, high low-end torque characteristics) of a diesel engine with significant PM emissions reductions to meet the stringent legislation. The design for advanced filter systems is driven by the lifetime pressure drop requirements with the accumulation of non-combustible materials (ashes) over time in the filter. More compact filter designs can be achieved by using filters with the proprietary Asymmetric Cell Technology (ACT) providing a larger inlet channel volume and therefore a higher ash storage capacity in the same space envelope without compromising the filter bulk heat capacity and mechanical integrity.
Technical Paper

A Detailed Well to Wheel Analysis of CNG Compared to Diesel Oil and Gasoline for the French and the European Markets

2007-01-23
2007-01-0037
Pollutants emissions from transportation have become a major focus of environmental concerns in the last decades. Many alternative fuels are under consideration, among which Natural Gas as fossil resource offering an advantageous potential to reduce local emissions. The European Commission has set an objective of 10% of Natural Gas consumption for the transport sector by 2020. In a sustainable development view, both vehicle emissions and energy supply chain analysis from well to wheel must be addressed. Even if the main focus today is on CO2 emissions, it is interesting to evaluate the pollutant emissions of the whole Well to Wheel chain. Besides, as the potential of reducing pollutant emissions of vehicle (due to the improvement of engines and severization of norms), looking at pollutant emissions of the Well to Tank part of the chain could show the possible further improvements. Former studies exist, comparing Natural Gas to conventional and non conventional fuels.
Technical Paper

Challenges for the Future Diesel Engines Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment System

2007-01-23
2007-01-0040
The reduction of diesel emissions will remain a major challenge in the near future. Based on the expected emissions legislation for Europe and NAFTA, respectively, two main routes to approach this challenge are possible. Especially for the NAFTA market the use of a NOx emission control system is highly probable due to the established low limit for NOx emissions. From today's point of view only two systems - the NOx storage catalyst and the SCR catalyst system - have the potential to reach these limits. In Europe the expected Euro5 NOx limit can most likely be reached by engine measures only. Nevertheless both markets have the common understanding that besides the further improvement by internal engine measures the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) as well as the catalysed diesel particulate (DPF) filter will play an essential role in diesel emissions reduction.
Technical Paper

Comparative Study of Natural Gas Vehicles Commercial Catalysts in Monolithic Form

2007-01-23
2007-01-0039
With growing concern about air quality and increase of city population is renewed interest in transportation sector. The challenge for governments is to find and develop cost-effective ways to improve urban air quality without scarifying economy. Natural gas as vehicle fuel can reduce compared to conventional Diesel technology, particulate matter by as much as 99%, nitrous oxides (NOx) by as much as 85%, and carbon monoxide (CO) by more than 90%. Relative to gasoline, the global warming impact (GWI) for dedicated natural gas vehicles (NGVs) is generally more than 20 % lower. When non-regulated emissions are included on a well-to-wheel basis, NGVs still show advantages over gasoline and Diesel vehicles. Nowadays, there are more than 4.7 million NGVs in operation all around the world. It seems that the catalysts used in NGVs are close to Three-Way Catalysts (TWC) typically used for gasoline engines. However, there are very few studies about the impact of catalysis for NGVs.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Medium Duty DME Truck Performance -Field Test Results and PM Characteristics-

2007-01-23
2007-01-0032
The performance of a medium duty DME truck was evaluated by field tests and engine bench tests. The DME vehicle was given a public license plate on October 2004, after which running tests were continued on public roads and a test course. The DME vehicle could run the whole distance, about 500 km, without refueling. The average diesel equivalent fuel consumption of the fully loaded DME truck was 5.75 km/l, running at 80 km/h on public highways. Remedying several malfunctions that occurred in the power-train subsystems enhanced the vehicle performance and operation. The DME vehicle accumulated 13,000 km as of August, 2006 with no observed durability trouble of the fuel injection pump. Disassembly and inspection of the fuel injectors after 7,700 km operation revealed a few differences in the nozzle tip and the needle compared to diesel fuel operation. However, the injectors were used again after cleanup.
Technical Paper

Exploitation of Energy Resources and Future Automotive Fuels

2007-01-23
2007-01-0034
The future exploitation of global energy resources is currently being hotly debated by politicians and by sections of the scientific community but there is little guidance available in the engineering literature as to the full gamut of options or their viability with respect to fuelling the world's vehicles. In the automotive industry extensive research is being undertaken on the use of alternative fuels in internal combustion engines and on the development of alternative powerplants but often the long-term strategy and sustainability of the energy sources to produce these fuels is not clearly enunciated. The requirement to reduce CO2 emissions in the face of accelerating global warming scenarios and the depletion of fossil-fuel resources has led to the widespread assumption that some form of ‘hydrogen economy’ will prevail; this view is seldom justified or challenged.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of Fischer-Tropsch Fuels in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2007-01-23
2007-01-0030
Experiments were performed using a Light-Duty, single-cylinder, research engine in which the emissions, fuel consumption and combustion characteristics of two Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Diesel fuels derived from natural gas and two conventional Diesel fuels (Swedish low sulfur Diesel and European EN 590 Diesel) were compared. Due to their low aromatic contents combustion with the F-T Diesel fuels resulted in lower soot emissions than combustion with the conventional Diesel fuels. The hydrocarbon emissions were also significantly lower with F-T fuel combustion. Moreover the F-T fuels tended to yield lower CO emissions than the conventional Diesel fuels. The low emissions from the F-T Diesel fuels, and the potential for producing such fuels from biomass, are powerful reason for future interest and research in this field.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Combustion Characteristics of GTL Diesel Fuel in a Constant Volume Combustion Chamber

2007-01-23
2007-01-0031
The results of an optical investigation into the combustion characteristics of GTL (Gas-To-Liquids) diesel fuel are presented. The investigation was carried out using a high pressure, constant volume combustion chamber with optical access, fitted with a modern diesel injection system. Combustion images were captured under conditions which simulate those present in a diesel engine. A low sulphur diesel fuel meeting the European EN590 specification was used as a reference. Image capture and subsequent analysis was performed by means of an AVL Visioscope system which used the two-colour method to yield quantitative information regarding flame temperature and soot concentration. Conditions in the combustion chamber are preset by combusting a pre-charge to generate the necessary pressure, temperature, and residual gas fraction. This allowed the effect of varying oxygen concentration at the start of diesel combustion to be investigated.
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