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Solution Notes

High-Speed Inspection: Maintain Cycle Time, Ensure Fastener Quality

2017-06-26
SN-0002
High-Speed Inspection: Maintain Cycle Time, Ensure Fastener Quality is a Solution Notes covering the possibility to inspect all fasteners without affecting installation times by applying a process to automatically measure fasteners while they move through a feed tube into the installation machine. Solution Notes are short, informative pieces covering dynamic and emerging technologies within the aerospace and automotive industries to keep you up to date on how new, applied technologies are being used within the mobility space.
Technical Paper

Analysis of car structures in future market and necessary policy for environment based on the vehicle performance and economic aspects

2000-06-12
2000-05-0382
Increasing CO2 emissions from vehicles is becoming a major concern in automotive society, and variety of future types of cars are intensively investigated. However it is not clear which level of performance and cost must be achieved for the future cars to be available in a market and how much percentage of cars is necessary to be replaced by the future cars for the conservation of environment. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the possibility of market growth of future cars, as hybrid cars, electric vehicles and fuel cell cars, based on the performance and economic aspects. This paper investigates the emission reduction potential of these vehicles, and also compares the composition of vehicle types and emissions for a variety of scenarios of consumer characteristics, economic growth, fuel price, performance of cars, and carbon tax control measures. A model of user preference of cars was established from the statistic analysis of past data.
Technical Paper

Expressway speed limits: Germany is right, ECMT is tragically wrong

2000-06-12
2000-05-0362
Three years of research, and two papers, showing a strong correspondence between traffic fatality rates and the business cycle, have proven that, alcohol aside, the fundamental cause of traffic accidents is the mentally distracted driver. This paper is in four parts. A quick review of the discovery/development of the Driver''s Economic Distraction Indicator (DEDI - SAE 970280 on European expressways in the ''70s) and its application to all traffic fatalities in countries around the world (in F98S565). The DEDI is then updated to the ''90s while exploring: a) the use of M2 (as recommended by the American economist, Dr. Milton Friedman) instead of M1; b) OECD''S new Composite Leading Indicators; and c) the use of a locally available leading economic indicator (i.e., new vehicle sales) to give an early warning of a rise in local traffic accidents.
Technical Paper

Global mobility on roads in the 21st century

2000-06-12
2000-05-0383
In future, there will be increasing demand for mobility and transportation especially in the newly industrialized countries where about half of the world''s population lives. This will enormously increase the number of vehicles in operation. The fact of such development taking place in the economically poorest countries of the world is alarming because these will not be able to apply strict emission and safety legislation as is practiced in the highly industrialized nations. Renewable energy must be developed and used to reduce exhaust emission even though fossil fuels will be available for decades in the future. Besides further reduction of required energy and increase of efficiency, intelligent traffic management systems will play a major role in tackling the challenges put by our demands for individual mobility.
Technical Paper

Exhaust emission control on Nissan engine Z24

2000-06-12
2000-05-0361
Automotive emissions are the most important sources for air pollution in the city of Tehran. In order to control and reduce air pollution in this city, it is important to reduce vehicular exhaust emission. Patrol and pick-ups with Japanese originality have assembly line in Iran. These vehicles which are more or less popular in Tehran, originally have old design and not able to fulfill any new emission regulations. In this paper, Nissan engine Z24, combustion chamber has been modified, the orifice and main metering system in carburetor has been changed fundamentally and unleaded gasoline has been introduced to the engine. Reasonable reduction in exhaust emission has been measured on dynamometer under different loads and speeds. The new findings have been recommended to local manufacturer for mass production. The new Iranian Nissan patrol and pick-up will fulfill the moderate regulation mainly ECE 15-04.
Technical Paper

Study on Intelligent Idling Stop System

2000-06-12
2000-05-0365
The “idling stop” of the vehicle, which is defined as no rotation of the engine when it stops, theoretically brings to reduce the fuel consumption (i.e. carbon dioxide) and the exhaust emissions. However, the idling stop practically has weak points as follows: 1. When the engine is restarted, much fuel is consumed. 2. When the engine is restarted, much the exhaust emissions are discharged. 3. While various electric devices work, the load of the battery is high. 4. The deterioration of the lubricating oil proceeds due to repeating start and stop. In order to overcome the above weak points the authors propose the new system called IISS.
Technical Paper

High Dynamic Range Operation Modes of Analyzers in R&D Applications

2000-06-12
2000-05-0349
Increasing requirements for the result quality of exhaust emission analyzers and state of the art analyzer technology require a new point of view regarding measuring range definitions and linearization procedures. To make best use of the power of this analyzer technology, linearizaton procedures need reconsideration. Although for certification the linearization procedures to be applied on an emission analyzer are define clearly, for research and development applications, no prescriptions are existing. Therefore non sophisticated routines, that assist the full potential of new analyzers may be employed.
Technical Paper

Design impacts on CVS systems meeting future requirements for equivalent zero emissions vehicles

2000-06-12
2000-05-0347
The latest legislation requires a dramatic reduction of motor vehicle exhaust emission. This is also a big challenge for emission measurement instrumentation, because of almost zero concentrations of certain components in the exhaust. For current measurement devices, which are recommended by the legislation, it is almost impossible to determine such low emission levels with adequate accuracy. The paper describes a new Constant Volume Sampling (CVS) system with reduced dilution, warming and quick flow rate changing capability. Possible solutions are discussed and the properties of data measured with test facilities which are prepared to cover S-ULEV and EURO IV applications are described. Also the selection of used materials is of rising importance. The tests were performed on a dynamic engine test bed which was equipped with such a CVS system and with emission analyzing systems for raw exhaust and diluted measurements.
Technical Paper

Study to improve recycle engineering by unifying material of interior trimming parts

2000-06-12
2000-05-0358
PP (Polypropylene) has been used by approximately 50% of the entire resin for vehicle bodies. By unifying PP grade of interior trimming parts which mainly uses PP, to one type, the goal of this study is to achieve the following; (1) improvement of material recycling, (2) efficient parts development (3) material cost reduction. In molding trimming parts, the suppliers use PP of different grades, and different pigments are colored and compounded for vehicle model, grade, model years. So the material combinations are numberless. These various material combinations caused a great loss in the process from producing materials to manufacturing parts, and made the material recycling of waste plastics difficult. At first, Subaru selected one kind of PP grade, talc grade, and pigment for one color, then fused and mixed three components in injection molding.
Technical Paper

Mechanism Analysis of Automatic Transmission gear noise

2000-06-12
2000-05-0328
In order to minimize power train length, it is required for transmission components to layout compact. The requirement results in thinner and larger transfer gears, which are disadvantageous for gear noise. On the other hand, improvement of gear accuracy and/or vehicle interior noise increases sensitivity to manufacturing variation. It tends to appear noisiness by transmission unit variation. To prevent such gear noise problem, we made detailed investigation by both several tests and simulation, i.e. noise measurement, shaker test, running gear vibration measurement and FE Model analysis. This paper describes the experimental analysis of gear noise generation mechanism of transmission with thin and large diameter gear and its prediction method. It was found that gear web out-of-plane vibration modes are closely related to vibration transfer to the mission case. Planarly non-symmetric modes have dominant effect for case dynamic excitation by gear engagement.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of High-Pressure Spray and Exhaust Emissions in a Single- Cylinder Di Diesel Engine

2000-06-12
2000-05-0333
Regulations on exhaust emissions from light- and heavy-duty diesel engines have generated interest in high-pressure fuel injection systems. It has been recognized that high-pressure injection systems produce fuel sprays that may be more conductive to reducing exhaust emissions in direct-injection diesel engines. However, for such a system to be effective it must be matched carefully with the engine design and its operating parameters. A common-rail type of fuel injection system was investigated in the present study. The injection system utilizes an intensifier to generate injection pressures as high as 160 MPa. The fuel spray characteristics were evaluated on a test bench in a chamber containing pressurized nitrogen gas. The injection system was then incorporated in a single-cylinder diesel engine. The injection system parameters were adjusted to match engine specifications and its operating parameters.
Technical Paper

A study on the distribution of soot in cylinder of an optically accessible diesel engine using laser sheet

2000-06-12
2000-05-0334
In order to clarify the characteristics of soot formation and oxidation in cylinder of diesel engine, it is necessary to diagnose accurately for combustion of in-cylinder. The past techniques for soot measurement have limitations in providing the characteristics of soot in a diesel engine, whereas, laser-based 2D imaging diagnostics have the potential to provide better temporally and spatially resolved measurements of the soot distribution. The technique using laser sheet beam has been applied to an optically accessible diesel engine for the quantitative measurement of soot. The results provide the information for reduction of soot from diesel engine. We used both LIS and LII techniques simultaneously in this study. The images of LIS and LII show the quantitative distribution of the soot concentration in an optically accessible diesel engine. In this study, several results were obtained by the simultaneous measurement of LIS and LII techniques.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Diesel Nitrogen Oxide Reduction By Exhaust Gas Recirculation

2000-06-12
2000-05-0335
This paper concerns mainly with the research work of diesel nitrogen oxide reduction by Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). Using exhaust gas cleaned by a high efficiency bag filter as EGR gas, a 1110 DI diesel engine test bed was set up, and tests were made to investigate the EGR effects on engine performances, including engine emissions and fuel economy. The results showed that the EGR could be used as an effective way to reduce diesel nitrogen oxides with very little economy penalty. When the engine works at low or moderate loads, 25 to 40 percent of the EGR rate is good for better trade-off of engine economy and emissions. The nitrogen oxide reduction efficiency can be as high as 50% to 60% based on emission concentrations, and can be even higher based on total exhaust gas emissions of nitrogen oxides. Larger EGR rate can attain higher nitrogen oxide reduction efficiency, but the engine economy, HC and CO emissions will worsen.
Technical Paper

A Study on Vibration Characteristics of a Fuel Injection Pump Body

2000-06-12
2000-05-0339
This is the study on the vibration characteristics of the fuel-injection pump body. Recently, refinement of the fuel spray is necessary in order to reduce the toxic substance, which is included in automotive exhaust gas of diesel engine for the automobile. To jet diesel fuel in higher pressure is a method for spraying the fuel more minute into a cylinder. However, this method causes the increase in respect of engine vibration and torque nonuniformity. The fuel-injection pump body receives not only this engine vibration by the method but also impact tute by the high-pressure injection. As this result, the sufficient performance cannot be demonstrated because large vibration deformations occur at the body and the camshaft of the fuel-injection pump. The vibration characteristics of the fuel-injection pump, which can reduce these vibration deformations, are necessary in order to lead to the performance.
Technical Paper

Exhaust noise design based on psycho-acoustic parameters

2000-06-12
2000-05-0312
People make judgements of the sound produced by vehicles in a variety of situations and contexts. The most common type of assessment is an overall judgement of sound quality like pleasantness and sportiveness. From the car manufacturer''s point of view it is important to note that subjective judgements of sound influence the buyer''s opinion of the performance and value of the vehicle. Consequently, there is a need to quantify the subjective perception of the sound quality associated with a vehicle. This paper presents a study of the sound quality of vehicle exhaust noise based on the correlation between the subjective perception associated with this type of sound and measured psycho-acoustic parameters such as loudness, sharpness and roughness. The tailpipe noise of a selection of representative vehicles was recorded using an artificial head. A subjective evaluation of these sound recordings was made by a jury using standard relative techniques.
Technical Paper

Continuous measurement of soot and soluble organic fraction emission from advanced powertrain

2000-06-12
2000-05-0314
Particulate matter (PM) emission from vehicles is one of the biggest issues in terms of environmental protection and influence to human body. Thus, a variety of measurement technologies have been develop so far. Currently, a gravimetric method is most commonly used in the automotive industry, partially because it is specified in the regulations. This method uses a combination of a dilution tunnel and a filter that collects the PM from the diluted sample gas with subsequent weighting by a micro balance. However, since this technique is a batch measurement, it is impossible to determine at what point of the emissions test the Soot, SOF (Soluble Organic Fraction), and the total PM are emitted. Thus the demand for real-time PM measurement under transient test conditions has increased.
Technical Paper

EXHAUST EMISSION FROM DIESEL ENGINE DURING COLD START IN AMBIENT TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS

2000-06-12
2000-05-0316
This paper reviews the exhaust emissions from direct injection diesel engines in the initial period following startup. The tests were undertake in “cold start” mode (temperature of cooling water and lube oil equal ambient temperature) and “warm start” modes (after getting equilibrium state). Both results were compared. Exhaust emissions in the period of run from cold start to warmed-up is very important to satisfy present day standards worldwide.
Technical Paper

Three-way catalysts for partial lean-burn engine vehicle

2000-06-12
2000-05-0322
Emission of carbon dioxide from mobile sources seriously concerned to solve greenhouse effect and high price of gasoline in some countries have resulted in the development of lean-burn concept engine. In spite of many studies on the lean deNOx catalyst, we have no clear solution to obtain high fuel economy and high efficiency of NOx conversion in lean-burn application. This paper describes applicability and problems of NOx adsorber system to partial lean-burn vehicle, the development of three-way catalyst with improvement of washcoat technology based on three-way catalyst used for gasoline application, and comparison test results of evaluations is synthesized gas activity test, Federal Test Procedure (FTP) test, etc. This study shows improved three-way catalysts in partial lean- burn vehicle have max. 89% of NOx conversion in FTP without adding rich spike and regeneration functions to engine management system.
Technical Paper

The effect of engine misfire on catalytic converter and vehicle emissions

2000-06-12
2000-05-0325
A conventional automotive emission control system depends on the measurements provided by various sensors to control the air-fuel (A/F) ratio. Maintaining the A/F ratio close to stoichiometry permits catalytic converter to operate in an optimized efficiency, which reduces the exhaust emission. Malfunction resulted from engine misfire makes catalyst''s converting efficiency drop. Such a condition results in increased emissions as well as in damage to catalytic converters. So current researches are proceeded in response to the California OBD II (On-Board Diagnostics) and EOBD that will be adopted in Europe requirements for engine misfire detection in passenger vehicles. In this study, two methods to diagnose the misfire an approached: catalytic converter''s temperature measurement over the threshold exposure temperature to examine the catalyst''s damage, and the vehicle emission test over FTP-75 cycle by varying misfire rates.
Technical Paper

Scavenger free three-way catalyst with low hydrogen sulfide emission

2000-06-12
2000-05-0308
This study suggests new types of catalysts that show low hydrogen sulfide emission without scavenger such as NiO. Hydrogen sulfide can be reduced by changing the physicochemical properties of washcoat components. Synthesized gas activity tests were performed to investigate the effect of modified washcoat on hydrogen sulfide formation and catalytic activity. BET surface area tests, X- ray diffraction tests, and gas chromatography tests were also carried out to examine the characteristics of catalysts. Preparation methods for catalysts were focused on minimizing the adsorption of sulfur species on catalysts. The first approach is heat treatment of cerium oxide to reduce adsorption sites for sulfur compounds. But this leads to deterioration of CO and NOx conversion efficiencies. The second one is adding new types of promoters that increase thermal durability and dynamic oxygen storing function of cerium oxide.
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