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Balance of Plant: Integrating PEM Fuel Cells into Aircraft

2017-11-13
TI-0002
While all-electric aircraft remain at the bleeding edge of the aviation industry, incorporating technologies like proton exchange membrane fuel cells into existing aircraft can result in considerable auxiliary capability with low environmental impact. However, proper consideration must be given to supporting systems to achieve a reliable balance of plant-especially when those systems interface with existing aircraft architectures. The scope of the BoP is to manage and condition the reactant flows to and from the fuel-cell module and to provide power to system components.
Solution Notes

The Right Balance for Small UAVs: Defining top-level requirements for the power

2017-12-08
SN-0003
Small tactical UAVs (SUAVs) have made their mark in military operations with their ability to gather and provide localized, real-time information. Typical uses include perimeter surveillance of remote military compounds, over-the-horizon surveillance, and remote monitoring of critical logistics routes. However, their potential to take on increased and increasingly complex missions is hampered by their limited endurance. This work explores research done under the auspices of the European Commission’s Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking on a fuel cell and battery hybrid energy storage system that could increase the total amount of onboard energy storage, while continuing to deliver the peak power needs of the SUAV.
Technical Paper

Mobility and fuel economy of hybrid-driven vehicles in terrain~Results from computer simulation

2000-06-12
2000-05-0394
An important requirement for the application of hybrid drives in future terrain vehicles is their competitiveness with regard to the driving properties and the fuel economy. Therefore, a two-axle, all-wheel-driven military transport vehicle equipped with a serial hybrid propulsion system has been regarded and examined by computer simulation. The tool, used for this purpose, is the simulation program ORSIS, (Off Road Systems Interactive Simulation), which has been developed at the University of the Federal Armed Forces in Hamburg. By generating a realistic surrounding area with reproducible conditions ORSIS allows an objective comparison of different vehicle types and the investigation of the influence of modified vehicle parameters. The paper presents results from computer simulations which include acceleration and braking procedures, determination of maximum drawbar pull, and the estimation of fuel consumption under realistic conditions by driving on determined routes.
Technical Paper

Speed adaptation system for vehicles using RF communication

2000-06-12
2000-05-0380
This paper introduces a speed adaptation system using roadside-to-vehicle RF communication. The RF transmitter transmits transmitter''s ID, speed limit, message to the drivers. The messages include occurrence of accident, freezing road, existence of gas station, or construction on the road, etc. At present, drivers identify the speed limit from speed sign board. But drivers cannot concentrate his attention continuously on finding speed sign board, so over speed takes place unintentionally. And one of current information medium to the drivers is variable message sign board (VMS) showing the present road status such as severe congestion, occurrence of accident, or heavy rain. But due to high installation cost of VMS, insufficient number of VMS units are installed on the road. So timely notification of traffic accident to the following drivers is impossible now. Our system is low cost to be installed at close intervals on the highway.
Technical Paper

Analysis of car structures in future market and necessary policy for environment based on the vehicle performance and economic aspects

2000-06-12
2000-05-0382
Increasing CO2 emissions from vehicles is becoming a major concern in automotive society, and variety of future types of cars are intensively investigated. However it is not clear which level of performance and cost must be achieved for the future cars to be available in a market and how much percentage of cars is necessary to be replaced by the future cars for the conservation of environment. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the possibility of market growth of future cars, as hybrid cars, electric vehicles and fuel cell cars, based on the performance and economic aspects. This paper investigates the emission reduction potential of these vehicles, and also compares the composition of vehicle types and emissions for a variety of scenarios of consumer characteristics, economic growth, fuel price, performance of cars, and carbon tax control measures. A model of user preference of cars was established from the statistic analysis of past data.
Technical Paper

Global mobility on roads in the 21st century

2000-06-12
2000-05-0383
In future, there will be increasing demand for mobility and transportation especially in the newly industrialized countries where about half of the world''s population lives. This will enormously increase the number of vehicles in operation. The fact of such development taking place in the economically poorest countries of the world is alarming because these will not be able to apply strict emission and safety legislation as is practiced in the highly industrialized nations. Renewable energy must be developed and used to reduce exhaust emission even though fossil fuels will be available for decades in the future. Besides further reduction of required energy and increase of efficiency, intelligent traffic management systems will play a major role in tackling the challenges put by our demands for individual mobility.
Technical Paper

Exhaust heat exchange in a pipe of an internal combustion engine~EGR cooler and passenger compartment heating applications

2000-06-12
2000-05-0360
The exhaust heat exchange coefficient in a pipe of internal combustion engine has been measured with a specific exhaust-air heat exchanger. It''s installed on the exhaust line of IC engine. The Nusselt-Reyonlds correlation has been developed and compared to the steady-state conditions known as Colburn''s correlation. The Convective Augmentation Factor (CAF) is approximately 2 at low Reynolds number and 1 at high Reynolds number. The technology of EGR cooler and the exhaust-coolant heat exchanger for improving the thermal comfort have been shown. A vehicle equipped with a direct-injection turbo diesel engine has been tested in the climatic wind tunnel. The heat performance in the passenger compartment will be presented.
Technical Paper

Exhaust emission control on Nissan engine Z24

2000-06-12
2000-05-0361
Automotive emissions are the most important sources for air pollution in the city of Tehran. In order to control and reduce air pollution in this city, it is important to reduce vehicular exhaust emission. Patrol and pick-ups with Japanese originality have assembly line in Iran. These vehicles which are more or less popular in Tehran, originally have old design and not able to fulfill any new emission regulations. In this paper, Nissan engine Z24, combustion chamber has been modified, the orifice and main metering system in carburetor has been changed fundamentally and unleaded gasoline has been introduced to the engine. Reasonable reduction in exhaust emission has been measured on dynamometer under different loads and speeds. The new findings have been recommended to local manufacturer for mass production. The new Iranian Nissan patrol and pick-up will fulfill the moderate regulation mainly ECE 15-04.
Technical Paper

Study on Intelligent Idling Stop System

2000-06-12
2000-05-0365
The “idling stop” of the vehicle, which is defined as no rotation of the engine when it stops, theoretically brings to reduce the fuel consumption (i.e. carbon dioxide) and the exhaust emissions. However, the idling stop practically has weak points as follows: 1. When the engine is restarted, much fuel is consumed. 2. When the engine is restarted, much the exhaust emissions are discharged. 3. While various electric devices work, the load of the battery is high. 4. The deterioration of the lubricating oil proceeds due to repeating start and stop. In order to overcome the above weak points the authors propose the new system called IISS.
Technical Paper

A multi-vehicle platoon simulator

2000-06-12
2000-05-0363
This paper presents a real-time vehicle powertrain simulator and a pseudo real-time multi-vehicle platoon simulator. The developed powertrain simulator simulates the complex vehicle powertrain dynamics, including detailed shifting transients, in the PC environment in real time. The driver input is provided using a throttle pedal interfaced using the game port. The processor requirements vary depending on the simulation options selected. In the basic version, this requirement is only approximately 20% of a 300 MHz Pentium II- based PC. For multi-vehicle platoon simulation, a network configuration is proposed. It links several individual powertrain simulations via the TCP/IP network. This network platoon simulation is also linked to a server which graphically displays the multi-vehicle platoon operation. In this network configuration, due to a random delay in data transfer the simulation time kernel is made to lag real time.
Technical Paper

A throttle/brake control law for vehicle intelligent cruise control

2000-06-12
2000-05-0369
A throttle/brake control law for the intelligent cruise control (ICC) system has been proposed in this paper. The ICC system consists of a vehicle detection sensor, a controller and throttle/brake actuators. For the control of a throttle/brake system, we introduced a solenoid-valve-controlled electronic vacuum booster (EVB) and a step-motor-controlled throttle actuator. Nonlinear computer model for the electronic vacuum booster has been developed and the simulations were performed using a complete nonlinear vehicle model. The proposed control law in this paper consists of an algorithm that generates the desired acceleration/deceleration profile in an ICC situation, a throttle/brake switching logic and a throttle and brake control algorithm based on vehicle dynamics. The control performance has been investigated through computer simulations and experiments.
Technical Paper

STUDY ON DIRECT UTILIZATION OF EXHAUST GAS IN DIESEL GENERATOR AS ENERGY SOURCE OF ABSORPTION REFRIGERATOR

2000-06-12
2000-05-0345
Energy losses often occured in the industrial processes. The losses are sometimes substantial, but neglected. To overcome the matter, people should consider how to eliminate or at least to reduce the losses. In the energy management program, some methods are done to conserve energy. One of the methods is utilization of exhaust gas for another process. this paper analizes the possibility of direct utilization of exhaust gas in diesel-generator as energy source of absorption refrigerator. Analysis is based on the need of heat energy on the absorption refrigeration system and the capacity of exhaust gas. As the result, the capacity of the exhaust gas meets requirement of the heat energy required for absorption refrigerator. The analysis is also considered on the economic aspect. From the analysis, it can be summerized that the exhaust gas of diesel-generator is feasible as energy source of absorption refrigerator.
Technical Paper

Analytical system for combustion engine exhaust emissions

2000-06-12
2000-05-0346
As emission regulations become tighter and tighter, equipment must evolve to be able to achieve the new standards. Also additional test requirements demand a system that is flexible and can accommodate differences both in the tests and the test facility. By that test cell equipment for chassis dynamometer as well as engine dynamometer applications is getting increasingly complex. That also will require new concepts for the design of such systems. In the past emission system design was more likely a collection and packaging process, which has interfaced various independent components. Now, the development of modern analytical emission systems requires a true holistic design process. This paper will describe the demands and the realization of a modern emission system. It can be shown that an extended effort during the design process will result in a high performance system, which still remains simple and robust.
Technical Paper

Development of cabin air filter with aldehyde capture function

2000-06-12
2000-05-0343
Aldehydes are the cause of sick house syndrome or chemical sensitivity and have harmful influences for human beings. In the cabin of vehicle, aldehydes which are included in the volatilization gas from the interior materials, DE emission gas in intake air, cigarette smoke and so on spoil the comfortableness. Active carbon, which has been used as an adsorbent, shows an excellent removal efficiency for most of the gas components by physical adsorption. But for aldehydes, it has difficulty because aldehydes are hard to be adsorbed physically. We have developed new aldehydes adsorbent undergoing addition reaction with gaseous aldehydes on its surface. Aldehydes capture material (ACM) make use of the chemical reaction using a resorcin as a reagent and an H-type zeolite as a water-containing support, and active hydrogen is used as a catalyst to promote the reaction. In addition, we have applied ACM to cabin air filter (CAF) of vehicle.
Technical Paper

Computational design of commercial vehicle for reconciling aerodynamics and engine cooling performance

2000-06-12
2000-05-0344
As the global environmental protection becomes the world consensus recently, the regulations of the fuel consumption and the exhaust gas have large effects on the performance and the fundamental structure of commercial vehicles. Especially the technology concerning "fluid" and "heat" has a close relationship with those issues. Owing to above circumstances, commercial vehicles such as large trucks and buses are forced to be designed near the limit of allowance. Furthermore, a rapid design is another requirement. However, though significant number of variations, i.e., cab configuration, wheel base, rear body configuration, engine specification, etc., are prepared, it is impossible to improve the performance of all those combinations by experiments which cost a lot. Accordingly, the quantitative prediction using computer will become indispensable at the beginning term of new car development.
Technical Paper

The CMC SyTech engine in the new aXcessaustralia hybrid car

2000-06-12
2000-05-0353
The Australian concept car "aXcessaustralia II" is a serial hybrid car of the so-called "New Generation Hybrids." Its internal combustion engine drives an electrical power generator. The wheels are driven by the electrical traction motor only, which receives its energy from a combination of batteries, capacitors and the electrical power generator. In a drivetrain, which consists of a combustion engine, a generator, a traction motor, two different systems for electrical energy storage and the necessary electronics to apply the most fuel efficient power strategy, all components require an extremely high degree of weight optimization to avoid offsetting the fuel savings achieved with the system by an increased overall vehicle weight. They also need to be extremely efficient in themselves.
Technical Paper

Future cost estimation of hybrid electric vehicle using the learning curve

2000-06-12
2000-05-0354
There is a growing interest in hybrid electric vehicles due to environmental concerns. Recent efforts are directed toward developing an improved main component system for the hybrid electric vehicle applications. Soon after the introduction of electric starter for internal combustion engine early this century, despite being energy efficient and nonpolluting, electric vehicle lost the battle completely to internal combustion engine due to its limited range and inferior performance. Hybrid electric vehicles offer the most promising solutions to reduce the emission of vehicles. This paper describes a method for cost reduction estimation of hybrid electric vehicle. We used a cost reduction structure that consisted of five major subsystems (three types battery and two types motor) for hybrid electric vehicle. Especially, we estimated the potential for cost reductions in hybrid electric vehicle as a function of time using the learning curve.
Technical Paper

The Clonk Phenomenon - a Load Change Reaction to be Balanced in Terms of Comfort and Engine Response

2000-06-12
2000-05-0327
The customers demand of a good vehicle agility consists of a quick reaction of the vehicle with the actuation of the throttle pedal on one hand and a high comfort level of vibration and noise within the vehicle on the other hand, which means the reduction of disturbing side effects. In order to achieve a satisfactory compromise it is necessary to gain a deeper understanding of the complex, high dynamic vibrations system “vehicle / drive train”. For several years the ika has been carrying out such detailed vehicle investigations and test bench measurements in addition to comprehensive CAE analysis for various research projects in partnership with different vehicle manufacturers.
Technical Paper

The development of warm-up control strategies for a methanol reformer fuel cell vehicle

2000-06-12
2000-05-0330
A fuel-cell-powered vehicle requires a plentiful supply of hydrogen to achieve good performance. This can be produced from methanol via an on-board reformer and gas clean-up unit. Since the reformer can take several minutes to reach its operating temperature, it is initially necessary to provide an alternative power source, such as a battery or ultra-capacitor, in order to drive the vehicle. This paper describes the use of a fuel cell vehicle simulation to predict behavior over a drive cycle from a cold start and to evaluate different warm-up control strategies in terms of performance and fuel efficiency.
Technical Paper

Concept of a city commuter car powered with proton exchange membrane fuel cell operating on reformed methanol

2000-06-12
2000-05-0332
A very small electric vehicle, powered with a proton exchange membrane fuel cell operating on reformed methanol, is planned and designed in this paper to solve social problems associated with air pollution and heavy traffic conditions. Next, the driving range is simulated by the experimental data of the output and the performance. The conclusions of this paper are as follows: (1) The power train employing the fuel cell and compact brushless DC motor serves to realize high efficiency and reduce weight for energy saving.
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