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SAFE-LIFE LIMITS FOR LANDING GEAR STRUCTURES

2018-04-26
WIP
AIR6949
This document describes the approaches taken to define safe-life limits for the management of fatigue in landing gear structures, and the substantiation of those limits through full-scale fatigue testing. The safe-life scatter factors considered in a range of military and civil regulatory standards are also reviewed.
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Landing Gear Safety Criticap Processes

2018-02-28
WIP
AIR6813
There are a number of safety critical processes that are common to landing gear systems. A safety critical process (CSP) is a landing gearmaintenance manufacturing, repair or overhaul process which if ommitted or preformed incorrectly will cause failure of a safety citical item (CSI) in operation. A CSI is a landing gear item whose failure or omission will cause more than $1M in damage, serious injury or death. This AIR will define methods and modes of failure for CSPs based on experience.
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Landing Gear Stability

1995-03-01
CURRENT
AIR4894
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) discusses the nature of landing gear stability, describes many common landing gear stability problems, and suggests approaches and methods for solving or avoiding them.
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Development and Qualification of Composite Landing Gears

2016-01-04
WIP
AIR5552A
This information report provides general guidance for the design considerations, qualification in endurance, strength and fatigue of landing gear using composite components as principle structural elements. The information discussed herein includes the development and evaluation of design data considering: the potential for imbedded manufacturing defects, manufacturing process variations, the component operating environment, potential damage threats in service, rework and overhaul, and inspection processes. This AIR mainly discusses the use of thick composites for landing gear structural components. Considerations and recommendations provided in this AIR may therefore differ greatly from considerations and recommendations found in widely accepted composite design references such as CMH-17 and Advisory Circulars such as AC 20-107(B).
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Recommended Actions When Disinfectants, De-icers, and Cleaners Come in Contact with Landing Gear Structure

2006-04-20
HISTORICAL
AIR5541
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) advises that some of the chemicals being used to disinfect, de-ice, and clean airplanes can cause corrosion and/or degradation of landing gear components. Landing gear equipment includes shock struts, braces, actuators, wheels, brakes, tires, and electrical components. Some of the chemicals that have been recognized as potentially injurious are identified and recommendations for mitigating damage are presented.
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Recommended Actions When Disinfectants, De-icers, and Cleaners Come in Contact with Landing Gear Structure

2012-10-03
CURRENT
AIR5541A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) advises that some of the chemicals being used to disinfect, de-ice, and clean airplanes can cause corrosion and/or degradation of landing gear components. Landing gear equipment includes shock struts, braces, actuators, wheels, brakes, tires, and electrical components. Some of the chemicals that have been recognized as potentially injurious are identified and recommendations for mitigating damage are presented.
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Information on Hard Landings

2018-02-27
WIP
AIR5938A

This document provides information on the current practices used by commercial and military operators in regards to hard landings (or overload events designated as hard landings). Since detailed information on inspections would be aircraft specific, this AIR provides only a general framework. Detailed information and procedures are available in the maintenance manuals for specific aircraft.

Because hard landings potentially affect the entire aircraft, guidelines are listed here for non-landing gear areas. But, the primary focus of the document is the landing gear and related systems. The document may be considered to be applicable to all types of aircraft.

This document does NOT provide recommended practices for hard landing inspections, nor does it provide recommendations on the disposition of damaged equipment. Refer to ARP 4915 and ARP 5600.

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Information on Hard Landings

2011-01-03
CURRENT
AIR5938
This document provides information on the current practices used by commercial and military operators in regards to hard landings (or overload events designated as hard landings). Since detailed information on inspections would be aircraft specific, this AIR provides only a general framework. Detailed information and procedures are available in the maintenance manuals for specific aircraft. Because hard landings potentially affect the entire aircraft, guidelines are listed here for non-landing gear areas. But, the primary focus of the document is the landing gear and related systems. The document may be considered to be applicable to all types of aircraft. This document does NOT provide recommended practices for hard landing inspections, nor does it provide recommendations on the disposition of damaged equipment. Refer to ARP 4915 and ARP 5600.
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Landing Gear Switch Selection Criteria

1999-04-01
CURRENT
AIR5024
The scope of this document is to discuss the differences between electromechanical and proximity position sensing devices when used on landing gears. It also contains information, which may be helpful, when applying either type of technology after the selection has been made. The purpose is to help the designer make better choices when selecting a position-sensing device. Once that choice has been made, this document includes information to improve the reliability of new or current designs. It is not intended to replace recommendations from sensor manufacturers or actual experience, but to provide a set of general guidelines.
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Landing Gear Shock Strut Hydraulic Fluid

2016-05-06
CURRENT
AIR5358A
This document describes fluids used in landing gear shock struts with extreme pressure and antiwear additives that have been added for improved lubrication.
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Landing Gear Shock Strut Hydraulic Fluid

2004-01-30
HISTORICAL
AIR5358
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) was prepared by a panel of the SAE A-5 Committee. This document establishes the specifications for fluids used in landing gear shock struts with extreme pressure and antiwear additives that have been added for improved lubrication. This document requires qualified products.
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Mechanical Switch Usage for Landing Gear Applications

1989-10-04
CURRENT
AIR4077
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) will examine considerations relative to the use of mechanical switches on aircraft landing gear, and present "lessons learned" during the period that these devices have been used.
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AIRCRAFT TAIL BUMPERS

1984-09-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1800
This document covers the field of civilian, commercial and military airplanes and helicopters. This summary of tail bumper design approaches may be used by design personnel as a reference and guide for future airplanes and helicopters that require tail bumpers. Those described herein will consist of simple rub strips, structural loops with a wear surface for runway contact, retractable installations with replaceable shock absorbers and wear surfaces and complicated retractable tail landing gears with shock strut, wheels and tires. The information will be presented as a general description of the installation, its components and their functions.
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Aircraft Tail Bumpers

1997-07-01
CURRENT
AIR1800A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) covers the field of civilian, commercial and military airplanes and helicopters. This summary of tail bumper design approaches may be used by design personnel as a reference and guide for future airplanes and helicopters that require tail bumpers. Those described herein will consist of simple rub strips, structural loops with a wear surface for runway contact, retractable installations with replaceable shock absorbers and wear surfaces and complicated retractable tail landing gears with shock strut, wheels and tires. The information will be presented as a general description of the installation, its components and their functions.
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Design, Development and Test Criteria - Solid State Proximity Switches/Systems for Landing Gear Applications

2001-10-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1810B
This document will examine the more important considerations relative to the utilization of "one piece", or integral electronics proximity switches, and "two piece", or separate sensor and electronics proximity switches, for applications on aircraft landing gear. In general, the recommendations included are applicable for other demanding aircraft sensor installations where the environment is equally severe.
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DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND TEST CRITERIA - SOLID STATE PROXIMITY SWITCHES/SYSTEMS FOR LANDING GEAR APPLICATIONS

1986-07-09
HISTORICAL
AIR1810A
This document will examine the more important considerations relative to the utilization of "one piece", or integral electronics proximity switches, and "two piece", or separate sensor and electronics proximity switches, for applications on aircraft landing gear. In general, the recommendations included are applicable for other demanding aircraft sensor installations where the environment is equally severe.
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Design, Development and Test Criteria - Solid State Proximity Switches/Systems for Landing Gear Applications

1983-09-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1810
This document examines the most important considerations relative to the use of proximity sensing systems for applications on aircraft landing gear. In general, the recommendations included are applicable to other demanding aircraft sensor installations where the environment is equially severe. The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to suggest specification, application, performance, and validation criteria for solid-state proximity sensing systems used for environmentally severe applications on aircraft landing gear.
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