Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 9 of 9
Technical Paper

Characterization of the Three Phase Catalytic Wet Oxidation Process in the International Space Station (ISS) Water Processor Assembly

2000-07-10
2000-01-2252
A three phase catalytic mathematical model was developed for analysis and optimization of the volatile reactor assembly (VRA) used on International Space Station (ISS) Water Processor. The Langmuir-Hinshelwood Hougen-Watson (L-H) expression was used to describe the surface reaction rate. Small column experiments were used to determine the L-H rate parameters. The test components used in the experiments were acetic acid, acetone, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol and propionic acid. These compounds are the most prevalent ones found in the influent to the VRA reactor. The VRA model was able to predict performance of small column data and experimental data from the VRA flight experiment.
Technical Paper

Bioluminescent Bioreporter Integrated Circuits (BBICs): Whole-Cell Environmental Monitoring Devices

2000-07-10
2000-01-2420
We report a chemical sensing technology composed of engineered bioluminescent bacteria placed on an integrated microluminometer. The bacteria have been engineered to luminesce when the targeted compound is metabolized, while the microluminometer detects, processes, and then reports the magnitude of this optical signal. In this work we report our progress in the development of these biosensors and present data from our prototypes.
Technical Paper

Bioluminescent Bioreporter Integrated Circuits (BBICs): Whole-Cell Environmental Monitoring Devices1

1999-07-12
1999-01-2152
We report a chemical sensing technology composed of engineered bioluminescent bacteria placed on an integrated microluminometer. The bacteria have been engineered to luminesce when the targeted compound is metabolized, while the microluminometer detects, processes, and then reports the magnitude of this optical signal. In this work we report our progress in the development of these biosensors and present data from our early prototypes.
Journal Article

Characterization of Field-Aged EGR Cooler Deposits

2010-10-25
2010-01-2091
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler fouling has become a significant issue for compliance with nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions standards. In order to better understand fouling mechanisms, eleven field-aged EGR coolers provided by seven different engine manufacturers were characterized using a suite of techniques. Microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy following mounting the samples in epoxy and polishing. Optical microscopy was able to discern the location of hydrocarbons in the polished cross-sections. Chemical compositions were measured using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Mass per unit area along the length of the coolers was also measured.
Journal Article

Ethanol Blend Effects On Direct Injection Spark-Ignition Gasoline Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions

2010-10-25
2010-01-2129
Direct injection spark-ignition (DISI) gasoline engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected counterparts, and are now appearing increasingly in more U.S. vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged DISI engines are likely to be used in lieu of large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, to meet fuel economy standards for 2016. In addition to changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the 10% allowed by current law due to the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA). In this study, we present the results of an emissions analysis of a U.S.-legal stoichiometric, turbocharged DISI vehicle, operating on ethanol blends, with an emphasis on detailed particulate matter (PM) characterization.
Journal Article

Carbonyl Formation during High Efficiency Clean Combustion of FACE Fuels

2010-10-25
2010-01-2212
The low temperature conditions that occur during high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) often lead to the formation of partially oxidized HC species such as aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids. Using the diesel fuels specified by the Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) working group, carbonyl species were collected from the exhaust of a light duty diesel engine operating under HECC conditions. High pressure liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to speciate carbonyls as large as C 9 . A relationship between carbonyl species formed in the exhaust and fuel composition and properties was determined. Data were collected at the optimum fuel efficiency point for a typical road load condition. Results of the carbonyl analysis showed changes in formaldehyde and acetaldehyde formation, formation of higher molecular weight carbonyls and the formation of aromatic carbonyls.
Journal Article

Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Operating with In-Cylinder Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blending

2010-10-25
2010-01-2266
Advanced combustion regimes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) offer benefits of reduced nitrogen oxides (NOX) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. However, these combustion strategies often generate higher carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. In addition, aldehydes and ketone emissions can increase in these modes. In this study, the engine-out emissions of a compression-ignition engine operating in a fuel reactivity-controlled PCCI combustion mode using in-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel fuel have been characterized. The work was performed on a 1.9-liter, 4-cylinder diesel engine outfitted with a port fuel injection system to deliver gasoline to the engine. The engine was operated at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) with the ratio of gasoline-to-diesel fuel that gave the highest engine efficiency and lowest emissions.
Journal Article

Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry During Lean NOx Trap Regeneration

2010-10-25
2010-01-2267
Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalysts can effectively reduce NOx from lean engine exhaust. Significant research for LNTs in diesel engine applications has been performed and has led to commercialization of the technology. For lean gasoline engine applications, advanced direct injection engines have led to a renewed interest in the potential for lean gasoline vehicles and, thereby, a renewed demand for lean NOx control. To understand the gasoline-based reductant chemistry during regeneration, a BMW lean gasoline vehicle has been studied on a chassis dynamometer. Exhaust samples were collected and analyzed for key reductant species such as H₂, CO, NH₃, and hydrocarbons during transient drive cycles. The relation of the reductant species to LNT performance will be discussed. Furthermore, the challenges of NOx storage in the lean gasoline application are reviewed.
Book

Additive Manufacturing for Designers: A Primer

2019-02-15
Additive Manufacturing, also known as AM or 3D printing, is a class of manufacturing processes that create objects by shaping material layer by layer. Having demonstrated the ability to produce miraculously complex geometries, it is broadly claimed that AM will have endless applications as the technology improves. However, underneath the hype surrounding this technology is a world of nuance and constraints as well as highly strategic applications. Additive Manufacturing for Designers: A Primer, written by Dr. Amy Elliot from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Dr. Cynthia K. Waters from North Carolina A&T State University discusses the topics needed for a holistic understanding of the many micro and macro components of the world of 3D printing. Additive Manufacturing for Designers: A Primer takes the reader on a journey beginning with important aspects of AM part design and process dependence, including resolution and tolerance issues of interest to any manufacturer.
X