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Technical Paper

A Time Dependent Model for the Lunar Radiation Environment

2005-07-11
2005-01-2831
In view of manned missions targeted to the Moon, for which radiation exposure is one of the greatest challenges to be tackled, it is of fundamental importance to have available a tool, which allows determination of the particle flux and spectra at any time and at any point of the lunar surface. With this goal in mind, a new model of the Moon’s radiation environment due to Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) has been developed. Primary particles reach the lunar surface, and are transported all throughout the subsurface layers, with backscattering patterns taken into account. The surface itself has been modeled as regolith and bedrock, with composition taken from the results of the instruments flown on the Apollo missions, namely on the Apollo 12 from the Oceanus Procellarum landing site. Subsurface environments like lava tubes have been considered in the analysis.
Technical Paper

Validation Studies of the GRNTRN Code for Radiation Transport

2007-07-09
2007-01-3118
To meet the challenge of future deep space programs an accurate and efficient engineering code for analyzing the shielding requirements against high-energy galactic heavy radiations is needed. Such engineering design codes require establishing validation processes using laboratory ion beams and space flight measurements in realistic geometries. In consequence, a new version of the HZETRN code capable of simulating HZE ions with either laboratory or space boundary conditions is currently under development. The new code, GRNTRN, is based on a Green's function approach to the solution of Boltzmann's transport equation and like its predecessor is deterministic in nature. Code validation in the laboratory environment is addressed by showing that GRNTRN accurately predicts energy loss spectra as measured by solid-state detectors in ion beam experiments.
Technical Paper

Deep Space Mission Radiation Shielding Optimization

2001-07-09
2001-01-2326
Providing protection against the hazards of space radiation is a major challenge to the exploration and development of space. The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep space missions. In the present report, we present methods for optimized shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and duty phase of lunar and Mars missions. The total shield mass over all pieces of equipment and habitats is optimized subject to career dose and dose rate constraints.
Technical Paper

Shielding Transmission Validation with Solid State Detectors

2003-07-07
2003-01-2331
As shielding materials are developed for protection against the hazards of galactic cosmic rays, it is desirable to develop a protocol for rapid assessment of shielding properties. Solid state energy loss detectors are often used to estimate the charge and energy of particles in ion beam experiments. The direct measurement is energy deposited in the detector. As a means of separating the charge components in typical shield transmission studies with observation, a stack of many such detectors is used. With high-energy beams and thin targets, surviving primaries and fragments emerging from the target have nearly-equal velocities and deposited energy scales with the square of the charge, simplifying the data analysis. The development of a transport model for the shield and detector arrangement and evaluation of prediction of the energy loss spectrum for direct comparison with the experimentally derived data allows a rapid assessment of the shield transmission characteristics.
Technical Paper

Standardized Radiation Shield Design Method: 2005 HZETRN

2006-07-17
2006-01-2109
Research committed by the Langley Research Center through 1995 resulting in the HZETRN code provides the current basis for shield design methods according to NASA STD-3000 (2005). With this new prominence, the database, basic numerical procedures, and algorithms are being re-examined with new methods of verification and validation being implemented to capture a well defined algorithm for engineering design processes to be used in this early development phase of the Bush initiative. This process provides the methodology to transform the 1995 HZETRN research code into the 2005 HZETRN engineering code to be available for these early design processes. In this paper, we will review the basic derivations including new corrections to the codes to insure improved numerical stability and provide benchmarks for code verification.
Technical Paper

Risk Assessment and Shielding Design for Long-Term Exposure to Ionizing Space Radiation

2006-07-17
2006-01-2108
NASA is now focused on the agency's vision for space exploration encompassing a broad range of human and robotic missions including missions to Moon, Mars and beyond. As a result, there is a focus on long duration space missions. NASA is committed to the safety of the missions and the crew, and there is an overwhelming emphasis on the reliability issues for space missions and the habitat. The cost effective design of the spacecraft demands a very stringent requirement on the optimization process. Exposure from the hazards of severe space radiation in deep space and/or long duration missions is ‘the show stopper.’ Thus, protection from the hazards of severe space radiation is of paramount importance to the new vision. It is envisioned to have long duration human presence on the Moon for deep space exploration. As NASA is looking forward to exploration in deep space, there is a need to go beyond current technology to the technology of the future.
Technical Paper

Steps Toward Developing a Multi-layer Green’s Function Code for Ion Beam Transport

2006-07-17
2006-01-2148
Recently, a new Green’s function code (GRNTRN) for simulation of HZE ion beams in the laboratory setting has been developed. Once fully developed and experimentally verified, GRNTRN will be a great asset in assessing radiation exposures in both the laboratory and space settings. The computational model consists of combinations of physical perturbation expansions based on the scales of atomic interaction, multiple elastic scattering, and nuclear reactive processes with use of Neumann-series expansions with non-perturbative corrections. The code contains energy loss with straggling, nuclear attenuation, nuclear fragmentation with energy dispersion and down shifts. Previous reports show that the new code accurately models the transport of ion beams through a single slab of material. Current research efforts are focused on enabling the code to handle multiple layers of material and the present paper reports on progress made towards that end.
Technical Paper

An Improved Green’s Function Code for HZE Ion Transport

2006-07-17
2006-01-2147
A new Green’s function code (GRNTRN) capable of simulating HZE ions with either laboratory or space boundary conditions is currently under development. The computational model consists of combinations of physical perturbation expansions based on the scales of atomic interaction, multiple scattering, and nuclear reactive processes with use of the Neumann-asymptotic expansions with non-perturbative corrections. The code contains energy loss due to straggling, nuclear attenuation, nuclear fragmentation with energy dispersion and downshifts. Recent publications have focused on code validation in the laboratory environment and have shown that the code predicts energy loss spectra accurately as measured by solid-state detectors in ion beam experiments. In this paper emphasis is placed on code validation with space boundary conditions.
Technical Paper

Some New Results in the Green’s Function Method for Ion Beam Transport

2004-07-19
2004-01-2322
The development of a Green’s function approach to ion transport greatly facilitates the modeling of laboratory radiation environments and allows for the direct testing of transport approximations of material transmission properties. Using this approach radiation investigators at the NASA Langley Research Center have established that simple solutions can be found for HZE ions by ignoring nuclear energy downshifts and dispersion. Such solutions were found to be supported by experimental evidence with HZE ion beams when multiple scattering was added. Lacking from the prior solutions were range and energy straggling and energy downshift and dispersion associated with nuclear events. In a more recent publication it was shown how these effects can be incorporated into the multiple fragmentation perturbation series. Analytical approximations for the first two perturbation terms were presented and the third term was evaluated numerically.
Technical Paper

Towards a 3D Space Radiation Transport Code

2002-07-15
2002-01-2333
High-speed computational procedures for space radiation shielding have relied on asymptotic expansions in terms of the off-axis scatter and replacement of the general geometry problem by a collection of flat plates. This type of solution was derived for application to human rated systems in which the radius of the shielded volume is large compared to the off-axis diffusion limiting leakage at lateral boundaries. Over the decades these computational codes are relatively complete and lateral diffusion effects are now being added. The analysis for developing a practical full 3D space shielding code is presented.
Technical Paper

Shield Optimization in Simple Geometry for the Gateway Concept

2002-07-15
2002-01-2332
The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in many deep space missions. For this enabling technology, we are developing tools for optimized shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and duty phase of various space missions. The total shield mass over all pieces of equipment and habitats is optimized subject to career dose and dose rate constraints. Preliminary studies of deep space missions indicate that for long duration space missions, improved shield materials will be required. The details of this new method and its impact on space missions and other technologies will be discussed. This study will provide a vital tool for evaluating Gateway designs in their usage context. Providing protection against the hazards of space radiation is one of the challenges to the Gateway infrastructure designs.
Technical Paper

Neutrons in Space: Shield Models and Design Issues

2000-07-10
2000-01-2414
The normal working and living areas of the astronaut are designed to provide an acceptable level of protection against the hazards of ionizing space radiation. Attempts to reduce the exposures require intervening shield materials to reduce the transmitted radiation. An unwelcome side effect of the shielding is the production of neutrons, which are themselves dangerous particles that can be (but are not always) more hazardous than the particles that produced them. This is especially true depending on the choice of shield materials. Although neutrons are not a normal part of the space environment, they can be a principle component of astronaut exposure in the massive spacecraft's required for human space travel and habitation near planetary surfaces or other large bodies of material in space.
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