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Technical Paper

Iodine Addition Using Triiodide Solutions

The STS water system is treated with iodinated water in order to prevent microbial contamination. This water is prepared by adding a concentrated solution of iodine to Ground Service Equipment (GSE) before adding the water in that unit to the spacecraft system. The solution is prepared by dissolving iodine in ethanol to make a tincture stock solution. While this procedure is rapid, the ethanol increases the carbon levels in the STS potable water and may produce unpleasant odors. The resulting high carbon levels preclude the use of total organic carbon measurements as a water quality monitoring tool. The use of triiodide solutions was studied as a substitute for using ethanol solutions. Two dissolution agents, sodium iodide and hydriodic acid, were investigated. Sodium iodide was studied at molar concentration ratios ranging from 1:1 to 2.5:1 sodium iodide to molecular iodine.
Technical Paper

Total Organic Carbon Analyzer

Development and testing of a high sensitivity monitor for the measurement of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in water without gravity-dependent components and using minimal chemical reagents has been performed. A breadboard instrument was constructed and tested for linearity, selectivity, and day-to-day reproducibility. The instrument has a linear response for a wide range of organic compounds over a range from 20 ppb C to 50 ppm C, with excellent day-to-day reproducibility. The upper level can be extended to ∼100 ppm C by changing the operating conditions of the analyzer. The selectivity of the instrument has been determined and no interference is observed except for high concentrations (> 10 ppm) of iodine, hypochlorous acid, sodium nitrite and sodium sulfide.
Technical Paper

Further Characterization and Multifiltration Treatment of Shuttle Humidity Condensate

On the International Space Station (ISS), humidity condensate will be collected from the atmosphere and treated by multifiltration to produce potable water for use by the crews. Ground-based development tests have demonstrated that multifiltration beds filled with a series of ion-exchange resins and activated carbons can remove many inorganic and organic contaminants effectively from wastewaters. As a precursor to the use of this technology on the ISS, a demonstration of multifiltration treatment under microgravity conditions was undertaken. On the Space Shuttle, humidity condensate from cabin air is recovered in the atmosphere revitalization system, then stored and periodically vented to space vacuum. A Shuttle Condensate Adsorption Device (SCAD) containing sorbent materials similar to those planned for use on the ISS was developed and flown on STS-68 as a continuation of DSO 317, which was flown initially on STS-45 and STS-47.