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Technical Paper

Outline of Material Circulation — Closed Habitation Experiments Conducted in 2005 – 2007 Using Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities

2009-07-12
2009-01-2580
The Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) were installed to collect data for estimation of transfer of radionuclides from atmosphere to humans in the ecosystem. The first target among the radio-nuclides is 14C. In order to validate function of material circulation in an experimental system constructed in the CEEF, circulation of air constituents, water and materials in waste was demonstrated connecting the Closed Plant Experiment Facility (CPEF) and the Closed Animal and Human habitation Experiment Facility (CAHEF) of the CEEF, since 2005 to 2007. The CPEF has a Plant Cultivation Module (PCM), which comprises of three plant chambers illuminated solely by artificial lighting, one plant chamber illuminated by both natural and artificial lighting, a space for preparation, and an airlock, and a physical/chemical material circulation system.
Technical Paper

Improved Operation of CO2 Separator for Preventing Increases in CO2 Concentration of Air in the Habitation Room during Closed Habitation Experiments

2007-07-09
2007-01-3097
The main objective of the activities of the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) is to construct a mathematical model to predict the transfer of radiocarbon (14C) released from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in the village of Rokkasho into the local ecosystem. For this purpose, an artificial ecosystem, including crops, domestic animals, and human inhabitants, needs to be maintained in the CEEF for several months. As a preparatory study, two-week habitation experiments using the CEEF were planned in 2006. In the first habitation experiment, a CO2 separator was continuously operated with a cycle of 60-minute adsorption and 60-minute desorption periods in order to remove excess CO2 from the habitation room, and the maximum CO2 concentration of air in this room slightly exceeded 5000 ppm, which was identical to the maximum 8-hour exposure permitted for industrial settings.
Technical Paper

Circulation of Water in Addition to CO2, O2 and Plant Biomass in an Artificial Ecosystem Comprised of Humans, Goats and Crops During Three 2-Weeks Closed Habitation Experiments Using CEEF

2007-07-09
2007-01-3091
The Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) were installed to collect data for realistic estimation of radiocarbon transfer in the ecosystem. Two-week experiments were conducted three times from September to November of 2006, in which two human subjects called as eco-nauts were enclosed and worked in an airtight facility, the CEEF. The eco-nauts were changed after a week from beginning of each experiment. In these experiments, a Plant Module (PM) with 23 crops, including rice, soybean, peanut, and sugar beet, was connected to an Animal & Habitation Module (AHM) which included the eco-nauts and two goats. 91.8-94.6% (by weight) of the food consumed by the eco-nauts and 79% of the feed to the goats (straw, leaf and bran of rice, leaf and stem of soybean, and leaf, stem and shell of peanut) were produced from crops in the PM. Amount of oxygen produced by the crops was more than the amount consumed by respiration of human and animals in these experiments.
Technical Paper

Matching of Gas Metabolism among Crop Community, Human and Animal in the CEEF

2003-07-07
2003-01-2452
Rating of daily amounts of CO2 and O2 exchange of crops, animals and humans to be involved in the long-term habitation experiments using the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) were carried out. Daily amounts of the CO2-absorption and O2-generation of crops including rice, soybeans and other 27 vegetables were estimated from data obtained from a sequential crop cultivation experiment conducted from August to December of FY2001. Daily amounts of O2-consumption and CO2-expiration of two female Shiba goats to be involved were estimated based on gas exchange determination conducted in FY2002. Daily amounts of CO2-expiration and O2-consumption of two persons to be involved were estimated based on correlation between respiration rate and heart rate, heart rate data during the simulated habitation in the CEEF and a tentative work schedule.
Technical Paper

Considerations of Material Circulation in CEEF Based on the Recent Operation Strategy

2003-07-07
2003-01-2453
In the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF), with integrating the Closed Plantation Experiment Facilities (CPEF) and the Closed Animal Breading & Habitation Facilities (CABHF), closed habitation experiments without material exchange with the outside will be conducted after the 2005 fiscal year. Cultivation experiments of about 30 crops and the integrating test of the material circulation system required for the closed habitation experiments have been performed since 2000 fiscal year. Using data reported in these experiments, material circulation in CEEF is simulated based on the recent operation strategy, and the storage capacity needed for the buffer of an air processing subsystem was estimated. In order for two humans to dwell over 120 days, the storage capacities of the carbon dioxide tank, the oxygen tank, and the waste gas tank in CPEF, and the carbon dioxide tank and the oxygen tank in CABHF are 820 g, 2830 g, 4425 g, 1780 g, and 1792 g, respectively.
Technical Paper

Carbon Flow in an Artificial Ecosystem Comprised of Crew, Goats and Crops for Three 1-Week Confined Habitation Experiments Using CEEF

2006-07-17
2006-01-2075
Three 1-week experiments were conducted from September to October of 2005 in which two human subjects called as eco-nauts were enclosed and worked in an airtight facility called Closed Ecosystem Experiment Facilities (CEEF). The test involved connecting a Plant Module (PM) with 23 crops, including rice, soybean, peanut, and sugar beet, to an Animal & Habitation Module (AHM), which included the eco-nauts and two Shiba goats. Although only 34% (by weight) of the food consumed by the eco-nauts was produced by crops in the PM in the first experiment, it was 81% in the second and third experiments. As for feed for the goats, although all was Timothy hay was supplied from outside in the first experiment, all of the feed (rice straw, soybean leaf and peanut shell) was produced in the PM in the second and third experiments. In all these experiments, the crops produced more oxygen than the amount consumed by respiration of human and animals.
Technical Paper

Carbon Dioxide Separation and Recovery from the Closed Animal Breeding and Habitation Module of the CEEF during Closed Habitation Experiments

2006-07-17
2006-01-2076
In the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF), an artificial ecosystem including crops, Shiba goats, and human inhabitants is to be constructed in order to conduct long-term habitation experiments. For carbon circulation in this artificial ecosystem, CO2 needs to be recovered from the air of animal breeding and habitation rooms using a CO2 separator and to be injected into growth chambers for consumption in crop photosynthesis. Moreover, daily crop yield from the growth chambers needs to be stabilized to drive carbon circulation in the artificial ecosystemwithout huge buffers. Because crops are cultivated in a staggered manner, controlling atmospheric CO2 concentration in the growth chambers at a constant level during light periods throughout crop cultivation is necessary for stabilizing daily crop yield.
Technical Paper

NOx Emission during Operation of a Drying Toilet System in Air-Circulated Confinement Experiment

2006-07-17
2006-01-2155
The Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF), designed to simulate material circulation, is an artificial closed agricultural ecosystem with plants, humans, and animals. The drying toilet system “DRI-LET®” had been installed in the habitation module as a human waste processor for material circulation by carbonizing. Carbonizing of human waste has advantages in life support systems because it can minimize the total volume and weight of human waste. However, this toilet system releases many gases during processing. In particular, NO2 concentration in the habitation module increased up to 4 ppm when one person used the toilet system. In this paper, we report NO and NO2 behavior in the habitation module during experiments and a method to reduce their concentrations by using NO and NO2 adsorbent.
Technical Paper

Preliminary research on Energy Metabolism of Candidate Animals in Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF)

2000-07-10
2000-01-2336
The basal metabolism of the Candidate Animal is mainly on energy metabolism that was estimated for future animal breeding in CEEF as preliminary research. The amounts of gas exchange in the respiration and heat production of the Shiba goat (native Japanese goat) were analyzed to predict energy and material flow of the animal breeding system in the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF). Experimental animals were fed Timothy hay or inedible parts of rice cultivated in CEEF. The feces and urine were collected during the 7-day metabolism measurement period after a 2-week preliminary breeding period. The O2 consumption, CO2 production, and CH4 production were measured by a mass spectrometric respiration gas analysis system on the 7th day of the metabolism measurement period. Heat production was also obtained from these data. O2 consumption, CO2 production and CH4 production were 100.3 - 153.8 L, 127.2 - 174.0 L and 5.7 - 10.8 L per day (at 0°C, 0.101MPa), respectively.
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