This technical paper collection features 15 papers covering electrification of the commercial vehicle, techniques for efficiency and reliability; developments in sensors; model based design and embedded software development; heavy duty electronic technology; autonomous vehicles; electronic control module development and test; and vehicle structure.
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A series of flight tests were conducted to design and evaluate a Combined Vision System (CVS) that integrates a forward looking infrared video image with synthetic vision on a primary flight display. System features included colorizing the video image to mesh with the synthetic terrain background, decluttering the approach symbology to facilitate the detection of the approach lights and runway markings, creating a semi-transparent IR sky to ensure continuous situational awareness of the surrounding terrain, and annunciating the decision height to facilitate the transition to the actual runway environment. Over 100 approaches were flown during three flight test sessions. For the first flight test session pilots reviewed early CVS proofs of concept on Honeywell's Citation Sovereign.
The growing need for an efficient worldwide airspace system management, generated by an increasing traffic load, requires new capabilities for air-ground data communication technologies. In order to cope with these requirements, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), EUROCONTROL, and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) have jointly made specific recommendations for candidate technologies for the airport surface communication network. In the SESAR project, the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communication System (AeroMACS) technology is being developed in such a way to provide next generation broadband and wireless data communications for airport surface applications (i.e. Air Traffic Control ? ATC, Airline Operational Communications ? AOC, and surface vehicles services).
There are a large number of space structures, orbital replacement units (ORUs) and other components that must be transported to orbit on a regular basis for the assembly and maintenance of the International Space Station (ISS). Some of this hardware will be ferried on the Spacelab Logistics Pallet (SLP), which has a long and reliable history of space flight successes. The carrier is well used, well qualified, and very adaptable for repeated use in accommodating cargoes of various sizes and shapes. This paper presents an overview of past, present and future hardware design solutions that accommodate EVA operations on the SLP. It further demonstrates how analysis techniques and design considerations have influenced the hardware development, EVA operations, and compliance with human engineering requirements for the SLP.
The demand for air travel is expanding beyond the capacity of existing airports and air traffic control. This excess traffic often results in delays and compromised safety. Therefore, a number of initiatives to improve airport capacity and throughput have been proposed. However, in order to assess the impact of these technologies on commercial air traffic one must move beyond the vehicle to a system-of-systems point of view. This top-level point of view must include consideration of the aircraft, airports, air traffic management and airlines that make up the airspace system. In addition to the analyses of each of these components and their interactions, a thorough investigation of capacity and throughput technologies requires due consideration of other pressures such as economics, safety and government regulations. Furthermore, the air traffic system is inherently variable with constant changes in everything from fuel prices to the weather.
The Plant Generic BioProcessing Apparatus (PGBA), a plant growth facility developed for commercial space biotechnology research, has flown successfully on 3 spaceflight missions for 4, 10 and 16 days. The environmental control systems of this plant growth chamber (28 liter/0.075 m2) provide atmospheric, thermal, and humidity control, as well as lighting and nutrient supply. Typical performance profiles of water transpiration and dehumidification, carbon dioxide absorption (photosynthesis) and respiration rates in the PGBA unit (on orbit and ground) are presented. Data were collected on single and mixed crops. Design options and considerations for the different sub-systems are compared with those of similar hardware.
This paper introduces the concepts utilized for the integration of a cryogenic capillary pumped loop into a flight experiment. The Cryogenic Capillary Pumped Loop (CCPL) version V, which was recently manufactured (9/97), is to be integrated into the Cryogenic Thermal Storage Unit (CRYOTSU) flight experiment as a secondary experiment. CRYOTSU, a Get-Away-Special (GAS) Can experiment, is currently manifested on STS-95 with an anticipated launch date of October 1998. The CCPL uses nitrogen as the working fluid with a 70-120 K operating temperature. The primary benefit of the CCPL is as a heat transport device in cryogenic bus systems. The primary issue of structurally supporting the CCPL while reducing parasitic heat loads will be detailed.
The number of accidents in the takeoff phase, especially in general aviation, is significant. Many pilots do not recognize deficits in acceleration until too late in the takeoff roll. This paper presents a proposal for a simple instrument to alert a pilot to shortfalls in takeoff acceleration. The system presents this speed on an LCD bargraph arranged around the circumference of the airspeed indicator. Additionally, the system can annunciate critical points along the runway so that the pilot can make a decision to reject the takeoff while sufficient distance remains. The system requires only a wheel sensor and optionally sensors for air temperature and pressure altitude. Other system components include a small processor unit, the airspeed display and a small keyboard display unit to enter aircraft weight and runway length. The unit is appropriate to all classes of airplanes.
“As we handle more operations and passengers in the air, we must make certain we have the capacity to handle increased traffic on the ground.” - Jane Garvey, FAA Administrator (4/20/98) The FAA Technical Center (Aviation System Analysis and Modeling Branch, ACT-520) has been responsive to the FAA Airport Capacity Program customers for the past 22 years, developing, testing, and applying airfield and airspace simulation models. More than 90 capacity studies have been completed with ACT-520 personnel contributing their technical expertise to the Airport Design Teams. The teams are comprised of FAA personnel, airport operators, air carriers, other airport users and aviation industry representatives at major airports throughout the US. Initial studies focused on modeling airport operations from final approach, taxi, gate operations and departure processing. Later in the program, local airspace studies were included in some airport study efforts.
A study has been conducted into the employment of ailerons as a brake augmentation device capable of minimising landing distance whilst maintaining the aircraft on the runway centre line. The idea is to use ailerons to increase the normal force on the undercarriage, which has the effect of increasing the available friction force in favour of the gear that is most likely to skid. The paper evaluates, the aerodynamic forces and moments produced by ailerons, the achievable increase/decrease in the applied normal undercarriage loading, the aircraft roll rates, dynamic lags due to fully deflecting the ailerons, and the responsiveness of the anti skid system. This paper shows that the ailerons have the aerodynamic effectiveness to enhance differential braking and describes the concept for shortening landing distances. The paper introduces the methodology to achieve this proposed effect.
This paper examines two general considerations for designers of CDTI: the information required for intended applications, and the mechanisms capable for providing the pilot with that information. Methods for defining information requirements are summarized, and a case study using control theory analysis is given. The information available from procedures and from CDTI are compared. Finally, suggestions are given for the design of CDTI and air traffic procedures.
The wireless Spread Spectrum Ground Communication (SSGC) system will contribute to the enhancement of aircraft maintenance, flight, dispatch, and cargo operations efficiency. A concept layout of the wireless SSGC system implementation in an airport environment is illustrated in Figure 1. The SSGC system will provide both text/graphics data transmission and voice communication for flight crew, maintenance, and dispatch personnel in the airport gate environment. This system will link ground information system and onboard avionics systems, and provide access by ground crew to an information database through portable graphics terminals. The objective is to integrate both airborne avionics, ground crew, and ground based resources into a seamless operating system.
This paper will highlight the wear process associated with spinup and its easier to experimentally achieve drop tower spindown counterpart. Overall, such issues as net wear, wear distribution, potential thermal rise, tire construction and runway surface effects will be discussed along with an assessment-correlation study of a theoretical formulation of the problem.
A mathematical model of a fixed-film biological waste water processor has been developed for system level simulations of the Trickle Filter Bioreactor (TPB) currently operating at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC Hybrid Regenerative Water Recovery System (HRWRS) laboratory. The TFB model has been compared against HRWRS lab data as well as an independently developed mathematical model of a waste water processing biofilm. On a microscopic level, the fundamental equations which describe the simultaneous diffusion and reaction within the biofilm are simplified by use of polynomial substitution to provide a solution which can be solved much more rapidly than traditional finite difference solution methods. Phenomenological transport equations are used to couple the biofilm and liquid phases as well as the gas and liquid phases.
Computer models are currently being developed by NASA and major aerospace companies to characterize regenerative life support waste water reclamation bioreactors. Detailed models increase understanding of complex processes within the bioreactors and predict performance capabilities over a wide range of operating parameters. Bench-top scale bioreactors are contributing to the development and validation of these models. The purpose of the detailed bioreactor model is to simulate the complex water purification processes as accurately as possible by minimizing the use of simplifying assumptions and empirical relationships. Fundamental equations of mass transport and microbial kinetics were implemented in a finite-difference model structure to maximize accuracy and adaptability to various bioreactor configurations. The model development is based upon concepts and data from the available literature and data from the bench top bioreactor investigations.
An integrated cockpit display suite, the T-NASA (Taxiway Navigation and Situation Awareness) system, is under development for NASA's Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Low-Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) program. This system has three integrated components: Moving Map -- track-up airport surface display with ownship, traffic and graphical route guidance; Scene-Linked Symbology -- route/taxi information virtually projected via a Head-up Display (HUD) onto the forward scene; and, 3-D Audio Ground Collision Avoidance Warning (GCAW) system -- spatially-localized auditory traffic alerts. In this paper, surface operations in low-visibility conditions, the design philosophy of the T-NASA system, and the T-NASA system display components are described.
The possibility of visualization of an aircraft jet-and-vortex wake above a landing strip is investigated. The processes of water vapor heterogeneous condensation and droplets coalescence due to turbulent pulsation are taken into account. Numerical examples for the case of B-747-type flyer take-off are presented.
The relationships between rotorcraft physical dimensions and their performance characteristics to vertiport/heliport design criteria have recently been critically evaluated. These evaluations have been conducted by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and by representatives from the vertical flight industry and academia. These efforts were prompted by the anticipated ability of advanced rotorcraft to provide airport and ground traffic congestion relief through commercial air transportation services on some short-haul routes after the year 2000. This paper discusses the results of these investigations and their impact on vertiport design issues, criteria, and future research and development (R&D) requirements.