The electric vehicle industry - land, water and air - is rapidly rising to become a market of over $533 billion by 2025. Some run entirely on harvested energy as with solar lake boats. Others recycle energy as with regenerative braking of cars, buses and military vehicles harvesting kinetic energy. Others use different forms of harvesting either to charge the traction batteries, or to drive autonomous device. In some cases, harvesting is making completely new forms of electric vehicle possible such as "glider" Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) that can stay at sea for years, gaining electricity from both wave power and sunshine. Multiple forms of energy harvesting on one vehicle are becoming more common from cars to superyachts.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes the requirements for polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) hose assemblies for use in aerospace hydraulic systems at temperatures between -55 °C and 204 °C and at a nominal pressure up to 28,000 kPa (280 bar). The hose assemblies are also suitable for use within the same temperature and pressure limitations in aerospace pneumatic systems where some gaseous diffusion through the wall of the PTFE liner can be tolerated. The use of these hose assemblies in high pressure pneumatic storage systems is not recommended. In addition, installations in which the limits specified herein are exceeded, or in which the application is not covered specifically by this document, for example, oxygen, shall be subject to the approval of the purchaser.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (MA) defines the requirements for a convoluted polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) lined, metallic reinforced, hose assembly suitable for use in aircraft fluid systems at temperatures of -55 to 204 °C and at operating pressures per Table 1.