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Technical Paper

Development of Variable Cylinder Management System for Large Motorcycles

2009-04-20
2009-01-1044
The world’s first variable cylinder management system, VCM system, for large motorcycles has been developed. The system uses an in-line four-cylinder, 1 137 cm3 engine as the base, and allows changing of the number of working cylinders from 2-cylinder to 3-cylinder to 4-cylinder. To eliminate an abrupt change of power delivery when shifting number of working cylinders, the electronically-controlled throttle valve (Throttle-By-Wire: TBW) is employed. Coupled with the harmonized control of the intake-and-exhaust valve deactivating system, the smooth switching of number of working cylinders suitable for motorcycles has been realized. As a result, while maintaining the same power output characteristics of the conventional engine, EURO 3 exhaust emission regulations are satisfied while attaining approximately 46% better fuel economy in the New European Driving Cycle mode (NEDC mode).
Technical Paper

Robust Design of Control Systems with Physical System Variances

2009-04-20
2009-01-1041
Today’s automotive control system engineering requires precision and accuracy. The cost of a controller designed with conservative margins may increase significantly, causing the design, when produced and marketed, to be less competitive. On the other hand, a design with too little margin may lead to system malfunction under marginal environment conditions or due to component aging. A robust design is one that is immune to the effects of component variance due to tolerance, temperature, and aging, among other factors. Achieving a robust design involves careful analysis of the controller and plant operating together. This paper discusses how MATLAB and Simulink can be leveraged to ensure the robustness of a mechatronic system design. The merits of the network approach as a technique for modeling physical systems as an alternative to the signal flow (block diagram) approach are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Interaction of Vehicle Ride Vibration Control with Lateral Stability Using Active Rear Wheel Steering

2009-04-20
2009-01-1042
In this work the effects of vehicle vertical vibrations on the tires/road cornering forces, and then consequently on vehicle lateral dynamics are studied. This is achieved through a ride model and a handling model linked together by a non-linear tire model. The ride model is a half vehicle with four degrees of freedom (bounce and pitch motions for vehicle body and two bounce motions for the two axles). The front and rear suspension are a hydro-pneumatic slow-active systems with 6 Hz cut-off frequency designed based on linear optimal control theory. Vehicle lateral dynamics is modeled as two degrees (yaw and lateral motions) incorporating a driver model. An optimal rear wheel steering control in addition to the front steering is considered in the vehicle model to represent a Four Wheel Steering (4WS) system. The tire non-linearity is represented by the Magic Formula tire model.
Technical Paper

Using Simulation to Verify Diagnosis Algorithms of Electronic Systems

2009-04-20
2009-01-1043
In modern vehicles the architecture of electronics is growing more and more complex because both the number of electronic functions – e.g. implemented as software modules – as well as the level of networking between electronic control units (ECUs) is steadily increasing. This complexity leads to greater propagation of failure symptoms, and diagnosing the causes of failure becomes a new challenge. Diagnostics aims at detecting failures such as defect sensors or faulty communication messages. It is subdivided into diagnosis algorithms on an ECU and algorithms running offboard, e.g. on a diagnostic tester. These algorithms have to complement each other in the best possible way. While in the past the diagnosis algorithm was developed late in the development process, nowadays there are efforts to start the development of such algorithms earlier – at least in parallel to developing a new feature itself. This would allow developers to verify the diagnosis algorithms in early design stages.
Technical Paper

Design and Optimization of a Variable Displacement Vane Pump for High Performance IC Engine Lubrication: Part 1 - Experimental Analysis of the Circumferential Pressure Distribution with Dynamic Pressure Sensors

2009-04-20
2009-01-1045
In the present automotive research, increasing efforts are being directed to improve the overall organic efficiency, which, inter alia, means to improve the operational behavior of the auxiliary organs. This paper reports an experimental approach for the determination and analysis of the pressure distribution in a variable displacement vane pump for high speed internal combustion engine lubrication. More in details, an actual application is presented for a seven-blades variable displacement vane pump equipped with a hydraulic geometry variation system. This unit is characterized by a high performance, in terms of rotational speed, delivery pressure and displacement variation. The experimental layout and some relevant facilities are described. An extended test campaign was performed on the pump to characterize its operational behavior.
Journal Article

Advanced Design of Variable Compression Ratio Engine with Dual Piston Mechanism

2009-04-20
2009-01-1046
A Dual Piston Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) engine has been newly developed. In order to ensure the strength of the Dual Piston, the design guidelines were established. There are two advantages of this design. One is the compactness and the compatibility with a mass production engine block. Another is less power consumption required during compression ratio switching. However, the durability is a challenge for this design because of the impact load during the switching driven by the inertial force of a reciprocating piston. In order to achieve a durable configuration, it was necessary to consider the dynamics of the stress after impact, from analysis of the impacting process during the switching. The analysis of stress and deformation mode was improved in accuracy by using Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) in the designing process.
Technical Paper

Research of Electronically Controlled Throttle System for Large Motorcycles

2009-04-20
2009-01-1047
There are various demands concerning the motorcycle rider’s throttle input such as nonlinearly engine output attribute control and maximum speed control. To realize those demands by electronic control, we mounted the Drive-by-Wire (DBW) throttle system, which is currently being used on existing automobiles, to motorcycles, but the system failed to meet the demands of the motorcycle. Response to the throttle speed change was an issue; therefore, we built up the control system to satisfy the motorcycle’s demand for response by changing the high speed response equation of adaptive sliding mode control and adding the hysteresis property correction equation of the throttle body drive-train. As a result, we could realize response equivalent to that of a mechanical throttle.
Technical Paper

Wear of Friction Material during Vehicle Braking

2009-04-20
2009-01-1032
An analysis of the vehicle braking, combining with the linear relation between wear and frictional work already investigated, was used to establish a wear equation. Initial braking velocity, the number of brakings per 1 km and pad thickness loss per 1000 km were determined by using taxis with identical car types and identical pad qualities. Based on the averaged experimental results and some normal braking conditions, the calculated average apparent specific wear rate through the equation was unexpectedly found to decrease firstly and then increase with the increase of average initial braking velocity. The pad friction properties relevant to the equation analysis were tested by using a dynamometer, followed by measuring wear as a function of temperature at three different initial velocities that equal the average initial braking velocities respectively.
Technical Paper

Newly Developed Inline 4 AR Series SI Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1048
A newly developed AR series 4-cylinder engine has achieved high fuel efficiency through the following: adopting roller rocker arms for the valvetrain system and a variable output oil pump to reduce the friction losses, optimizing the combustion chamber and its cooling system for high compression ratio, and adopting VVT-i (Variable Valve Timing-intelligent) for both intake and exhaust camshafts to enhance thermal efficiency of the engine. Engine torque has been enhanced across the entire range of engine speeds while high performance at low engine speed is achieved by adopting a variable induction intake manifold system (ACIS-III). Output power has been enhanced by making the intake and exhaust systems highly efficient. A hinge type tumble control valves were developed to improve emissions at low temperature by improving combustion when the engine is cold in order to comply with the U.S. Cold-NMHC.
Technical Paper

Development of an Engine-in-the-loop Vehicle Simulation System in Engine Dynamometer Test Cell

2009-04-20
2009-01-1039
To meet the ever increasing requirements for engines and vehicles in the areas of performance, fuel economy, emission, and meanwhile reduce product development time, Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation is increasingly used in automotive control system development. Engine-in-the-loop (EIL) vehicle simulation, which is a specific form of HIL simulation, is an approach in which a physical engine (together with its control unit) is coupled to virtual vehicle and driver models through a high power, low inertia engine dynamometer in the engine test cell environment. EIL can be used to perform powertrain control development, as well as engine and vehicle performance evaluation. Because of its advantages in repeatability and flexibility etc., especially for transient operating mode study, EIL has become a powerful tool and will be more widely used in the near future. Design and implementation of an EIL vehicle simulation system is described.
Technical Paper

Utilizing the Electronic Stability Control Hydraulic Pump to Counteract Brake Pad Knock Back

2009-04-20
2009-01-1030
This paper will explore an innovative solution for counteracting brake pad knock back. Fixed brake caliper applications have a tendency to knock the pads/pistons back into the caliper during high lateral acceleration maneuvers. Knock back causes increased brake pedal travel and even master cylinder run out in the most extreme case. A strategy is developed which uses the standard ESP sensors to deduce when knock back has likely occurred, and then runs the ABS pump to build enough pressure to re-seat the pads. External instrumentation was used to develop correlations between available ESP signals and measured knock back, and between pump behavior and measured movement of the piston. Data acquisition was conducted on numerous closed environments as well as proving out the feature on the racetrack. A method is developed to run the pump only as long as required to reseat the pads. The challenges faced during the industrialization of the feature are also detailed.
Technical Paper

Application of Optical Inspection Methods in Surface Distortion Measurement

2009-04-20
2009-01-1034
The demand for greater quality on the surface of components has created a need of better techniques for surface distortion measurement. Recently, there are considerable research activities in the development of optical methods for surface distortion inspection. Severe different optical inspection methods have been used for body surface inspection. The main objective of this paper is to give a review of optical methods in this area. The fundamental and working principle will be demonstrated by example of surface distortion measurement on parts of a car body.
Technical Paper

Decomposition of Intrinsic Mode Functions at DIC Key Measurement Points

2009-04-20
2009-01-1036
Digital Image Correlation (DIC) which is used as displacement and strain measurements has advantages of full field, non-contact and considerately high precision. Therefore, DIC has great potentiality in quantitative measurement of deformation and vibration of engineering structure. In the most cases, the vibration signal measured on structure under service condition is nonlinear and non-stationary. As the prior numerical proceeding works of hybrid method of DIC and FEA, an Empirical Mode Decomposition method (EMD) is presented in this paper to obtain the Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) of the vibration signal at structural key points. The EMD method can be also used to de-noise the quasi-static deformation or strain signal measured by DIC at structural key points.
Technical Paper

Control Strategy to Improve the Ride of a North American Pick Up Truck

2009-04-20
2009-01-1040
This paper deals with the problem of ride and one feasible control strategy solution. Ride in this study is understood as the comfort of the passengers in forward travel in a cruise speed and exposed to road disturbances. This problem is usually addressed with appropriate damping calibration; however for different speeds and road conditions, even a well tuned suspension has limitations. The possibility of semi active solutions is therefore considered and a control strategy with heuristic properties is proposed for heave, pitch and roll motion in a separate fashion. It is the intention of this study to formulate laws separately that can be implemented for future integration.
Technical Paper

The All New AJV8

2009-04-20
2009-01-1060
This paper describes the design and function of the all new AJV8 engine. The engine is deployed in both naturally aspirated and supercharged form. The 90 degree four valve per cylinder V8, is of all aluminum design and employs a new spray guided direct injection combustion system, with the injectors located centrally within the chamber for more precise fuel control. Intake and exhaust valve timing is varied via four cam torque actuated variable cam timing units. The naturally aspirated derivative employs both two stage inlet valve lift control and two stage inlet manifold tuning to provide excellent low speed torque. This results in superior vehicle dynamic response and fuel economy. The supercharged derivative uses Twin Vortex supercharging technology in combination with the optimized high pressure die cast, deep skirt block structure to deliver a class leading balance of performance and refinement.
Technical Paper

Development of New 1.8-Liter Engine for Hybrid Vehicles

2009-04-20
2009-01-1061
In recent years, attention has been focused on a hybrid vehicle capable of substantial reductions in CO2 exhaust emissions. This paper describes the newly developed 1.8-liter 2ZR-FXE gasoline engine for use with a hybrid system for compact vehicles, which effectively combines higher driving performance with higher fuel efficiency. This engine was based on the 1.8-liter 2ZR-FE engine with outstanding performance and fuel efficiency. This engine has achieved high thermal efficiency by using the high-expansion ratio cycle “Atkinson cycle”, as with the previous 1NZ-FXE engine. Additionally, a new cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system and electric water pump were adopted to further improve fuel efficiency. A high efficiency cooler was used to cool the EGR gas, which enabled the introduction of the EGR gas at high load conditions, and exhaust gas temperature was reduced.
Technical Paper

Electrical System Modeling Based on Lead Acid Battery Aging

2009-04-20
2009-01-1038
Recently electric and electronic devices in vehicle have been rapidly increasing. Because the dynamic characteristics of these systems are too much complicated, it is getting very difficult to predict the change of electrical energy accurately. Especially, since the lead-acid battery has a fast aging process, managing the electrical energy in vehicle becomes more difficult. This paper shows the electrical energy simulator, which consists of a battery, an alternator and various electrical devices. In particular, proposed aging battery model was implemented using a finite element method (FEM) based on electrochemical approach. And the thermal characteristic of alternator is also focused on getting reliable performance. Finally, we validated the electrical energy simulator including this battery model on the actual conditions in vehicle.
Journal Article

Advanced Control System of Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) Engine with Dual Piston Mechanism

2009-04-20
2009-01-1063
A dual piston Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) engine has been newly developed. This compact VCR system uses the inertia force and hydraulic pressure accompanying the reciprocating motion of the piston to raise and lower the outer piston and switches the compression ratio in two stages. For the torque characteristic enhancement and the knocking prevention when the compression ratio is being switched, it is necessary to carry out engine controls based on accurate compression ratio judgment. In order to accurately judge compression ratio switching timing, a control system employing the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) was used to analyze vibration generated during the compression ratio switching. Also, in order to realize smooth torque characteristics, an ignition timing control system that separately controls each cylinder and simultaneously performs knocking control was constructed.
Technical Paper

A Lubrication Analysis of Multi Link VCR Engine Components using a Mixed Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication Theory Model

2009-04-20
2009-01-1062
Research is under way on an engine system [1] that achieves a variable compression ratio using a multiple-link mechanism between the crankshaft and pistons for the dual purpose of improving fuel economy and power output. At present, there is no database that allows direct judgment of the feasibility of the specific sliding parts in this mechanism. In this paper, the feasibility was examined by making a comparison with the sliding characteristics and material properties of conventional engine parts, for which databases exist, and using evaluation parameters based on mixed elasto-hydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication calculations. In addition, the innovations made to the mixed EHD calculation method used in this study to facilitate calculations under various lubrication conditions are also explained, including the treatment of surface roughness, wear progress and stiffness around the bearings.
Technical Paper

High Performance Wet Type Nonwoven Air Cleaner Filter Element

2009-04-20
2009-01-1065
The automobile air cleaner element (“filter element” below) is a part that needs to be replaced periodically, and making this part last longer is essential. Generally, to achieve longer life, it has been necessary to raise the space ratio of the material making up the filter element, but it is difficult to do this and maintain cleaning efficiency at the same time. For that reason, it has been necessary to select filter elements to suit the properties of impurities as well as the usage environment, and to replace these elements or remove impurities on a frequent basis. In this research, a new filter element was investigated in order to achieve longer life without reducing cleaning efficiency.
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