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Technical Paper

Ethanol Direct Injection on Turbocharged SI Engines - Potential and Challenges

2007-04-16
2007-01-1408
In the past application of alternative fuels was mostly concentrated to special markets - e.g. for ethanol and ethanol blends Brazil or Sweden. Now an increasing sensitivity towards dependency on crude oil significantly enhances the interest in alternative fuels. With spark ignited engines, ethanol and gasoline / ethanol blends are the most promising alternative fuels - besides CNG. The high octane number of ethanol and the resulting excellent knock performance gives significant benefits, especially with highly boosted engines. However, the evaporation characteristics of ethanol result in challenges regarding cold start and oil dilution with GDI application. This paper deals with investigations on a turbocharged DI engine operated on ethanol fuel in order to improve challenges of ethanol fuel, such as oil dilution and cold start. Cold start can be improved by injecting fuel late in the compression stroke (high pressure start) based on a refined engine design and operation strategies.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging the DI Gasoline Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-0251
Regarding concepts for naturally aspirated engines, the high potential for fuel economy of Gasoline Direct Injection can only partially be utilized within the constraints of current or future emission legislation like EURO III / IV or LEV/ULEV. Instead of an expected improvement of 20 - 25 % currently only 10 - 15% can be obtained by the engine alone without vehicle optimizations considering all limitations of high volume production. A detailed analysis reveals concrete measures for further improvement. The application of DI gasoline technology clearly favors the combination with other fuel efficient technologies like downsizing by turbocharging and the application of a variable effective compression ratio by intake valve timing variation. Using the flexibility of direct gasoline injection some deficiencies of these technologies can be eliminated.
Technical Paper

Gasoline Direct Injection: Actual Trends and Future Strategies for Injection and Combustion Systems

1996-02-01
960465
Recent developments have raised increased interest on the concept of gasoline direct injection as the most promising future strategy for fuel economy improvement of SI engines. The general requirements for mixture preparation and combustion systems in a GDI engine are presented in view of known and actual systems regarding fuel economy and emission potential. The characteristics of the actually favored injection systems are discussed and guidelines for the development of appropriate combustion systems are derived. The differences between such mixture preparation strategies as air distributed fuel and fuel wall impingement are discussed, leading to the alternative approach to the problem of mixture preparation with the fully air distributing concept of direct mixture injection.
Technical Paper

CSI - Controlled Auto Ignition - the Best Solution for the Fuel Consumption - Versus Emission Trade-Off?

2003-03-03
2003-01-0754
In recent years several new gasoline engine technologies were introduced in order to reduce fuel consumption. Controlled autoignition seems to be an alternative to stratified part load operation, which is handicapped due to it's lean aftertreatment system for world wide application. The principal advantages of controlled auto ignition combustion under steady state operation - combining fuel economy benefits similar to stratified charge systems with nearly negligible NOx and soot emissions - are already well known. With the newly developed AVL- CSI system (Compression and Spark Ignition), a precise combustion control is achieved even under transient operation. For compensation of production and operation tolerances a cost optimized cylinder individual control was developed. Completely new functionalities of the engine management system are applied. This lean GDI concept complies with future emission standards without DeNOx catalyst and can be applied worldwide.
Technical Paper

Improvement of LEV/ULEV Potential of Fuel Efficient High Performance Engines

1992-02-01
920416
The combined requirement of achieving CAFE values between 32 to 38 mpg plus LEV/ULEV emission standards to comply with US legal requirements between 1995 and 2000 represents the most demanding challenge for engine engineering. Thus all possible methods of engine improvement towards fuel economy and emissions have to be considered. Besides using new ideas also the methods of engine development have to be modernized to cope with the challenge. The paper presents advanced combustion and exhaust gas aftertreatment systems which combine high power output, favourable torque characteristics and high fuel economy with the potential for obtaining LEV/ULEV emission values, as well as improved development techniques.
Technical Paper

Gasoline DI Engines: The Complete System Approach By Interaction of Advanced Development Tools

1998-02-23
980492
Gasoline direct injection is one of the main issues of actual worldwide SI engine development activities. It requires a comprehensive system approach from the basic considerations on optimum combustion system configuration up to vehicle performance and driveability. The general characteristics of currently favored combustion system configurations are discussed in this paper regarding both engine operation and design aspects. The engine performance, especially power output and emission potential of AVL's DGI engine concept is presented including the interaction of advanced tools like optical diagnostics and 3D-CFD simulation in the combustion system development process. The application of methods like tomographic combustion analysis for investigations in the multicylinder engine within further stages of development is demonstrated. The system layout and operational strategies for fuel economy in conjunction with exhaust gas aftertreatment requirements are discussed.
Technical Paper

Flame Visualisation in Standard SI-Engines - Results of a Tomographic Combustion Analysis

1997-02-24
970870
An optical sensor system provides access to standard SI engine combustion chambers via the cylinder head gasket. Flame radiation within the plane of the gasket is observed with optical fibers which are arranged to allow the tomographic reconstruction of flame distribution. The effect of convective in-cylinder air motion generated by variations of inlet ports and combustion chamber geometries on flame propagation is directly visible. A high degree of correlation between flame intensity distribution and NOx emission levels yields a useful assessment of combustion chamber configurations with minimum emission levels. The location of knock centers is identified.
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