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Video

Beyond MPG: Characterizing and Conveying the Efficiency of Advanced Plug-In Vehicles 

2011-11-08
Research in plug in vehicles (PHEV and BEV) has of course been ongoing for decades, however now that these vehicles are finally being produced for a mass market an intense focus over the last few years has been given to proper evaluation techniques and standard information to effectively convey efficiency information to potential consumers. The first challenge is the development of suitable test procedures. Thanks to many contributions from SAE members, these test procedures have been developed for PHEVs (SAE J1711 now available) and are under development for BEVs (SAE J1634 available later this year). A bigger challenge, however, is taking the outputs of these test results and dealing with the issue of off-board electrical energy consumption in the context of decades-long consumer understanding of MPG as the chief figure of merit for vehicle efficiency.
Video

Comparison of Powertrain Configuration Options for Plug-in HEVs from a Fuel Economy Perspective

2012-05-25
The first commercially available plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), the General Motors (GM) Volt, was introduced into the market in mid-December 2010. The Volt uses a series-split powertrain architecture, which provides benefits over the series architecture that typically has been considered for use in electric-range extended vehicles (EREVs). A specialized EREV powertrain, called the Voltec, drives the Volt through its entire range of speed and acceleration with battery power alone and within the limit of battery energy, thereby displacing more fuel with electricity than a PHEV, which characteristically blends electric and engine power together during driving. This paper assesses the benefits and drawbacks of these two different plug-in hybrid electric architectures (series versus series-split) by comparing component sizes, system efficiency, and fuel consumption over urban and highway drive cycles.
Video

Impact of Technology on Electric Drive Fuel Consumption and Cost

2012-05-25
In support of the U.S Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program, numerous vehicle technology combinations have been simulated using Autonomie. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) designed and wrote the Autonomie modeling software to serve as a single tool that could be used to meet the requirements of automotive engineering throughout the development process, from modeling to control, offering the ability to quickly compare the performance and fuel efficiency of numerous powertrain configurations. For this study, a multitude of vehicle technology combinations were simulated for many different vehicles classes and configurations, which included conventional, power split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), power split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), extended-range EV (E-REV)-capability PHEV, series fuel cell, and battery electric vehicle.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Injection Parameters in a Hydrogen DI Engine Using an Endoscopic Access to the Combustion Chamber

2007-04-16
2007-01-1464
In order to achieve the targets for hydrogen engines set by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - a brake thermal efficiency of 45% and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions below 0.07 g/mi - while maintaining the same power density as comparable gasoline engines, researchers need to investigate advanced mixture formation and combustion strategies for hydrogen internal combustion engines. Hydrogen direct injection is a very promising approach to meeting DOE targets; however, there are several challenges to be overcome in order to establish this technology as a viable pathway toward a sustainable hydrogen infrastructure. This paper describes the use of endoscopic imaging as a diagnostic tool that allows further insight into the processes that occur during hydrogen combustion. It also addresses recent progress in the development of advanced direct-injected hydrogen internal combustion engine concepts.
Technical Paper

Drive Cycle Fuel Consumption Variability of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Due to Aggressive Driving

2009-04-20
2009-01-1335
Previous studies and on-road driving by consumers have shown that Hybrid Electric Vehicle fuel economy is very dependent on driver demand in both vehicle speed and vehicle acceleration [1]. The emerging technology of Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles (PHEV) may prove to also be more sensitivity to aggressive driver demand as compared to conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. This is due to the exceptional ability of the PHEV to minimize fuel consumption at mid to low power levels by the significant use of electric propulsion which enables engine downsizing. As vehicle speed and acceleration increase so does the power demand on the powertrain. The fuel consumption is directly affected by this increase in power demand level. To examine the fuel consumption impact of changing driver characteristics on PHEV’s, testing is conducted on two vehicles (parallel PHEV and power-split PHEV) on a four wheel chassis dynamometer at Argonne’s Advanced Powertrain Research Facility.
Technical Paper

A Modular Automotive Hybrid Testbed Designed to Evaluate Various Components in the Vehicle System

2009-04-20
2009-01-1315
The Modular Automotive Technology Testbed (MATT) is a flexible platform built to test different technology components in a vehicle environment. This testbed is composed of physical component modules, such as the engine and the transmission, and emulated components, such as the energy storage system and the traction motor. The instrumentation on the tool enables the energy balance for individual components on drive cycles. Using MATT, a single set of hardware can operate as a conventional vehicle, a hybrid vehicle and a plug-in hybrid vehicle, enabling direct comparison of petroleum displacement for the different modes. The engine provides measured fuel economy and emissions. The losses of components which vary with temperature are also measured.
Technical Paper

Characterizing Spray Behavior of Diesel Injection Systems Using X-Ray Radiography

2009-04-20
2009-01-0846
In Diesel engines, fuel injection plays a critical role in performance, efficiency, and emissions. Altering parameters such as injection quantity, duration, pressure, etc. influences the injector's performance. Changes in the injection system architecture can also affect the spray behavior. Understanding of the flow near the nozzle exit can lead to the establishment of correlation to spray characteristics further downstream, and eventually its combustion behavior in the engine. Because of its high density, the near-nozzle region of the spray is difficult to study using optical techniques. This near-nozzle region of spray from high pressure injectors was studied using the quantitative and time-resolved x-ray radiography technique. This method provides high spatial and temporal resolution without significant scattering effects.
Technical Paper

Evolution of Hydrogen Fueled Vehicles Compared to Conventional Vehicles from 2010 to 2045

2009-04-20
2009-01-1008
Fuel cell vehicles are undergoing extensive research and development because of their potential for high efficiency and low emissions. Because fuel cell vehicles remain expensive and there is limited demand for hydrogen at present, very few fueling stations are being built. To try to accelerate the development of a hydrogen economy, some original equipment manufacturers in the automotive industry have been working on a hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) as an intermediate step. This paper compares the fuel economy potential of hydrogen powertrains to conventional gasoline vehicles. Several timeframes are considered: 2010, 2015, 2030, and 2045. To address the technology status uncertainty, a triangular distribution approach was implemented for each component technology. The fuel consumption and cost of five powertrain configurations will be discussed and compared with the conventional counterpart.
Technical Paper

Combustion Behavior of Gasoline and Gasoline/Ethanol Blends in a Modern Direct-Injection 4-Cylinder Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-0077
Early in 2007 President Bush announced in his State of the Union Address a plan to off-set 20% of gasoline with alternative fuels in the next ten years. Ethanol, due to its excellent fuel properties for example, high octane number, renewable character, etc., appears to be a favorable alternative fuel from an engine perspective. Replacing gasoline with ethanol without any additional measures results in unacceptable disadvantages mainly in terms of vehicle range. This paper summarizes combustion studies performed with gasoline as well as blends of gasoline and ethanol. These tests were performed on a modern, 4-cylinder spark ignition engine with direct fuel injection and exhaust gas recirculation. To evaluate the influence of blending on the combustion behavior the engine was operated on the base gasoline calibration. Cylinder pressure data taken during the testing allowed for detailed analysis of rates of heat release and combustion stability.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Hybridization of a Class 8 Line-Haul Truck

2010-10-05
2010-01-1931
Hybrid electric vehicles have demonstrated their ability to significantly reduce fuel consumption for several medium- and heavy-duty applications. In this paper we analyze the impact on fuel economy of the hybridization of a tractor-trailer. The study is done in PSAT (Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit), which is a modeling and simulation toolkit for light- and heavy-duty vehicles developed by Argonne National Laboratory. Two hybrid configurations are taken into account, each one of them associated with a level of hybridization. The mild-hybrid truck is based on a parallel configuration with the electric machine in a starter-alternator position; this allows start/stop engine operations, a mild level of torque assist, and a limited amount of regenerative braking. The full-hybrid truck is based on a series-parallel configuration with two electric machines: one in a starter-alternator position and another one between the clutch and the gearbox.
Technical Paper

Efficiency Improved Combustion System for Hydrogen Direct Injection Operation

2010-10-25
2010-01-2170
This paper reports on research activities aiming to improve the efficiency of direct injected, hydrogen powered internal combustion engines. In a recent major change in the experimental setup the hydrogen single cylinder research engine at Argonne National Laboratory was upgraded to a new engine geometry providing increased compression ratio and a longer piston stroke compared to its predecessor. The higher compression ratio and the more advantageous volume to surface ratio of the combustion chamber are both intended to improve the overall efficiency of the experimental setup. Additionally, a new series of faster acting, piezo-activated injectors is used with the new engine providing increased flexibility for the optimization of DI injection strategies. This study focuses on the comparison of experimental data of the baseline versus the improved single cylinder research engine for similar engine operating conditions.
Journal Article

Maximizing Net Present Value of a Series PHEV by Optimizing Battery Size and Vehicle Control Parameters

2010-10-19
2010-01-2310
For a series plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), it is critical that batteries be sized to maximize vehicle performance variables, such as fuel efficiency, gasoline savings, and zero emission capability. The wide range of design choices and the cost of prototype vehicles calls for a development process to quickly and systematically determine the design characteristics of the battery pack, including its size, and vehicle-level control parameters that maximize the net present value (NPV) of a vehicle during the planning stage. Argonne National Laboratory has developed Autonomie, a modeling and simulation framework. With support from The MathWorks, Argonne has integrated an optimization algorithm and parallel computing tools to enable the aforementioned development process. This paper presents a study that utilized the development process, where the NPV is the present value of all the future expenses and savings associated with the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Off-Road Diesel Engine Transient Response Improvement by Electrically Assisted Turbocharging

2011-09-11
2011-24-0127
Turbocharged diesel engines are widely used in off-road applications including construction and mining machinery, electric power generation systems, locomotives, marine, petroleum, industrial and agricultural equipment. Such applications contribute significantly to both local air pollution and CO₂ emissions and are subject to increasingly stringent legislation. To improve fuel economy while meeting emissions limits, manufacturers are exploring engine downsizing by increasing engine boost levels. This allows an increase in IMEP without significantly increasing mechanical losses, which results in a higher overall efficiency. However, this can lead to poorer transient engine response primarily due to turbo-lag, which is a major penalty for engines subjected to fast varying loads. To recover transient response, the turbocharger can be electrically assisted by means of a high speed motor/generator.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Oxidation Behaviors and Chemical-Kinetics Parameters of Diesel Particulates Relevant to DPF Regeneration

2010-10-25
2010-01-2166
At the current stage of engine technology, diesel engines typically require diesel particulate filter (DPF) systems to meet recent particulate emissions standards. To assure the performance and reliability of DPF systems, profound understanding of filtration and regeneration mechanisms is required. Among extensive efforts for developing advanced DPF systems, the development of effective thermal management strategies, which control the thermal runaway taking place in oxidation of an excess amount of soot deposit in DPF, is quite challenging. This difficulty stems mainly from lack of sufficient knowledge and understanding about DPF regeneration mechanisms, which need detailed information about oxidation of diesel particulate matter (PM). Therefore, this work carried out a series of oxidation experiments of diesel particulates collected from a DPF on a diesel engine, and evaluated the oxidation rates of the samples using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA).
Technical Paper

Parametric Examination of Filtration Processes in Diesel Particulate Filter Membranes with Channel Structure Modification

2010-04-12
2010-01-0537
The limited spatial area in conventional diesel particulate filter (DPF) systems requires frequent regenerations to remove collected particulate matter (PM) emissions, consequently resulting in higher energy consumption and potential material failure. Due to the complex geometry and difficulty in access to the internal structure of diesel particulate filters, in addition, many important characteristics in filtration processes remain unknown. In this work, therefore, the geometry of DPF membrane channels was modified basically to increase the filtration areas, and their filtration characteristics were evaluated in terms of pressure drop across the DPF membranes, effects of soot loading on pressure drop, and qualitative soot mass distribution in the membrane channels. In this evaluation, an analytical model was developed for pressure drop, which allowed a parametric study with those modified membranes.
Technical Paper

Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Impacts of Propulsion System/Fuel Alternatives for Tripled Fuel-Economy Vehicles

1999-03-01
1999-01-1118
This paper presents the results of Argonne National Laboratory's assessment of the fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of 13 combinations of fuels and propulsion systems that are potential candidates for light-duty vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles). These vehicles are being developed by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Eleven fuels were considered: reformulated gasoline (RFG), reformulated diesel (RFD), methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), biodiesel, Fischer-Tropsch diesel and hydrogen. RFG, methanol, ethanol, LPG, CNG and LNG were assumed to be burned in spark-ignition, direct-injection (SIDI) engines. RFD, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, biodiesel and dimethyl ether were assumed to be burned in compression-ignition, direct-injection (CIDI) engines. Hydrogen, RFG and methanol were assumed to be used in fuel-cell vehicles.
Technical Paper

Detailed Morphological Properties of Nanoparticles from Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Combustion of Ethanol Blends

2013-09-08
2013-24-0185
Detailed properties of particulate matter (PM) emissions from a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine were analyzed in terms of size, morphology, and nanostructures, as gasoline and its ethanol blend E20 were used as a fuel. PM emissions were sampled from a 0.55L single-cylinder GDI engine by means of a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) for size measurements and a self-designed thermophoretic sampling device for the subsequent analyses of size, morphology and nanostructures using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The particle sizes were evaluated with variations of air-fuel equivalence ratio and fuel injection timing. The most important result from the SMPS measurements was that the number of nucleation-mode nanoparticles (particularly those smaller than 10 - 15 nm) increased significantly as the fuel injection timing was advanced to the end-of-injection angle of 310° bTDC.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Combustion in a Lean Burn Gasoline Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0029
This research effort focuses on lean-burn combustion in gasoline internal combustion engines. Gasoline is largely known to be characterized by narrow flammability range, which makes the use of ultra-lean mixtures very challenging. In order to fully explore the gasoline lean burn potential, a promising strategy should combine advanced intake geometries, injection strategies, and ignition technologies. In this paper, a CFD methodology is developed in order to provide proper insight into lean-burn gasoline combustion. A baseline homogenous/lean case is analyzed and numerical results are validated against engine data. Two critical issues are addressed. First, a relatively large detailed mechanism is validated against the experimental data for extreme operating conditions (low pressure values, lean mixtures). The large cycle-to-cycle variation characterizing lean combustion is shown experimentally.
Technical Paper

Critical Factors in the Development of Well-To-Wheel Analyses of Alternative Fuel and Advanced Powertrain Heavy-Duty Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-1284
A heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) module of the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREETTM) model has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The fuel-cycle GREET model has been published extensively and contains data on fuel-cycles and vehicle operation of light-duty vehicles. The addition of the HDV module to the GREET model allows for well-to-wheel (WTW) analyses of heavy-duty advanced technology and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), which has been lacking in the literature. WTW analyses of HDVs becomes increasingly important to understand the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions impacts of newly enacted and future HDV regulations from the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
Technical Paper

Integration of Vehicle Performance and Fuel Economy Software with Military Ground Vehicle Mission Assessment Tools

2016-04-05
2016-01-0314
A simulation approach is defined that integrates a military mission assessment tool (One Semi-Automated Forces) with a commercial automotive control/energy consumption development tool (Autonomie). The objective is to enable vehicle energy utilization and fuel consumption impact assessments relative to US Army mission effectiveness and commercial drive cycles. The approach to this integration will be described, along with its potential to meet its objectives.
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