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Technical Paper

Development of High-resolution Exciting Source Identification System

We have developed an excitation source identification system that can distinguish excitation sources on a sub-assembly level (around 30mm) for vehicle components by combining a measurement and a timing analysis. Therefore, noise and vibration problems can be solved at an early stage of development and the development period can be shortened. This system is composed of measurement, control, modeling, and excitation source identification parts. The measurement and the excitation source identification parts are the main topics of this paper. In the measurement part, multiple physical quantities can be measured in multi-channel (noise and vibration: 48ch, general purpose: 64ch), and these time data can be analyzed by using a high-resolution signal analysis (Instantaneous Frequency Analysis (IFA)) that we developed.
Technical Paper

CPU Model-based Hardware/Software Co-design for Real-Time Embedded Control Systems

This paper proposes a new development method for highly reliable real-time embedded control systems using a CPU model-based hardware/software co-simulation. We take an approach that allows the full simulation of the virtual mechanical control system including CPU and object code level software. In this paper, Renesas SH-2A microcontroller model was developed on CoMET™ platform from VaST Systems Technology. A ETC (Electronic Throttle Control) system and engine control system were chosen to prove this concept. The ETB (Electronic Throttle Body) model on Saber® simulator from Synopsys® or engine model on MATLAB®/Simulink® simulator from MathWorks can be simulated with the SH-2A model. To help the system design, debug and evaluation, we developed an integrated behavior analyzer, which can display CPU behavior graphically during the simulation without affecting the simulation result, such as task level CPU load, interrupt statistics, software variable transition chart, and so on.
Technical Paper

A State Adaptive Control Algorism for Vehicle Suspensions

This paper describes a state adaptive control method for vehicle suspensions proposed by Hitachi, Ltd. The objective of the control is to improve riding comfort and driving stability in reaction to road iregularities, exterior wind forces, and changes in vehicle loads as well as in reaction to inertial changes during cornering, breaking, and accelerating. The objective is attained by making considerable use of the relative displacement data between the body and the suspension. The state adaptive control system includes four shock absorbers whose damping forces can be tuned in three stages, four height sensors which measure the relative displacement, a vehicle speed sensor, and a microcomputer which decides the optimal damper stage. The validity of the proposed control method is shown through computer simulations and actual driving experiments. Vertical acceleration is reduced by about 55 % by switching from the soft damper to the hard damper in a computer simulation.
Technical Paper

A Totally Integrated Vehicle Electronic Control System

A totally integrated vehicle electronic control system is described, which optimizes vehicle performance through use of electronics. The system implements efficient coordination of functions of the engine, drive-train, brakes, steering, and suspension control subsystems to give a smoother ride, better handling and greater safety. The principles of the system are based on control and stability augmentation strategies. Each subsystem has two observers which control the force of the actuators according to the vehicle dynamics. The system features a driver support system which allows the average driver to employ the full performance potential of the vehicle in exceptional situations, and an artificial response control system to ensure optimum response and comfort. Application of the system allows the driver to experience a new level of performance and a marked improvement in handling quality and ride comfort.
Technical Paper

Compressible Turbulent Flow Analysis on Variable Nozzle Vane and Spacer in Turbocharger Turbine

In order to develop a high-performance turbocharger turbine, compressible turbulent flow analysis is applied to the complicated flow around the nozzle vanes and the spacers. The flow analysis indicates that a combination of a curved nozzle vane and a round spacer causes a low-velocity region at the inner side of the nozzle vane even when the turbine efficiency is highest. As a result of the loss analysis, a teardrop-shaped spacer, which suppresses the low-velocity region and flow separation, is developed, and shown to improve the turbine efficiency. The easiness of the nozzle vane control is also important as well as the high efficiency. The fluid force on the nozzle vane depends on the flow pattern; therefore, the torque about the pivot of the nozzle vane is also numerically calculated.
Technical Paper

A Virtual ECU and Its Application to Control System Analysis - Power Window System Demonstration

A virtual power window control system was built in order to look into and demonstrate applications of microcontroller models. A virtual ECU simulated microcontroller hardware operations. The microcontroller program, which was written in binary digital codes, was executed step-by-step as the virtual ECU simulation went on. Thus, production-ready codes of ECUs are of primary interest in this research. The mechanical system of the power window, the DC motor to lift the window glass, the H-bridge MOSFET drivers, and the current sensing circuit to detect window locking are also modeled. This means that the hardware system of the control system was precisely modeled in terms of mechanical and circuit components. By integrating these models into continuous and discrete co-simulation, the power window control system was analyzed in detail from the microscopic command execution of the microcontroller to the macroscopic motion of the window mechanism altogether.
Technical Paper

A New RISC Microcontroller with On-Chip FPU to Introduce Adaptive Control into Powertrain Management

Gasoline engine control continues to become more sophisticated and so the amount of software has reached 10 to 20 times that of early control systems. By changing the embedded microcomputer from 8bit CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) to 32bit RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer), processing performance has been improved 100 times. This paper evaluates quantitative performance of the RISC CPU having a FPU (Floating Point Processing Unit) and describes an example application to adaptive control.
Technical Paper

Mixture Formation of Fuel Injection Systems in Gasoline Engines

Mixture formation technology for gasoline engine multipoint fuel injection systems has been investigated. The fuel injector's spray, the volatility of droplets floating in the air flow, the movement of droplets around the intake valve's upper surface, the volatility of droplets on heated surfaces, and the process of atomizing droplets in the intake valve air flow was analyzed. Droplet diameters and spray patterns for good mixture formation without liquid film in cylinders have been clarified. When sequential injection is used for better responsiveness in fuel injection systems, engine performance may be reduced through increased HC emissions in some conditions. Reducing the diameter of spray droplets and preventing fuel from concentrating in the intake valve promotes vaporization, reduces fuel concentration on cylinder walls, and prevents reductions in engine performance.
Journal Article

Prediction of Vehicle Interior Noise from a Power Steering Pump using Component CAE and Measured Noise Transfer Functions of the Vehicle

In response to the growing demand for fuel economy, we are developing a high-efficient variable displacement pump for hydraulic power steering systems. In order to develop a quiet variable displacement pump which generates lower noise for better vehicle interior sound quality, we have been developing a simulation tool which includes hydraulic analysis, vibration analysis, and vehicle interior noise analysis which combines simulation outputs and measured noise transfer functions of the targeted vehicle. This paper provides both validation results of the simulation tool and application examples to design improvement to conclude the effectiveness of the simulation tool developed.
Technical Paper

Engine Application of a Battery Voltage-Driven DI Fuel Injection System

Every fuel injection system for DI gasoline engines has a DC-DC converter to provide high, stabile voltage for opening the injector valve more quickly. A current control circuit for holding the valve open is also needed, as well as a large-capacity capacitor for pilot injection. Since these components occupy considerable space, an injector drive unit separate from the ECU must be used. Thus, there has been a need for a fuel injection system that can inject a small volume of fuel without requiring high voltage. To meet that need, we have developed a dual coil injector and an opening coil current control system. An investigation was also made of all the factors related to the dynamic range of the injector, including static flow rate, fuel pressure, battery voltage and harness resistance. Both efforts have led to the adoption of a battery voltage-driven fuel injector.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Parallel Executions on Multiple Virtual ECU Systems

We have developed a cooperative simulation environment for multiple electronic control units (ECUs) including a parallel executions mechanism to improve the test efficiency of a system, which was designed with multiple ECUs for autonomous driving. And we have applied it to a power window system for multiple ECUs with a controller area network (CAN). The power window model consists of an electronic-mechanical model and a CPU model. Each simulator with a different executions speed operates in parallel using a synchronization mechanism that exchanges data outputted from each simulator at a constant cycle. A virtual ECU simulated microcontroller hardware operations and executed its control program step-by-step in binary code to test software for the product version. As co-simulation technology, a mechanism that synchronously executes heterogeneous simulators and a model of an in-vehicle communication CAN connecting each ECU were developed.
Journal Article

Automatic Curve Deceleration System Using Enhanced ACC with Navigation System

We have developed a system for automatic deceleration upon entering curves to prevent collisions on tight curves on high-ways. The navigation system is used to determine safe speed negotiating the curve, defined as a speed that will keep lateral acceleration within a settled value. The navigation system sends the curve radius to a controller, which calculates the safe speed for the curve. The controller then sends the speed command to the ACC system, which adjusts the vehicle speed. One of the important features in this system is the estimation of the vehicle position, in terms of its distance from the curve entrance. Navigation systems have a certain amount of dispersion in positional accuracy. A front camera is used in our system to decrease this dispersion. This camera detects lane markers (white lines, raised pavement markers, etc.) using our line recognition technologies1).
Journal Article

A Study of a Multiple-link Continuously Variable Valve Event and Lift (VVEL) System

A new variable valve event and lift (VVEL) system has been developed by applying a multiple-link mechanism. This VVEL system can continuously vary the valve event angle and lift over a wide range from an exceptional small event angle and small lift and to a large event angle and large lift. This capability offers the potential to improve fuel economy, power output, emissions and other parameters of engine performance. The valve lift characteristics obtained with the VVEL system consist of a synthesis of the oscillatory motion characteristics of the multiple-link mechanism and the oscillating cam profile. With the multiple-link mechanism, the angular velocity of the oscillating cams varies during valve lift, but the valve lift characteristics incorporate both gentle ramp sections and sharp lift sections, the same as a conventional engine.
Journal Article

Virtual Engine System Prototyping with High-Resolution FFT for Digital Knock Detection Using CPU Model-Based Hardware/Software Co-simulation

We have developed a full virtual engine system prototyping platform with 4-cylinder engine plant model, SH-2A CPU hardware model, and object code level software including OSEK OS. The virtual engine system prototyping platform can run simulation of an engine control system and digital knock detection system including 64-pt FFT computations that provide required high-resolution DSP capability for detection and control. To help the system design, debugging, and evaluation, the virtual system prototyping consists of behavior analyzer which can provide the visualization of useful CPU internal information for control algorithm tuning, RTOS optimization, and CPU architecture development. Thus the co-simulation enables time and cost saving at validation stage as validation can be performed at the design stage before production of actual components.
Technical Paper

A New Engine Control System Using Direct Fuel Injection and Variable Valve Timing

A new engine drivetrain control system is described which can provide a higher gear ratio and leaner burning mixture and thus reduce the fuel consumption of spark ignition engines. Simulations were performed to obtain reduced torque fluctuation during changes in the air - fuel ratio and gear ratio, without increasing nitrogen oxide emissions, and with minimum throttle valve control. The results show that the new system does not require the frequent actuation of throttle valves because it uses direct fuel injection, which increases the air - fuel ratio of the lean burning limit. It also achieves a faster response in controlling the air mass in the cylinders. This results in the minimum excursion in the air - fuel ratio which in turn, reduces nitrogen oxide emissions.
Technical Paper

Development of Smooth Shift Control System with Output Torque Estimation

Most automatic transmissions are controlled in compliance with a predetermined program. Transient control during gear shift is also carried out according to a predetermined process. In this method a lot of labor is required to tune data tables. So we developed a tuning free system by feedback control using torque estimation technology and the experimental result is reported. Torque fluctuation during shift is detected and fed back to compare the torque reference, which is generated from the estimated torque itself. The engine torque is decreased by means of retarding the ignition spark advance, according to the comparison deviation. As a consequence of the feedback, the transient torque control is carried out without any tuning trouble, and better than usual torque fluctuation is obtained.
Technical Paper

Smooth Gear Shift Control System Using Estimated Torque

An automotive powertrain total control system using estimated output shaft torque has been investigated in order to enhance drivability and improve fuel economy. The system provides efficient control for both the engine and transmission which leads to an enhancement in drivability by reducing shocks during gear shifts. This paper describes a new smooth gear shift control method using the total control system. By use of the estimated output shaft torque, it is possible to detect accurately the fluctuation condition and the start time of the inertia phase, which are important factors affecting shock occurrence. Torque feedback, got from estimated torque, was applied to the control of engine output shaft torque during shifts. The optimum hydraulic pressure, also got from estimated torque, was applied to the clutch of the transmission during shifts.
Journal Article

Injection Quantity Range Enhancement by Using Current Waveform Control Technique for DI Gasoline Injector

We have achieved injection quantity range enhancement by using the current waveform control technique for direct injection (DI) gasoline injectors. In this study, we developed an injection quantity simulator to find out the mechanism of non-linear characteristics. We clarified the non-linear production mechanism by using the simulator. This simulator is a one-dimensional simulator that incorporates calculation results from both unsteady electromagnetic field analysis and hydraulic flow analysis into the motion equation of this simulation code. We investigated the relation between armature and the injection quantity by using the simulator. As a result, we clarified that the non-linearity was produced by the bounce of the armature in the opening action. Thus, we found that it is effective to reduce the armature bounce to improve the linearity of the injection quantity characteristics.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Technique for Air-Intake-System Control Using Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Simulation of SI Engines and Multiple-Objective Optimization

We have developed a model-based control for the air intake system in a variable valve engine, employing total engine simulation, the response surface method and multi-objective optimization scheme. In our technique, we performed the simulation model tuning and validation, followed by the creation of a dataset for the polynomial regression analysis of the charging efficiency. A D-optimal design, robust least squares method, and likelihood-ratio test were demonstrated to yield a robust and accurate control model. Coupling the total engine simulator with a genetic algorithm, model based calibration for optimal valve timing stored in lookup table was carried out under multiple objectives and restrictions. The reliability of the implementation control model, which considers the effect of gas dynamics in the intake system, was confirmed using a model-in-the-loop simulation.
Technical Paper

Spray Atomization Study on Multi-Hole Nozzle for Direct Injection Gasoline Engines

We investigated the size of fuel spray droplets from nozzles for direct injection gasoline (DIG) engines. Our findings showed that the droplet size can be predicted by referencing the geometry of the nozzle. In a DIG engine, which is used as part of a system to reduce fuel consumption, the injector nozzle causes the fuel to spray directly into the combustion chamber. It is important that this fuel spray avoid adhesion to the chamber wall, so multi-hole injection nozzles are used to obtain spray shape adaptability. It is also important that spray droplets be finely atomized to achieve fast vaporization. We have developed a method to predict the atomization level of nozzles for fine atomization nozzle design. The multi-hole nozzle used in a typical DIG injector has a thin fuel passage upstream of the orifice hole. This thin passage affects the droplet size, and predicting the droplet size is quite difficult if using only the orifice diameter.