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Journal Article

An Application of the Particle Velocity Transfer Path Analysis to a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Motor Sound

2013-05-13
2013-01-1999
A pioneering approach to implement transfer path analysis (TPA) is proposed in this paper through applying it to an automobile. We propose to use particle velocity as a measure of TPA, in addition to using sound pressure as a conventional measure for TPA. These two quantities together will give a comprehensive and complete definition of sound. Although sound pressure is a scalar, while particle velocity is a vector, it is also proposed that the same technique of the conventional sound pressure TPA should be independently applicable to each component of particle velocity vector. This has been experimentally verified with a study on our test box system. In this paper, we apply the proposed TPA to an actual vehicle to examine its applicability, advantages and limitations. The driving motor sound of a hybrid electric vehicle is chosen as the case study. A tri-axial particle velocity sensor which also measures sound pressure at the same point is utilized in the experiment.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Thermal Efficiency Using Fuel Reforming in SI Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0584
Hydrogen produced from regenerative sources has the potential to be a sustainable substitute for fossil fuels. A hydrogen internal combustion engine has good combustion characteristics, such as higher flame propagation velocity, shorter quenching distance, and higher thermal conductivity compared with hydrocarbon fuel. However, storing hydrogen is problematic since the energy density is low. Hydrogen can be chemically stored as a hydrocarbon fuel. In particular, an organic hydride can easily generate hydrogen through use of a catalyst. Additionally, it has an advantage in hydrogen transportation due to its liquid form at room temperature and pressure. We examined the application of an organic hydride in a spark ignition (SI) engine. We used methylcyclohexane (MCH) as an organic hydride from which hydrogen and toluene (TOL) can be reformed. First, the theoretical thermal efficiency was examined when hydrogen and TOL were supplied to an SI engine.
Technical Paper

A Study of Friction Characteristics of Continuously Variable Valve Event & Lift (VEL) System

2006-04-03
2006-01-0222
A continuously variable valve event and lift (VEL) system, actuated by oscillating cams, can provide optimum lift and event angles matching the engine operating conditions, thereby improving fuel economy, exhaust emission performance and power output. The VEL system allows small lift and event angles even in the engine operating region where the required intake air volume is small and the influence of valvetrain friction is substantial, such as during idling. Therefore, the system can reduce friction to lower levels than conventional valvetrains, which works to improve fuel economy. On the other hand, a distinct feature of oscillating cams is that their sliding velocity is zero at the time of peak lift, which differs from the behavior of conventional rotating cams. For that reason, it is assumed that the friction and lubrication characteristics of oscillating cams may differ from those of conventional cams.
Technical Paper

Air-Fuel Ratio Sensor Utilizing Ion Transportation in Zirconia Electrolyte

1991-02-01
910501
To detect an air-fuel ratio in wide range is very important to control the automotive engines with low fuel consumption and low exhaust emissions. Although the application of zirconia electrolyte for this purpose has been proposed by the authors several years ago, there remained several problems due to the contamination of gas diffusion apertures which are exposed to the exhaust gas environment. Here the behavior of ions transported in zirconia electrolyte have been analyzed to optimize the structure and characteristics, and to guarantee the long life operation of sensor. Gas contents and their reactions in combustion process under the wide range air-fuel ratio have been analyzed, and these results were reflected to the analysis of ion transportation in zirconia electrolyte. Experimental results supported the analytical results, and they showed the possibilities of long life operation of zirconia air-fuel ratio sensor utilizing ion transportation phenomena.
Technical Paper

Real Time Control for Fuel Injection System with Compensating Cylinder-by-Cylinder Deviation

1990-02-01
900778
We have examined a new precise control method of the air fuel ratio during a transient state which provides improved exhaust characteristics of automobile engines. We investigated the measurement method for the mass of fresh air inducted by the cylinder, which is most important for controlling the air fuel ratio. The mass of fresh air must be measured in real time because it changes in each cycle during a transient state. With an conventional systems, it has been difficult to get accurate measurement of this rapidly changing mass of fresh air. The method we studied measures the mass of fresh air by using the intake manifold pressure and air flow sensors. During a transient state, the reverse flow of the residual gas from the cylinder into the intake manifold, which occurs at the first stage of the suction stroke, changes with each cycle. The mass of fresh air changes accordingly.
Technical Paper

Cold Start HC Reduction with Feedback Control Using a Crank Angle Sensor

2008-04-14
2008-01-1010
Emission regulations continue to be strengthened, and it is important to decrease cold start hydrocarbon concentrations in order to meet them, now and in the future. The HC concentration in engine exhaust gas can be reduced by optimizing the air-fuel ratio. However, a conventional air-fuel ratio feedback control does not operate for the first ten seconds after the engine has started because the air-fuel ratio sensor has not yet been activated. In this paper, we report on a study to optimize the air-fuel ratio using a crank angle sensor until the air-fuel ratio sensor has been activated. A difference in fuel properties was used as a typical disturbance factor. The control was applied to both a direct-injection engine (DI) and a port-injection engine (MPI). It was evaluated for two fuel types: one which evaporates easily and one which does not. The experimental results show the air-fuel ratio is optimized for both types of fuel.
Technical Paper

A Urea-Dosing Device for Enhancing Low-Temperature Performance by Active-Ammonia Production in an SCR System

2008-04-14
2008-01-1026
A new urea-dosing device with an active-ammonia production function was developed. This function is achieved by an electrically heated bypass passage with a hydrolysis catalyst for urea-to-ammonia conversion. The new device also has the function of mixing ammonia and exhaust gas. It is compact and has low-pressure loss by using the vortex occurring at the back of a static vane. We built a trial device for a small diesel engine and obtained steady state and transient data. The heated-bypass concept can be used in the aftertreatment system of passenger cars. Although active-ammonia production consumes electric power, a predictive calculation of power consumption (based on experimental results) shows that the developed bypass heater can suppress the energy consumption enough not to harm the high-energy efficiency of diesel engines.
Technical Paper

A State Adaptive Control Algorism for Vehicle Suspensions

1988-11-01
881769
This paper describes a state adaptive control method for vehicle suspensions proposed by Hitachi, Ltd. The objective of the control is to improve riding comfort and driving stability in reaction to road iregularities, exterior wind forces, and changes in vehicle loads as well as in reaction to inertial changes during cornering, breaking, and accelerating. The objective is attained by making considerable use of the relative displacement data between the body and the suspension. The state adaptive control system includes four shock absorbers whose damping forces can be tuned in three stages, four height sensors which measure the relative displacement, a vehicle speed sensor, and a microcomputer which decides the optimal damper stage. The validity of the proposed control method is shown through computer simulations and actual driving experiments. Vertical acceleration is reduced by about 55 % by switching from the soft damper to the hard damper in a computer simulation.
Technical Paper

NOx Conversion Properties of a Mixed Oxide Type Lean NOx Catalyst

2000-03-06
2000-01-1197
Development is proceeding on catalysts which separate the NOx in lean exhaust gas by adsorption and then reduce the adsorbed NOx in combustion exhaust gas with the stoichiometric or a slightly richer air fuel ratio, as well as exhaust conversion technology that uses these catalysts. Amidst this research it has been found that catalysts containing mixed metal oxides exhibit superior NOx adsorption performance, so the authors prepared a mixed metal oxide catalyst by adding precious metals and promoters, etc. The resulting catalyst has high heat resistance and also offers excellent SOx durability. These properties were presumed to be due to an adsorbent including the mixed metal oxide, and the relation between the physical properties and NOx conversion properties of the catalyst was investigated.
Technical Paper

Method for Determining Thermal Resistances in Coupled Simulator: For Electric Valve Timing Control System

2015-04-14
2015-01-1301
We developed a thermal calculation 1D simulator for an electric valve timing control system (VTC). A VTC can optimize the open and close timing of the intake and exhaust valves depending on the driving situation. Since a conventional VTC is driven hydraulically, the challenges are response speed and operation limit at low temperature. Our company has been developing an electric VTC for quick response and expansion of operating conditions. Currently, it is necessary to optimize the motor and reduction gear design to balance quicker response with downsizing. Therefore, a coupled simulator that can calculate electricity, mechanics, control, and thermo characteristics is required. In 1D simulation, a thermal network method is commonly used for thermal calculation. However, an electric VTC is attached to the end of a camshaft; therefore, determining thermal resistances is difficult. We propose a method of determining thermal resistances, using both theoretical and experimental approaches.
Technical Paper

Smooth Gear Shift Control Technology for Clutch-to-Clutch Shifting

1999-03-01
1999-01-1054
An automatic transmission without a one-way clutch for a small sized, light weight automatic transmission is presented. The factor of torque fluctuation occurrence during shifting of the transmission increases so that the shifting is executed by controlling two wet clutches electronically in place of the one-way clutch and the wet clutch. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a new smooth gear shift control technology for clutch-to-clutch shifting on an automatic transmission without a one-way clutch. The control technology has desirable clutch-to-clutch shift control, learning control and robust control which apply to accurate signals obtained by an observation method. Smooth shifts during clutch-to-clutch shifting can be realized by recognizing clutch change-over time using a calculated acceleration and an input/output speed ratio of the transmission.
Journal Article

Development of a New Metal Substrate for Lean NOx Trap

2008-04-14
2008-01-0806
This paper presents a new substrate for Lean NOx Traps (LNT) which enables high NOx conversion efficiency, even after long-term aging, when using alkali metals as the NOx adsorber. When a conventional metal honeycomb is used as the LNT substrate, the chromium in the metal substrate migrates into the washcoat and reacts with the alkali metals after thermal aging. In order to help prevent this migration, we have developed a new substrate where a fine -alumina barrier is precipitated to the surface of the metal substrate. The new substrate is highly capable of preventing migration of chromium into the washcoat and greatly enhances the NOx conversion. The durability of the new substrate and emission test using a test vehicle are also examined.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Parallel Executions on Multiple Virtual ECU Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-0011
We have developed a cooperative simulation environment for multiple electronic control units (ECUs) including a parallel executions mechanism to improve the test efficiency of a system, which was designed with multiple ECUs for autonomous driving. And we have applied it to a power window system for multiple ECUs with a controller area network (CAN). The power window model consists of an electronic-mechanical model and a CPU model. Each simulator with a different executions speed operates in parallel using a synchronization mechanism that exchanges data outputted from each simulator at a constant cycle. A virtual ECU simulated microcontroller hardware operations and executed its control program step-by-step in binary code to test software for the product version. As co-simulation technology, a mechanism that synchronously executes heterogeneous simulators and a model of an in-vehicle communication CAN connecting each ECU were developed.
Technical Paper

An Accurate Torque-based Engine Control by Learning Correlation between Torque and Throttle Position

2008-04-14
2008-01-1015
In recent years, integrated vehicle control systems have been developed to improve fuel economy and safety. As a result, engine control is shifting to torque-based systems for throttle / fuel / ignition control, to realize an engine torque demand from the system. This paper describes torque-based engine control technologies for SI (Spark Ignition) engine to improve torque control accuracy using a feedback control algorithm and an airflow sensor.
Technical Paper

A New Engine Control System Using Direct Fuel Injection and Variable Valve Timing

1995-02-01
950973
A new engine drivetrain control system is described which can provide a higher gear ratio and leaner burning mixture and thus reduce the fuel consumption of spark ignition engines. Simulations were performed to obtain reduced torque fluctuation during changes in the air - fuel ratio and gear ratio, without increasing nitrogen oxide emissions, and with minimum throttle valve control. The results show that the new system does not require the frequent actuation of throttle valves because it uses direct fuel injection, which increases the air - fuel ratio of the lean burning limit. It also achieves a faster response in controlling the air mass in the cylinders. This results in the minimum excursion in the air - fuel ratio which in turn, reduces nitrogen oxide emissions.
Technical Paper

Mixture Formation During Cold Starting and Warm-up in Spark Ignition Engines

1996-02-01
960065
A thermodynamic analysis of mixture formation in cylinders that takes into account mixture inhomogeneity and the wall film is presented. Conditions for obtaining low hydrocarbon emission are clarified analytically as a function of the fuel mass of the wall film and inhomogeneity of the mixture. Optimum processes for atomizing and vaporizing fuel are presented to reduce the inhomogeneity and the fuel mass of the film.
Technical Paper

Effect of Spray Characteristics on Combustion in a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

1998-02-23
980156
Meeting the future exhaust emission and fuel consumption standards for passenger cars will require refinements in how the combustion process is carried out in spark ignition engines. A direct injection system decrease fuel consumption under road load cruising conditions, and stratified charge of the fuel mixture is particularly effective for ultra lean combustion. On the other hands, there are requirements for higher output power of gasoline engines. A direct injection system for a spark ignition engine is seen as a promising technique to meet these requirements. To get higher output power at wide open throttle conditions, spray characteristics and in-cylinder air flow must be optimized. In this paper, the engine system, which has a side injection type engine and flat piston, was investigated. We tried some injectors, which have different spray characteristics, and examined effects of spray characteristics on combustion of the direct injection gasoline engine.
Technical Paper

Development of Breath-Alcohol-Detection System

2016-04-05
2016-01-1498
The problem of high fatal accident rates due to drunk driving persists, and must be reduced. This paper reports on a prototype system mounted on a car mock-up and a prototype portable system that enables the checking of the drivers’ sobriety using a breath-alcohol sensor. The sensor unit consists of a water-vapor-sensor and three semiconductor gas sensors for ethanol, acetaldehyde, and hydrogen. One of the systems’ features is that they can detect water vapor from human-exhaled breath to prevent false detection with fake gases. Each gas concentration was calculated by applying an algorithm based on a differential evolution method. To quickly detect the water vapor in exhaled breath, we applied an AC voltage between the two electrodes of the breath-water-vapor sensor and used our alcohol-detection algorithm. The ethanol level was automatically calculated from the three gas sensors as soon as the water vapor was detected.
Technical Paper

Development of High Pressure Fuel Pump by using Hydraulic Simulator

2005-04-11
2005-01-0099
We developed a high-pressure fuel pump for a direct injection gasoline engine and used a hydraulic simulator to design it. A single plunger design is the major trend for high-pressure fuel pumps because of its simple structure and small size. However, the single plunger causes large pressure pulsation and an unstable flow rate, especially at high engine speed. Therefore, a fuel-pipe layout that inhibits the pressure pulsation and a flow-rate control that stabilizes the flow are the most important challenges in pump design. Our newly developed hydraulic simulator can evaluate the dynamic characteristics of a total fuel supply system, which consists of pump, pipe, injector, and control logic. Using this simulator, we have improved fuel flow by optimizing the outlet check valve lift and the cam profile, and we reduced pressure pulsation by optimizing the layout of fuel pipes. Our simulation results agreed well with our experimental results.
Technical Paper

Investigation of a Detecting Technology of Combustion Conditions Using the Ion-Current Sensor

2015-09-01
2015-01-1983
In previous study, a method of combustion detection for homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) using a crank angle sensor and a knock sensor has been estimated [1]. In addition, an ion-current sensor has been used as a countermeasure against abnormal combustion with downsizing and higher compression ratio engines. An ion-current sensor has been newly adopted in engine systems. In this study, detection performance of combustion conditions in HCCI and spark ignition (SI) using with the ion-current sensor was estimated. The purpose of this study was to confirm detectable combustion conditions using with the ion-current sensor, and to confirm a requirement of applied voltage for the ion-current sensor. A detection signal of the ion-current sensor was changed by combustion style (HCCI,SI). Experimental results showed a heat release rate increased with ion signals increasing approximately at the same time in HCCI and SI.
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