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Technical Paper

Sojourner Mars Rover Thermal Performance

The Sojourner Rover landed on the surface of Mars on July 4, 1997 as part of the Mars Pathfinder Mission. The mission lasted almost three months during which the thermal design of the Rover was tested. This paper summarizes the Rover's design and performance as well as post-mission model correlation.
Technical Paper

Utilizing Exploration Life Support Technology on ISS - a Bold New Approach

A new life support approach is proposed for use on the International Space Station (ISS). This involves advanced technologies for water recovery and air revitalization, tested at the Johnson Space Center (JSC), including bioprocessing, reverse-osmosis and distillation, low power carbon dioxide removal, non-expendable trace contaminant control, and carbon dioxide reduction.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen: Primary or Supplementary Fuel for Automotive Engines

Hydrogen, gasoline, and mixtures thereof were compared as fuels for lean-burn engines. Hydrogen for the mixed fuels tests was generated by partial oxidation of gasoline. Hydrogen combustion yielded the highest thermal efficiency at any NOx level. Gasoline yielded the second highest thermal efficiency for NOx levels greater than or approximately equal to two gm/mi. For lower NOx levels and high vehicle inertia weights, progressively more hydrogen supplementation was the second most efficient system. For vehicle inertia weights below 5000 lbm (2300 kg), the statutory NOx standard (0.4 gm/mi) could be met with one lb/hr (0.13 g/s) hydrogen supplementation.
Technical Paper

Advanced Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Subsystem Assessment

Various candidates for nonpetroleum electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) subsystems have been evaluated as part of the Advanced Vehicle (AV) Assessment at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The subsystems include battery and power-peaking energy storage, heat engine and fuel cell energy conversion devices, motor/controller subsystems, transmissions, and vehicle subsystem (structure and body) technologies. The primary objective of this effort, was to project the mature capabilities of the various components in the 1990’s for application in the systems evaluations in the next phase of this activity. This paper presents the basic characteristics of the subsystems and compares their capabilities with projected AV subsystem requirements.
Technical Paper

Human-rating Automated and Robotic Systems — How HAL Can Work Safely with Astronauts

Long duration human space missions, as planned in the Vision for Space Exploration, will not be possible without applying unprecedented levels of automation to support the human endeavors. The automated and robotic systems must carry the load of routine “housekeeping” for the new generation of explorers, as well as assist their exploration science and engineering work with new precision. Fortunately, the state of automated and robotic systems is sophisticated and sturdy enough to do this work — but the systems themselves have never been human-rated as all other NASA physical systems used in human space flight have. Our intent in this paper is to provide perspective on requirements and architecture for the interfaces and interactions between human beings and the astonishing array of automated systems; and the approach we believe necessary to create human-rated systems and implement them in the space program.
Technical Paper

Assessing Biofidelity of the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR) Against Historic Human Volunteer Data

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is interested in characterizing the responses of THOR (test device for human occupant restraint) anthropometric test device (ATD) to representative loading acceleration pulse s. Test conditions were selected both for their applicability to anticipated NASA landing scenarios, and for comparison to human volunteer data previously collected by the United States Air Force (USAF). THOR impact testing was conducted in the fore-to-aft frontal (-x) and in the upward spinal (-z) directions with peak sled accelerations ranging from 8 to 12 G and rise times of 40, 70, and 100ms. Each test condition was paired with historical huma n data sets under similar test conditions that were also conducted on the Horizontal Impulse Accelerator (HIA). A correlation score was calculated for each THOR to human comparison using CORA (CORrelation and Analysis) software.