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Journal Article

A Real-Time Model for Spark Ignition Engine Combustion Phasing Prediction

2016-04-05
2016-01-0819
As engines are equipped with an increased number of control actuators to meet fuel economy targets they become more difficult to control and calibrate. The large number of control actuators encourages the investigation of physics-based control strategies to reduce calibration time and complexity. Of particular interest is spark timing control and calibration since it has a significant influence on engine efficiency, emissions, vibration and durability. Spark timing determination to achieve a desired combustion phasing is currently an empirical process that occurs during the calibration phase of engine development. This process utilizes a large number of stored surfaces and corrections to account for the wide range of operating environments and conditions that a given engine will experience. An obstacle to realizing feedforward physics-based combustion phasing control is the requirement for an accurate and fast combustion model.
Journal Article

Model-Based Optimal Combustion Phasing Control Strategy for Spark Ignition Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0818
Combustion phasing of Spark Ignition (SI) engines is traditionally regulated with map-based spark timing (SPKT) control. The calibration time and effort of this feed forward SPKT control strategy becomes less favorable as the number of engine control actuators increases. This paper proposes a model based combustion phasing control frame work. The feed forward control law is obtained by real time numerical optimization utilizing a high-fidelity combustion model that is based on flame entrainment theory. An optimization routine identifies the SPKT which phases the combustion close to the target without violating combustion constraints of knock and excessive cycle-by-cycle covariance of indicated mean effective pressure (COV of IMEP). Cylinder pressure sensors are utilized to enable feedback control of combustion phasing. An Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is applied to reject sensor noise and combustion variation from the cylinder pressure signal.
Journal Article

A Nonlinear Model Predictive Control Strategy with a Disturbance Observer for Spark Ignition Engines with External EGR

2017-03-28
2017-01-0608
This research proposes a control system for Spark Ignition (SI) engines with external Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) based on model predictive control and a disturbance observer. The proposed Economic Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (E-NMPC) tries to minimize fuel consumption for a number of engine cycles into the future given an Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) tracking reference and abnormal combustion constraints like knock and combustion variability. A nonlinear optimization problem is formulated and solved in real time using Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) to obtain the desired control actuator set-points. An Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) based observer is applied to estimate engine states, combining both air path and cylinder dynamics. The EKF engine state(s) observer is augmented with disturbance estimation to account for modeling errors and/or sensor/actuator offset.
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