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Journal Article

Effects of Material Properties on Static Load-Deflection and Vibration of a Non-Pneumatic Tire During High-Speed Rolling

2011-04-12
2011-01-0101
The Michelin Tweel tire structure has recently been developed as an innovative non-pneumatic tire which has potential for improved handling, grip, comfort, low energy loss when impacting obstacles and reduced rolling resistance when compared to a traditional pneumatic tire. One of the potential sources of vibration during rolling of a non-pneumatic tire is the buckling phenomenon and snapping back of the spokes in tension when they enter and exit the contact zone. Another source of noise was hypothesized due to a flower petal ring vibration effect due to discrete spoke interaction with the ring and contact with the ground during rolling as the spokes cycle between tension and compression. Transmission of vibration between the ground force, ring and spokes to the hub was also considered to be a significant contributor to vibration and noise characteristics of the Tweel.
Journal Article

An Engine Thermal Management System Design for Military Ground Vehicle - Simultaneous Fan, Pump and Valve Control

2016-04-05
2016-01-0310
The pursuit of greater fuel economy in internal combustion engines requires the optimization of all subsystems including thermal management. The reduction of cooling power required by the electromechanical coolant pump, radiator fan(s), and thermal valve demands real time control strategies. To maintain the engine temperature within prescribed limits for different operating conditions, the continual estimation of the heat removal needs and the synergistic operation of the cooling system components must be accomplished. The reductions in thermal management power consumption can be achieved by avoiding unnecessary overcooling efforts which are often accommodated by extreme thermostat valve positions. In this paper, an optimal nonlinear controller for a military M-ATV engine cooling system will be presented. The prescribed engine coolant temperature will be tracked while minimizing the pump, fan(s), and valve power usage.
Technical Paper

Physics-Based Exhaust Pressure and Temperature Estimation for Low Pressure EGR Control in Turbocharged Gasoline Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0575
Low pressure (LP) and cooled EGR systems are capable of increasing fuel efficiency of turbocharged gasoline engines, however they introduce control challenges. Accurate exhaust pressure modeling is of particular importance for real-time feedforward control of these EGR systems since they operate under low pressure differentials. To provide a solution that does not depend on physical sensors in the exhaust and also does not require extensive calibration, a coupled temperature and pressure physics-based model is proposed. The exhaust pipe is split into two different lumped sections based on flow conditions in order to calculate turbine-outlet pressure, which is the driving force for LP-EGR. The temperature model uses the turbine-outlet temperature as an input, which is known through existing engine control models, to determine heat transfer losses through the exhaust.
Technical Paper

Optimization of a Military Ground Vehicle Engine Cooling System Heat Exchanger - Modeling and Size Scaling

2017-03-28
2017-01-0259
Heat rejection in ground vehicle propulsion systems remains a challenge given variations in powertrain configurations, driving cycles, and ambient conditions as well as space constraints and available power budgets. An optimization strategy is proposed for engine radiator geometry size scaling to minimize the cooling system power consumption while satisfying both the heat removal rate requirement and the radiator dimension size limitation. A finite difference method (FDM) based on a heat exchanger model is introduced and utilized in the optimization design. The optimization technique searches for the best radiator core dimension solution over the design space, subject to different constraints. To validate the proposed heat exchanger model and optimization algorithm, a heavy duty military truck engine cooling system is investigated.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effect of Thermal Barrier Coatings on HCCI Engine Combustion Using CFD Simulations with Conjugate Heat Transfer

2019-04-02
2019-01-0956
Thermal barrier coatings with low conductivity and low heat capacity have been shown to improve the performance of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines. These coatings improve the combustion process by reducing heat transfer during the hot portion of the engine cycle without the penalty thicker coatings typically have on volumetric efficiency. Computational fluid dynamic simulations with conjugate heat transfer between the in-cylinder fluid and solid piston of a single cylinder HCCI engine with exhaust valve rebreathing are carried out to further understand the impacts of these coatings on the combustion process. For the HCCI engine studied with exhaust valve rebreathing, it is shown that simulations needed to be run for multiple engine cycles for the results to converge given how sensitive the rebreathing process is to the residual gas state.
Technical Paper

An Innovative Electric Motor Cooling System for Hybrid Vehicles - Model and Test

2019-04-02
2019-01-1076
Enhanced electric motor performance in transportation vehicles can improve system reliability and durability over rigorous operating cycles. The design of innovative heat rejection strategies in electric motors can minimize cooling power consumption and associated noise generation while offering configuration flexibility. This study investigates an innovative electric motor cooling strategy through bench top thermal testing on an emulated electric motor. The system design includes passive (e.g., heat pipes) cooling as the primary heat rejection pathway with supplemental conventional cooling using a variable speed coolant pump and radiator fan(s). The integrated thermal structure, “cradle”, transfers heat from the motor shell towards an end plate for heat dissipation to the ambient surroundings or transmission to an external thermal bus to remote heat exchanger.
Technical Paper

An Advanced Automatic Transmission with Interlocking Dog Clutches: High-Fidelity Modeling, Simulation and Validation

2017-03-28
2017-01-1141
Fuel economy regulations have forced the automotive industry to implement transmissions with an increased number of gears and reduced parasitic losses. The objective of this research is to develop a high fidelity and a computationally efficient model of an automatic transmission, this model should be suitable for controller development purposes. The transmission under investigation features a combination of positive clutches (interlocking dog clutches) and conventional wet clutches. Simulation models for the torque converter, lock-up clutch, transmission gear train, interlocking dog clutches, wet clutches, hydraulic control valves and circuits were developed and integrated with a 1-D vehicle road load model. The integrated powertrain system model was calibrated using measurements from real-world driving conditions. Unknown model parameters, such as clutch pack clearances, compliances, hydraulic orifice diameters and clutch preloads were estimated and calibrated.
Technical Paper

Conceptualization and Implementation of a Scalable Powertrain, Modular Energy Storage and an Alternative Cooling System on a Student Concept Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-1185
The Deep Orange program immerses automotive engineering students into the world of an OEM as part of their 2-year graduate education. In support of developing the program’s seventh vehicle concept, the students studied the sponsoring brand essence, conducted market research, and made a heuristic assessment of competitor vehicles. The upfront research lead to the definition of target customers and setting vehicle level targets that were broken down into requirements to develop various vehicle sub-systems. The powertrain team was challenged to develop a scalable propulsion concept enabled by a common vehicle architecture that allowed future customers to select (at the point of purchase) among various levels of electrification best suiting their needs and personal desires. Four different configurations were identified and developed: all-electric, two plug-in hybrid electric configurations, and an internal combustion engine only.
Journal Article

An Integrated Cooling System for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Motors: Design and Simulation

2018-04-03
2018-01-1108
Hybrid electric vehicles offer the advantages of reduced emissions and greater travel range in comparison to conventional and electric ground vehicles. Regardless of propulsion strategy, efficient cooling of electric motors remains an open challenge due to the operating cycles and ambient conditions. The onboard thermal management system must remove the generated heat so that the motors and other vehicle components operate within their designed temperature ranges. In this article, an integrated thermal structure, or cradle, is designed to efficiently transfer heat within the motor housing to the end plates for transmission to an external heat exchanger. A radial array of heat pipes function as an efficient thermal connector between the motor and heat connector, or thermal bus, depending on the configuration. Cooling performance has been evaluated for various driving cycles.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of Automotive “Smart” Thermal Management System Architectures

2004-03-08
2004-01-0048
The functionality and performance of an internal combustion (spark or compression ignition) engine's thermal management system can be significantly enhanced through the application of mechatronics technology. The replacement of the conventional thermostat valve and mechanical coolant pump in the heating/cooling system by a servo-motor driven smart valve and variable flow pump permits powertrain control module regulated coolant flow through the engine block and radiator. In this paper, a dynamic mathematical model will be created for a 4.6L spark ignition engine to analyze various thermal management system architectures. The designs to be studied include the factory configuration, a smart valve upgrade, and the smart valve combined with a variable flow pump and radiator fan. Representative results are presented and discussed to demonstrate improvements in the engine warm-up time, temperature tracking, and component power consumption.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of an Optical Soot Sensor for Modern Diesel Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-1514
It has been extensively evidenced that modern diesel engines generate a considerable amount of soot nanoparticles. Existing soot sensors are not suitable for such nanoparticles. Current standard gravimetric techniques are extremely insensitive to fine soot particles. Soot diagnostics developed for research purposes, e.g., laser induced-incandescence, do not provide quantitative characterization, and expanded practical applications of these techniques are hardly conceivable. This paper addresses this emerging need for monitoring nano-sized soot emissions. Here, we investigated the use of polarization modulated scattering (PMS) for soot sensing in engine environments. The technique involves 1) measuring laser scattering by soot particles at multiple angles while varying the polarization states of the incident laser beam, 2) determining multiple elements of the Mueller matrix from the measured signals, and 3) inferring properties of the soot particles from these elements.
Technical Paper

Double-Pass vs. Single-Pass Radiators for Automotive Application

1989-11-01
892466
Experimental evaluations were made of single- and double-pass heat exchangers for automotive application. The study was concerned primarily with the effect of the working parameters, air and water mass flow rates and the inlet water temperature, on the average and local heat transfer coefficients. An automotive radiator having two water-side passes was fabricated and tested. The experimental results were compared with those for a single-pass unit. The study showed that the overall coefficient of heat transfer of the single-pass radiator was higher than that of the double-pass radiator.
Technical Paper

Coolant Flow Control Strategies for Automotive Thermal Management Systems

2002-03-04
2002-01-0713
The automotive thermal management system is responsible for maintaining engine and passenger compartment temperatures, which promote normal combustion events and passenger comfort. This system traditionally circulates a water ethylene glycol mixture through the engine block using a belt-driven water pump, wax pellet thermostat valve, radiator with electric fan, and heater core. Although vehicle cooling system performance has been reliable and acceptable for many decades, advances in mechatronics have permitted upgrades to powertrain and chassis components. In a similar spirit, the introduction of a variable speed electric water pump and servo-motor thermostat valve allows ECU-based thermal control. This paper examines the integration of an electric water pump and intelligent thermostat valve to satisfy the engine's basic cooling requirements, minimize combustion chamber fluctuations due to engine speed changes, and permit quick heating of a cold block.
Technical Paper

IC Engine Intake Region Design Modifications for Loss Reduction Based on CFD Methods

1998-02-23
981026
Computational fluid dynamics methods are applied to the intake regions of a diesel engine in the design stage at Caterpillar. Using a complete, tested and validated computational methodology, fully viscous 3-D turbulent flow simulations are performed for three valve lifts, with the goal of identifying and understanding the physics underlying loss in the intake regions of IC engines. The results of these simulations lead to several design improvements in the intake region. These improvements are made to the computational domain, and flow simulations are again performed at three different valve lifts. Improvements in overall total pressure loss of between 5% and 33% are found in the computed results between the original and modified (improved) domains. Physical mechanisms responsible for these improvements are documented in detail.
Technical Paper

Cylinder-to-Cylinder Variation of Losses in Intake Regions of IC Engines

1998-02-23
981025
Very large scale, 3D, viscous, turbulent flow simulations, involving 840,000 finite volume cells and the complete form of the time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, were conducted to study the mechanisms responsible for total pressure losses in the entire intake system (inlet duct, plenum, ports, valves, and cylinder) of a straight-six diesel engine. A unique feature of this paper is the inclusion of physical mechanisms responsible for cylinder-to-cylinder variation of flows between different cylinders, namely, the end-cylinder (#1) and the middle cylinder (#3) that is in-line with the inlet duct. Present results are compared with cylinder #2 simulations documented in a recent paper by the Clemson group, Taylor, et al. (1997). A validated comprehensive computational methodology was used to generate grid independent and fully convergent results.
Technical Paper

On the operating regime of a metal pushing V- belt CVT under steady state microslip conditions

2004-08-23
2004-40-0011
Continuously variable transmissions (CVT) offer a continuum of gear ratios between desired limits. The present research focuses on developing models to understand the microslip behavior and to define an operating regime of a metal pushing V-belt CVT. Slip is modeled on the basis of gap redistribution between the elements. Studies were conducted to observe the influence of loading conditions (i.e. axial forces and torques) on the slip behavior and torque transmitting ability of the CVT. The model also investigates the range of axial forces needed to initiate the transmission and to successfully meet the load requirements. The mathematical model and the results corresponding to different loading scenarios are discussed.
Technical Paper

Independent Torque Distribution Strategies for Vehicle Stability Control

2009-04-20
2009-01-0456
This paper proposes and compares torque distribution management strategies for vehicle stability control (VSC) of vehicles with independently driven wheels. For each strategy, the following feedback control variables are considered turn by turn: 1) yaw rate 2) lateral acceleration 3) both yaw rate and lateral acceleration. Computer simulation studies are conducted on the effects of road friction conditions, feedback controller gains, and a driver emulating speed controller. The simulation results indicated that all VSC torque management strategies are generally very effective in tracking the reference yaw rate and lateral acceleration of the vehicle on both dry and slippery surface conditions. Under the VSC strategies employed and the test conditions considered, the sideslip angle of the vehicle remained very small and always below the desired or target values.
Technical Paper

Advanced Thermal Management for Internal Combustion Engines - Valve Design, Component Testing and Block Redesign

2006-04-03
2006-01-1232
Advanced engine cooling systems can enhance the combustion environment, increase fuel efficiency, and reduce tailpipe emissions with less parasitic engine load. The introduction of computer controlled electro-mechanical valves, radiator fans, and coolant pumps require mathematic models and real time algorithms to implement intelligent thermal control strategies for prescribed engine temperature tracking. Smart butterfly valves can replace the traditional wax-based thermostat to control the coolant flow based on both engine temperature and operating conditions. The electric water pump and radiator fan replace the mechanically driven components to reduce unnecessary engine loads at high speeds and provide better cooling at low speeds.
Technical Paper

A Robust CFD Methodology for Physically Realistic and Economically Feasible Results in Racing - Part V: Exhaust-Valve Region Flow

2006-04-03
2006-01-1592
Part V of this five-part paper investigates the flow field and the total pressure loss mechanisms for three valve lifts in the exhaust region of a V8 racecar engine using the robust, systematic computational methodology described in Part I. The replica of the engine geometry includes a cylinder, detailed combustion chamber, exhaust valve, valve seat, port, and “exhaust pipe”. A set of fully-converged and grid-independent solutions for the steady, time-averaged (or RANS), non-linear Navier-Stokes equations are obtained using dense and high quality grids, involving 2.1∼3.0 finite volumes, and unusually strict convergence criteria. Turbulence closure is attained via the realizable k-ε (RKE) model used in conjunction with the non-equilibrium wall function near-wall treatment. The validation presented in Part I showed that flow rate results from the “blind simulations” agree well with the experimental measurements.
Technical Paper

Thermal Modeling of Engine Components for Temperature Prediction and Fluid Flow Regulation

2001-03-05
2001-01-1014
The operation of internal combustion engines depend on the successful management of the fuel, spark, and cooling processes to ensure acceptable performance, emission levels, and fuel economy. Two different thermal management systems exist for engines - air and liquid cooling. Smaller displacement utility and spark ignition aircraft engines typically feature air cooled systems which rely on forced convection over the exterior engine surfaces. In contrast, passenger/light-duty engines use a water-ethylene glycol mixture which circulates through the radiator, water pump, and heater core. The regulation of the overall engine temperature, based on the coolant's temperature, has been achieved with the thermostat valve and (electric) radiator fan. To provide insight into the thermal behavior of the cylinder-head assembly for enhanced cooling system operation, a dynamic model must exist.
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