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Journal Article

An Engine Thermal Management System Design for Military Ground Vehicle - Simultaneous Fan, Pump and Valve Control

2016-04-05
2016-01-0310
The pursuit of greater fuel economy in internal combustion engines requires the optimization of all subsystems including thermal management. The reduction of cooling power required by the electromechanical coolant pump, radiator fan(s), and thermal valve demands real time control strategies. To maintain the engine temperature within prescribed limits for different operating conditions, the continual estimation of the heat removal needs and the synergistic operation of the cooling system components must be accomplished. The reductions in thermal management power consumption can be achieved by avoiding unnecessary overcooling efforts which are often accommodated by extreme thermostat valve positions. In this paper, an optimal nonlinear controller for a military M-ATV engine cooling system will be presented. The prescribed engine coolant temperature will be tracked while minimizing the pump, fan(s), and valve power usage.
Technical Paper

The Ingress and Egress Strategies of Wheelchair Users Transferring Into and Out of Two Sedans

2018-04-03
2018-01-1321
The ability to independently transfer into and out of a vehicle is essential for many wheelchair users to achieve driving independence. The purpose of the current study is to build upon the previous exploratory study that investigated the transfer strategies of wheelchair users by observing YouTube videos. This observational study videotaped five wheelchair users transferring from their wheelchairs into two research vehicles, a small and mid-size sedan that were equipped with a 50mm grid. The goal of this study was to use these videos and vehicle grids to precisely identify ingress and egress motions as well as “touch points” in a controlled setting with a small sample of five male wheelchair users. Using the videos from multiple different camera perspectives, the participants’ ingress and egress transfers were coded, documenting the touch points and step-by-step action sequences.
Technical Paper

A User-Centered Design Exploration of Fully Autonomous Vehicles’ Passenger Compartments for At-Risk Populations

2018-04-03
2018-01-1318
Autonomous vehicles have the potential to provide mobility to individuals who experience transportation disadvantages due to the inability to drive as a result of physical, cognitive or visual limitations/impairments as well as able-bodied individuals with no/limited desire to drive. Individuals who do not have easy access to transportation have social, academic, health, and career disadvantages in comparison to their peers. Fully autonomous vehicles have the potential to offer mobility solutions to these individuals. A user-centered design approach was utilized by a multidisciplinary team of engineers, human factors specialists, and designers to develop future vehicle features for a broad range of users.
Technical Paper

Physics-Based Exhaust Pressure and Temperature Estimation for Low Pressure EGR Control in Turbocharged Gasoline Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0575
Low pressure (LP) and cooled EGR systems are capable of increasing fuel efficiency of turbocharged gasoline engines, however they introduce control challenges. Accurate exhaust pressure modeling is of particular importance for real-time feedforward control of these EGR systems since they operate under low pressure differentials. To provide a solution that does not depend on physical sensors in the exhaust and also does not require extensive calibration, a coupled temperature and pressure physics-based model is proposed. The exhaust pipe is split into two different lumped sections based on flow conditions in order to calculate turbine-outlet pressure, which is the driving force for LP-EGR. The temperature model uses the turbine-outlet temperature as an input, which is known through existing engine control models, to determine heat transfer losses through the exhaust.
Technical Paper

Optimization of a Military Ground Vehicle Engine Cooling System Heat Exchanger - Modeling and Size Scaling

2017-03-28
2017-01-0259
Heat rejection in ground vehicle propulsion systems remains a challenge given variations in powertrain configurations, driving cycles, and ambient conditions as well as space constraints and available power budgets. An optimization strategy is proposed for engine radiator geometry size scaling to minimize the cooling system power consumption while satisfying both the heat removal rate requirement and the radiator dimension size limitation. A finite difference method (FDM) based on a heat exchanger model is introduced and utilized in the optimization design. The optimization technique searches for the best radiator core dimension solution over the design space, subject to different constraints. To validate the proposed heat exchanger model and optimization algorithm, a heavy duty military truck engine cooling system is investigated.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effect of Thermal Barrier Coatings on HCCI Engine Combustion Using CFD Simulations with Conjugate Heat Transfer

2019-04-02
2019-01-0956
Thermal barrier coatings with low conductivity and low heat capacity have been shown to improve the performance of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines. These coatings improve the combustion process by reducing heat transfer during the hot portion of the engine cycle without the penalty thicker coatings typically have on volumetric efficiency. Computational fluid dynamic simulations with conjugate heat transfer between the in-cylinder fluid and solid piston of a single cylinder HCCI engine with exhaust valve rebreathing are carried out to further understand the impacts of these coatings on the combustion process. For the HCCI engine studied with exhaust valve rebreathing, it is shown that simulations needed to be run for multiple engine cycles for the results to converge given how sensitive the rebreathing process is to the residual gas state.
Technical Paper

Design of a Portable Thermoelectric Convective Cooling System for Neighborhood Electric Vehicles and Other Applications

2019-04-02
2019-01-0499
Automotive technology is increasingly reliant on electrically driven accessories, systems, and payloads thanks to the rising popularity of electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Solid state and similar purely electrical solutions such as thermoelectric devices are eminently preferable sources for thermal management in neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) and similar short-range automobiles which often do not come stock with a climate control system. Directed convection strategies such as zone cooling using DC electric current are a natural fit for the infinitely scalable thermal control architecture possible with thermoelectrics. One such prototype device, actuated by thermoelectric devices, has been developed to meet a variety of thermal management needs with a versatile, portable system suitable for NEVs, micro cars without air conditioning, or even more specialized cooling needs.
Technical Paper

An Innovative Electric Motor Cooling System for Hybrid Vehicles - Model and Test

2019-04-02
2019-01-1076
Enhanced electric motor performance in transportation vehicles can improve system reliability and durability over rigorous operating cycles. The design of innovative heat rejection strategies in electric motors can minimize cooling power consumption and associated noise generation while offering configuration flexibility. This study investigates an innovative electric motor cooling strategy through bench top thermal testing on an emulated electric motor. The system design includes passive (e.g., heat pipes) cooling as the primary heat rejection pathway with supplemental conventional cooling using a variable speed coolant pump and radiator fan(s). The integrated thermal structure, “cradle”, transfers heat from the motor shell towards an end plate for heat dissipation to the ambient surroundings or transmission to an external thermal bus to remote heat exchanger.
Technical Paper

Conceptualization and Implementation of a Scalable Powertrain, Modular Energy Storage and an Alternative Cooling System on a Student Concept Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-1185
The Deep Orange program immerses automotive engineering students into the world of an OEM as part of their 2-year graduate education. In support of developing the program’s seventh vehicle concept, the students studied the sponsoring brand essence, conducted market research, and made a heuristic assessment of competitor vehicles. The upfront research lead to the definition of target customers and setting vehicle level targets that were broken down into requirements to develop various vehicle sub-systems. The powertrain team was challenged to develop a scalable propulsion concept enabled by a common vehicle architecture that allowed future customers to select (at the point of purchase) among various levels of electrification best suiting their needs and personal desires. Four different configurations were identified and developed: all-electric, two plug-in hybrid electric configurations, and an internal combustion engine only.
Journal Article

An Integrated Cooling System for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Motors: Design and Simulation

2018-04-03
2018-01-1108
Hybrid electric vehicles offer the advantages of reduced emissions and greater travel range in comparison to conventional and electric ground vehicles. Regardless of propulsion strategy, efficient cooling of electric motors remains an open challenge due to the operating cycles and ambient conditions. The onboard thermal management system must remove the generated heat so that the motors and other vehicle components operate within their designed temperature ranges. In this article, an integrated thermal structure, or cradle, is designed to efficiently transfer heat within the motor housing to the end plates for transmission to an external heat exchanger. A radial array of heat pipes function as an efficient thermal connector between the motor and heat connector, or thermal bus, depending on the configuration. Cooling performance has been evaluated for various driving cycles.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of Automotive “Smart” Thermal Management System Architectures

2004-03-08
2004-01-0048
The functionality and performance of an internal combustion (spark or compression ignition) engine's thermal management system can be significantly enhanced through the application of mechatronics technology. The replacement of the conventional thermostat valve and mechanical coolant pump in the heating/cooling system by a servo-motor driven smart valve and variable flow pump permits powertrain control module regulated coolant flow through the engine block and radiator. In this paper, a dynamic mathematical model will be created for a 4.6L spark ignition engine to analyze various thermal management system architectures. The designs to be studied include the factory configuration, a smart valve upgrade, and the smart valve combined with a variable flow pump and radiator fan. Representative results are presented and discussed to demonstrate improvements in the engine warm-up time, temperature tracking, and component power consumption.
Technical Paper

Characterization of a Multiple-Evaporator Capillary Pumped Loop

2005-07-11
2005-01-2884
The current work addresses efforts to characterize multiple-evaporator capillary pumped loops. Both experimental and analytical approaches were used to predict performance of parallel evaporators and corresponding effects from adjacent operating evaporators. The effects of low and high power dissipation and the distribution of powers among the evaporators were tested. Additionally, a pressure balance model is given where the maximum heat transfer capacity for an evaporator operating under a multi-evaporator condition is determined based on pressure distribution throughout the loop. The model and experiment comparisons demonstrated how the heat load distribution among evaporators affects the maximum capillary limit for individual evaporators operating in a multiple evaporator mode.
Technical Paper

Double-Pass vs. Single-Pass Radiators for Automotive Application

1989-11-01
892466
Experimental evaluations were made of single- and double-pass heat exchangers for automotive application. The study was concerned primarily with the effect of the working parameters, air and water mass flow rates and the inlet water temperature, on the average and local heat transfer coefficients. An automotive radiator having two water-side passes was fabricated and tested. The experimental results were compared with those for a single-pass unit. The study showed that the overall coefficient of heat transfer of the single-pass radiator was higher than that of the double-pass radiator.
Technical Paper

Coolant Flow Control Strategies for Automotive Thermal Management Systems

2002-03-04
2002-01-0713
The automotive thermal management system is responsible for maintaining engine and passenger compartment temperatures, which promote normal combustion events and passenger comfort. This system traditionally circulates a water ethylene glycol mixture through the engine block using a belt-driven water pump, wax pellet thermostat valve, radiator with electric fan, and heater core. Although vehicle cooling system performance has been reliable and acceptable for many decades, advances in mechatronics have permitted upgrades to powertrain and chassis components. In a similar spirit, the introduction of a variable speed electric water pump and servo-motor thermostat valve allows ECU-based thermal control. This paper examines the integration of an electric water pump and intelligent thermostat valve to satisfy the engine's basic cooling requirements, minimize combustion chamber fluctuations due to engine speed changes, and permit quick heating of a cold block.
Journal Article

Numerical Investigation of Phase Change Materials for Thermal

2009-04-20
2009-01-0171
Phase change materials (PCMs) are extensively used in many engineering areas for thermal management purposes. This paper investigated the application of PCMs for vehicular systems, especially for the thermal protection of vehicle lighting systems based on light emitting diodes (LEDs). Lighting systems based on LEDs offer many advantages, however, also pose a smaller margin of error for thermal management. This paper analyzed the combined use of PCMs with metal foam for cooling systems. The cooling performance was studied numerically under different porosity values of the metal foam, and different boundary conditions. The cooling performance was also compared to a solid metal sink system (SMS) and was found to offer several distinct cooling characteristics.
Journal Article

Conceptual Development of Automotive Forward Lighting System Using White Light Emitting Diodes

2009-04-20
2009-01-0593
This paper focuses on redesigning the headlamp subsystem functional architecture. The design involves meeting three major functional requirements: Achieving the lumen requirements according to Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) 324 regulations, Meeting the illumination pattern, and Maintaining the Light Emitting Diode’s (LED) junction temperature at 90°C. White LEDs are considered in the design to satisfy the functional requirements due to their high lumen efficacy, compact size, and long life. These benefits, when compared to existing headlight systems benchmarked, present enough potential to warrant further conceptual virtual prototyping. The prototyping focused on solutions that allowed control of sizing and numbering of LEDs, illumination pattern limits, and temperature to achieve the multiple functions a dynamic headlight system. A primary challenge in this design is to maintain the LED’s junction temperature within a recommended operational range.
Technical Paper

Development of New Turbulence Models and Computational Methods for Automotive Aerodynamics and Heat Transfer

2008-12-02
2008-01-2999
This paper is a review of turbulence models and computational methods that have been produced at Clemson University's Advanced Computational Research Laboratory. The goal of the turbulence model development has been to create physics-based models that are economically feasible and can be used in a competitive environment, where turnaround time is a critical factor. Given this goal, all of the work has been focused on Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations in the eddy-viscosity framework with the majority of the turbulence models having three transport equations in addition to mass, momentum, and energy. Several areas have been targeted for improvement in turbulence modeling for complex flows such as those found in motorsports aerodynamics: the effects of streamline curvature and rotation on the turbulence field, laminar-turbulent transition, and separated shear layer rollup and breakdown.
Technical Paper

Advanced Thermal Management for Internal Combustion Engines - Valve Design, Component Testing and Block Redesign

2006-04-03
2006-01-1232
Advanced engine cooling systems can enhance the combustion environment, increase fuel efficiency, and reduce tailpipe emissions with less parasitic engine load. The introduction of computer controlled electro-mechanical valves, radiator fans, and coolant pumps require mathematic models and real time algorithms to implement intelligent thermal control strategies for prescribed engine temperature tracking. Smart butterfly valves can replace the traditional wax-based thermostat to control the coolant flow based on both engine temperature and operating conditions. The electric water pump and radiator fan replace the mechanically driven components to reduce unnecessary engine loads at high speeds and provide better cooling at low speeds.
Technical Paper

Thermal Modeling of Engine Components for Temperature Prediction and Fluid Flow Regulation

2001-03-05
2001-01-1014
The operation of internal combustion engines depend on the successful management of the fuel, spark, and cooling processes to ensure acceptable performance, emission levels, and fuel economy. Two different thermal management systems exist for engines - air and liquid cooling. Smaller displacement utility and spark ignition aircraft engines typically feature air cooled systems which rely on forced convection over the exterior engine surfaces. In contrast, passenger/light-duty engines use a water-ethylene glycol mixture which circulates through the radiator, water pump, and heater core. The regulation of the overall engine temperature, based on the coolant's temperature, has been achieved with the thermostat valve and (electric) radiator fan. To provide insight into the thermal behavior of the cylinder-head assembly for enhanced cooling system operation, a dynamic model must exist.
Technical Paper

Smart Thermostat and Coolant Pump Control for Engine Thermal Management Systems

2003-03-03
2003-01-0272
The introduction of mechatronic components into thermal-mechanical systems provides an opportunity to apply real time control strategies for enhanced engine performance. The traditional automotive thermal management system contains the engine, thermostat, air cooled radiator, and centrifugal pump driven by the crankshaft belt. A servo-motor valve and pump may be inserted into the vehicle's heating/cooling system to regulate the coolant flow with the engine control unit. To study these dual actuators, a scale experimental cooling system has been investigated. This automotive inspired thermal system contains a heater, smart thermostat valve, radiator, and variable speed electric pump. A lumped parameter model has been developed to describe the system's behavioral response and establish the basis for temperature regulation. Real time control algorithms are introduced for the synchronous regulation of the valve and pump.
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