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Technical Paper

Lap Time Simulation of Stock Cars on Super Speedways with Random Wind Gusts

This paper describes the development of a simplified model and simulation of a stock car subjected to both steady and random winds on a super speedway. Results indicate how lap times are affected by design and operational parameters and by winds. The simulation models a super speedway such as Talladega or Daytona. Inputs to the simulation include wind speed, wind direction, speed of wind gusts, and the duration and frequency of wind gusts. The program will output both total elapsed time and segregated times per each track section. Also, along with elapsed times, the output will include other characteristics pertaining to the performance of the car that allow the user to obtain a basic understanding of the general performance of the car. This paper will show how the car was modeled. Results for both head winds and crosswinds are shown.
Technical Paper

Bonding Strength Modeling of Polyurethane to Vulcanized Rubber

Tires manufactured from polyurethane (PU) have been espoused recently for reduced hysteretic loss, but the material provides poor traction or poor wear resistance in the application, requiring inclusion of a traditional vulcanized rubber tread at the contact surface. The tread can be attached by adhesive methods after the PU body is cured, or the PU can be directly cured to reception sites on the rubber chain molecules unoccupied by crosslinked (vulcanizing) sulfur atoms. This paper provides a study of the two bonding options, both as-manufactured and after dynamic loading representative of tire performance in service. Models of each process are introduced, and an experimental comparison of the bonding strength between each method is made. Results are applied to tire fatigue simulation.
Technical Paper

Wear Resistance of Lunar Wheel Treads Made of Polymeric Fabrics

The purpose of this research is to characterize the wear resistance of wheel treads made of polymeric woven and non-woven fabrics. Experimental research is used to characterize two wear mechanisms: (1) external wear due to large sliding between the tread and rocks, and (2) external wear due to small sliding between the tread and abrasive sand. Experimental setups include an abrasion tester and a small-scale merry-go-round where the tread is attached to a deformable rolling wheel. The wear resistance is characterized using various measures including, quantitatively, by the number of cycles to failure, and qualitatively, by micro-visual inspection of the fibers’ surface. This paper describes the issues related to each experiment and discusses the results obtained with different polymeric materials, fabric densities and sizes. The predominant wear mechanism is identified and should then be used as one of the criteria for further design of the tread.
Technical Paper

Development of New Turbulence Models and Computational Methods for Automotive Aerodynamics and Heat Transfer

This paper is a review of turbulence models and computational methods that have been produced at Clemson University's Advanced Computational Research Laboratory. The goal of the turbulence model development has been to create physics-based models that are economically feasible and can be used in a competitive environment, where turnaround time is a critical factor. Given this goal, all of the work has been focused on Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations in the eddy-viscosity framework with the majority of the turbulence models having three transport equations in addition to mass, momentum, and energy. Several areas have been targeted for improvement in turbulence modeling for complex flows such as those found in motorsports aerodynamics: the effects of streamline curvature and rotation on the turbulence field, laminar-turbulent transition, and separated shear layer rollup and breakdown.